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  1. Examining the Effects of Incremental Case Presentation and Forecasting Outcomes on Case-Based Ethics Instruction.Alexandra E. MacDougall, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Juandre Peacock, Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport & Shane Connelly - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):126-150.
    Case-based reasoning has long been used to facilitate instructional effectiveness. Although much remains to be known concerning the most beneficial way to present case material, recent literature suggests that simplifying case material is favorable. Accordingly, the current study manipulated two instructional techniques, incremental case presentation and forecasting outcomes, in a training environment in an attempt to better understand the utility of simplified versus complicated case presentation for learning. Findings suggest that pairing these two cognitively demanding techniques reduces satisfaction and detracts (...)
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  • Improving Case-Based Ethics Training with Codes of Conduct and Forecasting Content.Lauren N. Harkrider, Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Michael D. Mumford, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (4):258 - 280.
    Although case-based training is popular for ethics education, little is known about how specific case content influences training effectiveness. Therefore, the effects of (a) codes of ethical conduct and (b) forecasting content were investigated. Results revealed richer cases, including both codes and forecasting content, led to increased knowledge acquisition, greater sensemaking strategy use, and better decision ethicality. With richer cases, a specific pattern emerged. Specifically, content describing codes alone was more effective when combined with short-term forecasts, whereas content embedding codes (...)
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  • Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision Making in the Sciences.Ethan P. Waples, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Lynn D. Devenport, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Michael D. Mumford & Ryan P. Brown - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (4):263-289.
    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision making. Furthermore, the ethical (...)
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  • A Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training for Scientists: Preliminary Evidence of Training Effectiveness.Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ethan P. Waples & Lynn D. Devenport - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):315 – 339.
    In recent years, we have seen a new concern with ethics training for research and development professionals. Although ethics training has become more common, the effectiveness of the training being provided is open to question. In the present effort, a new ethics training course was developed that stresses the importance of the strategies people apply to make sense of ethical problems. The effectiveness of this training was assessed in a sample of 59 doctoral students working in the biological and social (...)
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  • Case-Based Knowledge and Ethics Education: Improving Learning and Transfer Through Emotionally Rich Cases.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly, Lauren Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):265-286.
    Case-based instruction is a stable feature of ethics education, however, little is known about the attributes of the cases that make them effective. Emotions are an inherent part of ethical decision-making and one source of information actively stored in case-based knowledge, making them an attribute of cases that likely facilitates case-based learning. Emotions also make cases more realistic, an essential component for effective case-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of emotional case content, and complementary (...)
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  • Relationships Between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and Self-Reported Research Practices.A. Lauren Crain, Brian C. Martinson & Carol R. Thrush - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):835-850.
    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research (...)
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  • Leader Ethical Decision-Making in Organizations: Strategies for Sensemaking. [REVIEW]Chase E. Thiel, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren Harkrider, James F. Johnson & Michael D. Mumford - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 107 (1):49-64.
    Organizational leaders face environmental challenges and pressures that put them under ethical risk. Navigating this ethical risk is demanding given the dynamics of contemporary organizations. Traditional models of ethical decision-making (EDM) are an inadequate framework for understanding how leaders respond to ethical dilemmas under conditions of uncertainty and equivocality. Sensemaking models more accurately illustrate leader EDM and account for individual, social, and environmental constraints. Using the sensemaking approach as a foundation, previous EDM models are revised and extended to comprise a (...)
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  • Compulsory Ethics Education and the Cognitive Moral Development of Salespeople: A Quasi-Experimental Assessment. [REVIEW]George Izzo - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 28 (3):223 - 241.
    This study investigated several basic research questions suggesting a positive relationship between education and cognitive moral development. More specifically, these research questions examined the relationship between government mandated ethics education and cognitive moral development by testing the efficacy of a compulsory ethics intervention. Kohlberg's (1969, 1984) Cognitive Moral Development Theory was applied to test the efficacy of compulsory ethics education on the moral development of real estate salespeople used comparative statistical measures of ethical reasoning ability.The results of this research, while (...)
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  • Mental Models: An Alternative Evaluation of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Instruction.Meagan E. Brock, Andrew Vert, Vykinta Kligyte, Ethan P. Waples, Sydney T. Sevier & Michael D. Mumford - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (3):449-472.
    In spite of the wide variety of approaches to ethics training it is still debatable which approach has the highest potential to enhance professionals’ integrity. The current effort assesses a novel curriculum that focuses on metacognitive reasoning strategies researchers use when making sense of day-to-day professional practices that have ethical implications. The evaluated trainings effectiveness was assessed by examining five key sensemaking processes, such as framing, emotion regulation, forecasting, self-reflection, and information integration that experts and novices apply in ethical decision-making. (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Unethical Behavior and the Dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire.D. K. Peterson - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4):313 - 326.
    This study examined the relationship between unethical employee behavior and the dimensions of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ). In order to explore the relationship between the dimensions of the ECQ and unethical behavior, the factor structure of five previously identified empirical models and the hypothesized nine-dimension model for the ECQ was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis. The analysis revealed that the hypothesized nine-dimension model provided as good or even better fit to the data than the five empirically derived models. (...)
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  • A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Business Ethics Instruction.Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):133-151.
    The education of students and professionals in business ethics is an increasingly important goal on the agenda of business schools and corporations. The present study provides a meta-analysis of 25 previously conducted business ethics instructional programs. The role of criteria, study design, participant characteristics, quality of instruction, instructional content, instructional program characteristics, and characteristics of instructional methods as moderators of the effectiveness of business ethics instruction were examined. Overall, results indicate that business ethics instructional programs have a minimal␣impact on increasing (...)
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  • A Review of Empirical Studies Assessing Ethical Decision Making in Business. [REVIEW]Terry W. Loe, Linda Ferrell & Phylis Mansfield - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 25 (3):185 - 204.
    This article summarizes the multitude of empirical studies that test ethical decision making in business and suggests additional research necessary to further theory in this area. The studies are categorized and related to current theoretical ethical decision making models. The studies are related to awareness, individual and organizational factors, intent, and the role of moral intensity in ethical decision making. Summary tables provide a quick reference for the sample, findings, and publication outlet. This review provides insights for understanding organizational ethical (...)
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  • Application of a Sensemaking Approach to Ethics Training in the Physical Sciences and Engineering.Vykinta Kligyte, Richard T. Marcy, Ethan P. Waples, Sydney T. Sevier, Elaine S. Godfrey, Michael D. Mumford & Dean F. Hougen - 2008 - Science and Engineering Ethics 14 (2):251-278.
    Integrity is a critical determinant of the effectiveness of research organizations in terms of producing high quality research and educating the new generation of scientists. A number of responsible conduct of research (RCR) training programs have been developed to address this growing organizational concern. However, in spite of a significant body of research in ethics training, it is still unknown which approach has the highest potential to enhance researchers’ integrity. One of the approaches showing some promise in improving researchers’ integrity (...)
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  • A Meta-Analysis of Ethics Instruction Effectiveness in the Sciences.Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes & Stephen T. Murphy - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (5):379-402.
    Scholars have proposed a number of courses and programs intended to improve the ethical behavior of scientists in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the scientific enterprise. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis based on 26 previous ethics program evaluation efforts, and the results showed that the overall effectiveness of ethics instruction was modest. The effects of ethics instruction, however, were related to a number of instructional program factors, such as course content and delivery methods, in (...)
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  • The Effects of Note-Taking and Review on Sensemaking and Ethical Decision Making.James F. Johnson, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (4):299-323.
    The effectiveness of case-based learning in ethics education varies widely regarding how cases are presented. Case process instruction may impact case-based ethics education to promote sensemaking processes, ethical sensemaking strategy use, and ethical decision making (EDM) quality. This study examined two teaching techniques, notes and review, and participants completed note-taking and review activities examining a case-based scenario during an ethics education course. Results suggest that providing case notes in outline form improves sensemaking processes, strategy use, and EDM quality. In addition, (...)
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  • Structuring Case-Based Ethics Training: How Comparing Cases and Structured Prompts Influence Training Effectiveness.Lauren N. Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (3):179-198.
    This study examined how structuring case-based ethics training, either through (a) case presentation or (b) prompt questions, influences training outcomes. Results revealed an interaction between case presentation and prompt questions such that some form of structure improved effectiveness. Specifically, comparing cases led to greater sensemaking strategy use and decision-ethicality when trainees considered unstructured rather than structured prompts. When cases were presented sequentially, structuring prompts improved training effectiveness. Too much structure, however, decreased future ethical decision making, suggesting that there can be (...)
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  • Applying Cases to Solve Ethical Problems: The Significance of Positive and Process-Oriented Reflection.Alison L. Antes, Chase E. Thiel, Laura E. Martin, Cheryl K. Stenmark, Shane Connelly, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (2):113 - 130.
    This study examined the role of reflection on personal cases for making ethical decisions with regard to new ethical problems. Participants assumed the position of a business manager in a hypothetical organization and solved ethical problems that might be encountered. Prior to making a decision for the business problems, participants reflected on a relevant ethical experience. The findings revealed that application of material garnered from reflection on a personal experience was associated with decisions of higher ethicality. However, whether the case (...)
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  • The Influence of Anger on Ethical Decision Making: Comparison of a Primary and Secondary Appraisal.Chase E. Thiel, Shane Connelly & Jennifer A. Griffith - 2011 - Ethics and Behavior 21 (5):380 - 403.
    Higher order cognitive processes, including ethical decision making (EDM), are influenced by the experiencing of discrete emotions. Recent research highlights the negative influence one such emotion, anger, has on EDM and its underlying processes. The mechanism, however, by which anger disrupts the EDM has not been investigated. The current study sought to discover whether cognitive appraisals of an emotion-evoking event are the driving mechanisms behind the influence of anger on EDM. One primary (goal obstacle) and one secondary (certainty) appraisal of (...)
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  • A Test for Ethical Sensitivity in Science.Henriikka Clarkeburn - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (4):439-453.
    The Test for Ethical Sensitivity in Science (TESS) described in this article is a pen-and-paper measure for studying ethical sensitivity development in young adults. It was developed to evaluate the impact of a short ethics discussion course for university science students. TESS requires students to respond to an unstructured story and their responses are scored according to the level of recognition of the ethical issues in the scenario provided. When TESS was used in conjunction with ethics teaching it showed that (...)
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  • Graduate Socialization in the Responsible Conduct of Research: A National Survey on the Research Ethics Training Experiences of Psychology Doctoral Students.Lindsay G. Feldman, Adam L. Fried & Celia B. Fisher - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (6):496-518.
    Little is known about the mechanisms by which psychology graduate programs transmit responsible conduct of research (RCR) values. A national sample of 968 current students and recent graduates of mission-diverse doctoral psychology programs completed a Web-based survey on their research ethics challenges, perceptions of RCR mentoring and department climate, whether they were prepared to conduct research responsibly, and whether they believed psychology as a discipline promotes scientific integrity. Research experience, mentor RCR instruction and modeling, and department RCR policies predicted student (...)
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  • Environmental Influences on Ethical Decision Making: Climate and Environmental Predictors of Research Integrity.Michael D. Mumford, Stephen T. Murphy, Shane Connelly, Jason H. Hill, Alison L. Antes, Ryan P. Brown & Lynn D. Devenport - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (4):337 – 366.
    It is commonly held that early career experiences influence ethical behavior. One way early career experiences might operate is to influence the decisions people make when presented with problems that raise ethical concerns. To test this proposition, 102 first-year doctoral students were asked to complete a series of measures examining ethical decision making along with a series of measures examining environmental experiences and climate perceptions. Factoring of the environmental measure yielded five dimensions: professional leadership, poor coping, lack of rewards, limited (...)
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  • Articles: Validation of Ethical Decision Making Measures: Evidence for a New Set of Measures.Michael D. Mumford, Lynn D. Devenport, Ryan P. Brown, Shane Connelly, Stephen T. Murphy, Jason H. Hill & Alison L. Antes - 2006 - Ethics and Behavior 16 (4):319 – 345.
    Ethical decision making measures are widely applied as the principal dependent variable used in studies of research integrity. However, evidence bearing on the internal and external validity of these measures is not available. In this study, ethical decision making measures were administered to 102 graduate students in the biological, health, and social sciences, along with measures examining exposure to ethical breaches and the severity of punishments recommended. The ethical decision making measure was found to be related to exposure to ethical (...)
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  • The Influence of Compensatory Strategies on Ethical Decision Making.Jensen T. Mecca, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Vincent Giorgini, Carter Gibson, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (1):73-89.
    Ethical decision making is of concern to researchers across all fields. However, researchers typically focus on the biases that may act to undermine ethical decision making. Taking a new approach, this study focused on identifying the most common compensatory strategies that counteract those biases. These strategies were identified using a series of interviews with university researchers in a variety of areas, including biological, physical, social, and health as well as scholarship and the performing arts. Interview transcripts were assessed with two (...)
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  • Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference.William R. Shadish - 2001 - Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
     
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  • Structuring Case-Based Ethics Training: How Comparing Cases and Structured Prompts Influence Training Effectiveness.Lauren Harkrider, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Zhanna Bagdasarov, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & Lynn D. Devenport - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior:150527093230007.
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