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  1. Formalization of the Ad Hominem Argumentation Scheme.Douglas Walton - 2010 - Journal of Applied Logic 8 (1):1-21.
  • Argumentation Schemes and Historical Origins of the Circumstantial Ad Hominem Argument.D. N. Walton - 2004 - Argumentation 18 (3):359-368.
    There are two views of the ad hominem argument found in the textbooks and other traditional treatments of this argument, the Lockean or ex concessis view and the view of ad hominem as personal attack. This article addresses problems posed by this ambiguity. In particular, it discusses the problem of whether Aristotle's description of the ex concessis type of argument should count as evidence that he had identified the circumstantial ad hominem argument. Argumentation schemes are used as the basis for (...)
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  • The Place of Emotion in Argument.Douglas WALTON - 1992 - Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Appeals to emotion—pity, fear, popular sentiment, and _ad hominem_ attacks—are commonly used in argumentation. Instead of dismissing these appeals as fallacious wherever they occur, as many do, Walton urges that each use be judged on its merits. He distinguished three main categories of evaluation. First, is it reasonable, even if not conclusive, as an argument? Second, is it weak and therefore open to critical questioning for argument? And third, is it fallacious? The third category is a strong charge that incurs (...)
     
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  • The Place of Emotion in Argument.Douglas WALTON - 1992 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 29 (1):84-86.
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  • The Nature and Limits of Authority.R. T. DeGEORGE - 1985
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  • Introduction to Logic.Irving M. Copi - 1961 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 29 (2):92-93.
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  • Introduction to Logic.Irving M. Copi - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):147-148.
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  • The Advancement of Science: Science Without Legend, Objectivity Without Illusions.Philip Kitcher - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    During the last three decades, reflections on the growth of scientific knowledge have inspired historians, sociologists, and some philosophers to contend that scientific objectivity is a myth. In this book, Kitcher attempts to resurrect the notions of objectivity and progress in science by identifying both the limitations of idealized treatments of growth of knowledge and the overreactions to philosophical idealizations. Recognizing that science is done not by logically omniscient subjects working in isolation, but by people with a variety of personal (...)
  • The Moral Behaviour of Ethicists: Peer Opinion.E. Schwitzgebel & J. Rust - 2009 - Mind 118 (472):1043-1059.
    If philosophical moral reflection tends to improve moral behaviour, one might expect that professional ethicists will, on average, behave morally better than non-ethicists. One potential source of insight into the moral behaviour of ethicists is philosophers' opinions about ethicists' behaviour. At the 2007 Pacific Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, we used chocolate to entice 277 passers-by to complete anonymous questionnaires without their knowing the topic of those questionnaires in advance. Version I of the questionnaire asked respondents to compare, (...)
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  • Belief's Own Ethics.J. Adler - 2002 - MIT Press.
    In this book Jonathan Adler offers a strengthened version of evidentialism, arguing that the ethics of belief should be rooted in the concept of belief--that...
  • Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking.Merrilee H. Salmon - 1989
    The text begins with an introduction to arguments. After some linguistic preliminaries, the text presents a detailed analysis of inductive reasoning and associated fallacies.
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  • Ad Hominem Arguments.Douglas Walton - 1998 - University Alabama Press.
    Walton gives a clear method for analyzing and evaluating cases of ad hominem arguments found in everyday argumentation.
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  • Belief's Own Ethics.Jonathan Adler - 2004 - Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):269-272.
     
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  • Forms of Authority and the Real Ad Verecundiam.Jean Goodwin - 1998 - Argumentation 12 (2):267-280.
    This paper provides a typology of appeals to authority, identifying three distinct types: that which is based on a command; that which is based on expertise; and that which is based on dignity. Each type is distinguished with respect to the reaction that a failure to follow it ordinarily evokes. The rhetorical roots of Locke's ad verecundiam are traced to the rhetorical practices of ancient Rome.
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  • Ad Hominem and Ad Verecundiam.P. T. Mackenzie - 1980 - Informal Logic 3 (3).
  • Argumentum ad Hominem: Aut Bonum aut Malum?John Hoaglund - 1981 - Informal Logic 4 (3).
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  • Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments From Authority.Douglas Walton - 1999 - Philosophy 74 (289):454-457.
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  • Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.Douglas N. Walton - 1996 - L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each.
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  • Moral Testimony and its Authority.Philip Nickel - 2001 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (3):253-266.
    A person sometimes forms moral beliefs by relying on another person''s moral testimony. In this paper I advance a cognitivist normative account of this phenomenon. I argue that for a person''s actions to be morally good, they must be based on a recognition of the moral reasons bearing on action. Morality requires people to act from an understanding of moral claims, and consequently to have an understanding of moral claims relevant to action. A person sometimes fails to meet this requirement (...)
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  • Commitment in Dialogue: Basic Concepts of Interpersonal Reasoning.Douglas Walton & Erik C. W. Krabbe - 1995 - State University of New York Press.
    Develops a logical analysis of dialogue in which two or more parties attempt to advance their own interests. It includes a classification of the major types of dialogues and a discussion of several important informal fallacies.
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  • Searching for the Roots of the Circumstantial Ad Hominem.D. N. Walton - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (2):207-221.
    This paper looks into the known evidence on the origins of the type of argument called the circumstantial ad hominemargument in modern logic textbooks, and introduces some new evidence. This new evidence comes primarily from recent historical work by Jaap Mansfeld and Jonathan Barnes citing many cases where philosophers in the ancient world were attacked on the grounds that their personal actions failed to be consistent with their philosophical teachings. On the total body of evidence, two hypotheses about the roots (...)
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  • Second-Hand Knowledge: An Inquiry Into Cognitive Authority.Patrick Wilson - 1983 - Greenwood Press.