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  1. Popper and the Rationality Principle.Maurice Lagueux - 1993 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (4):468-480.
    Popper's short essay about the rationality principle has been the target of many criticisms which have raised serious doubts about its consistency. How could the well-known promoter of falsificationism suggest that we not reject a principle that he himself describes as false? Nonetheless, the essay can be read in a way that makes it appear much more consistent. Better sense can be made of Popper's own examples, by taking seriously his view that the rationality principle might be "approximately true" and (...)
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  • Popper’s Ontology of Situated Human Action.Allen Oakley - 2002 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 32 (4):455-486.
    Popper's version of situational analysis, with its focus on the logic of situations and the rationality principle, fails to provide cogent explanations of the human decisions and actions underpinning social phenomena. It so fails because where he demanded objectivism and formalism in the social sciences, his substantive arguments lost contact with the psychological and subjectivist realities of the human realm. But Popper also devised some key elements of a social ontology. It is argued that although there are crucial gaps in (...)
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  • Truth, Rationality, and the Situation.Mark A. Notturno - 1998 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (3):400-421.
    The Rationality Principle says that people act adequately to their situation, but does not specify how they must act in order to do so. Situational Analysis uses the Rationality Principle, together with a model of the social situation, to explain actions in the past. Unlike Rational Choice Theory, Situational Analysis does not try to predict or influence actions in the future. Popper regarded the Rationality Principle as false, but thought that we should use it nonetheless. This poses a problem for (...)
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  • Popper's Situational Analysis and Contemporary Sociology.Peter Hedström, Richard Swedberg & Lars Udéhn - 1998 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (3):339-364.
    This article assesses the value of Karl Popper's situational analysis for contem porary sociology We maintain that this element of Popper's social science methodology has been largely neglected by sociologists and suggest that this is because it is borrowed from economics. As such, situational analysis has much in common with recent attempts to introduce rational choice in sociology. Our main question is this: What is the contribution of situational analysis to the current debate about rational choice in sociology? Our answer (...)
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  • Introduction to the Special Issues on Situational Analysis.Egon Matzner & Ian C. Jarvie - 1998 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (3):333-338.
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  • Situational Determinism in Economics.Spiro J. Latsis - 1972 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 23 (3):207-245.
  • Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman - 1974 - Science 185 (4157):1124-1131.
    This article described three heuristics that are employed in making judgements under uncertainty: representativeness, which is usually employed when people are asked to judge the probability that an object or event A belongs to class or process B; availability of instances or scenarios, which is often employed when people are asked to assess the frequency of a class or the plausibility of a particular development; and adjustment from an anchor, which is usually employed in numerical prediction when a relevant value (...)
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  • Objective Knowledge.K. R. Popper - 1972 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 4 (2):388-398.
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  • The Socioeconomic Context: An Alternative Approach to Popper's Situational Analysis.Egon Matzner & Amit Bhaduri - 1998 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 28 (4):484-497.
    This article raises the question of whether standard economics with the general equilibrium model at its core applies situational analysis in a Popperian sense. Contrary to Popper's own view, the authors come to the conclusion that this is not the case. Standard economics fails to represent elements essential to any social situation in an adequate manner. It comprises uncertainty, time and space, social interaction, unintended effects, as well as culture and institutions. The authors suggest, therefore, the socioeconomic context as an (...)
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  • The Foundations of Statistics.Leonard J. Savage - 1956 - Philosophy of Science 23 (2):166-166.
     
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  • Learning From Minimal Economic Models.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):81-99.
    It is argued that one can learn from minimal economic models. Minimal models are models that are not similar to the real world, do not resemble some of its features, and do not adhere to accepted regularities. One learns from a model if constructing and analysing the model affects one’s confidence in hypotheses about the world. Economic models, I argue, are often assessed for their credibility. If a model is judged credible, it is considered to be a relevant possibility. Considering (...)
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  • If No Capacities Then No Credible Worlds. But Can Models Reveal Capacities?Nancy Cartwright - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):45-58.
    This paper argues that even when simple analogue models picture parallel worlds, they generally still serve as isolating tools. But there are serious obstacles that often stop them isolating in just the right way. These are obstacles that face any model that functions as a thought-experiment but they are especially pressing for economic models because of the paucity of economic principles. Because of the paucity of basic principles, economic models are rich in structural assumptions. Without these no interesting conclusions can (...)
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  • Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms.Robert Sugden - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):3-27.
    This paper asks how, in science in general and in economics in particular, theoretical models aid the understanding of real-world phenomena. Using specific models in economics and biology as test cases, it considers three alternative answers: that models are tools for isolating the ‘capacities’ of causal factors in the real world; that modelling is ‘conceptual exploration’ which ultimately contributes to the development of genuinely explanatory theories; and that models are credible counterfactual worlds from which inductive inferences can be made. The (...)
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  • Isolating Representations Versus Credible Constructions? Economic Modelling in Theory and Practice.Tarja Knuuttila - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):59-80.
    This paper examines two recent approaches to the nature and functioning of economic models: models as isolating representations and models as credible constructions. The isolationist view conceives of economic models as surrogate systems that isolate some of the causal mechanisms or tendencies of their respective target systems, while the constructionist approach treats them rather like pure constructions or fictional entities that nevertheless license different kinds of inferences. I will argue that whereas the isolationist view is still tied to the representationalist (...)
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  • MISSing the World. Models as Isolations and Credible Surrogate Systems.Uskali Mäki - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):29-43.
    This article shows how the MISS account of models—as isolations and surrogate systems—accommodates and elaborates Sugden’s account of models as credible worlds and Hausman’s account of models as explorations. Theoretical models typically isolate by means of idealization, and they are representatives of some target system, which prompts issues of resemblance between the two to arise. Models as representations are constrained both ontologically (by their targets) and pragmatically (by the purposes and audiences of the modeller), and these relations are coordinated by (...)
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  • The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality.Karl R. Popper & M. A. Notturno - 1994 - Philosophy 71 (276):315-319.
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  • Credibility, Idealisation, and Model Building: An Inferential Approach.Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Jesús Zamora Bonilla - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):101-118.
    In this article we defend the inferential view of scientific models and idealisation. Models are seen as "inferential prostheses" construed by means of an idealisation-concretisation process, which we essentially understand as a kind of counterfactual deformation procedure . The value of scientific representation is understood in terms not only of the success of the inferential outcomes arrived at with its help, but also of the heuristic power of representation and their capacity to correct and improve our models. This provides us (...)
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  • Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look.Douglas W. Hands - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):83-.
    Discussions of Karl Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science appear regularly in the recent literature on economic methodology. In this literature, there seem to be two fundamental points of agreement about Popper. First, most economists take Popper's falsificationist method of bold conjecture and severe test to be the correct characterization of scientific conduct in the physical sciences. Second, most economists admit that economic theory fails miserably when judged by these same falsificationist standards. As Latsis states, “the development of economic analysis would (...)
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  • Credible Worlds: The Status of Theoretical Models in Economics.Robert Sugden - 2000 - Journal of Economic Methodology 7 (1):1-31.
    Using as examples Akerlof's 'market for ''lemons''' and Schelling's 'checkerboard' model of racial segregation, this paper asks how economists' abstract theoretical models can explain features of the real world. It argues that such models are not abstractions from, or simplifications of, the real world. They describe counterfactual worlds which the modeller has constructed. The gap between model world and real world can be filled only by inductive inference, and we can have more confidence in such inferences, the more credible the (...)
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  • The Methodological Status of Popper's Rationality Principle.Noretta Koertge - 1979 - Theory and Decision 10 (1-4):83-95.
  • Book Review:The Poverty of Historicism. Karl R. Popper. [REVIEW]Leon J. Goldstein - 1957 - Ethics 68 (4):296-.
  • Karl Popper and Economic Methodology: A New Look: Douglas W. Hands.Douglas W. Hands - 1985 - Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):83-99.
    Discussions of Karl Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science appear regularly in the recent literature on economic methodology. In this literature, there seem to be two fundamental points of agreement about Popper. First, most economists take Popper's falsificationist method of bold conjecture and severe test to be the correct characterization of scientific conduct in the physical sciences. Second, most economists admit that economic theory fails miserably when judged by these same falsificationist standards. As Latsis states, “the development of economic analysis would (...)
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  • Popper's Metaphysical Research Program for the Human Sciences.Noretta Koertge - 1975 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 18 (4):437 – 462.
    Popper has provided a model for the scientific explanation of human actions and a metaphysical theory of man which can guide scientific research. In this paper I discuss the problems of the empirical content and nomicity of the Rationality Principle and extend the method of situational analysis to the problem of explaining beliefs. The domain of applicability of the Rationality Principle is bounded on one side by cases in which behavior is determined by processes which can not be influenced by (...)
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  • Knowledge Without Authority.Karl Popper - 1985 - In David Miller (ed.), Popper Selections. Princeton.
     
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