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  1. Health Care Ethics Committees: The Next Generation. [REVIEW]J. W. Ross, J. W. Glaser, D. Rasinski-Gregory, J. M. Gibson, C. Bayley & Giles R. Scofield - 1994 - HEC Forum 6 (3):157-162.
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  • Ethics Consultation: A Practical Guide. [REVIEW]John La Puma, David Schiedermayer & Mary Faith Marshall - 1994 - HEC Forum 6 (3):163-169.
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  • The Role of Patients in European Clinical Ethics Consultation.A. J. Newson, G. Neitzke & S. Reiter-Theil - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):109-110.
  • Clinical Ethics Consultation in Europe: A Comparative and Ethical Review of the Role of Patients.V. Fournier, E. Rari, R. Forde, G. Neitzke, R. Pegoraro & A. J. Newson - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):131-138.
    Clinical ethics has developed significantly in Europe over the past 15 years and remains an evolving process. While sharing our experiences in different European settings, we were surprised to discover marked differences in our practice, especially regarding the position and role of patients. In this paper, we describe these differences, such as patient access to and participation or representation in ethics consults. We propose reasons to explain these differences, hypothesizing that they relate to the historic and sociocultural context of implementation (...)
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  • The Role of Patients in Clinical Ethics Support: A Snapshot of Practices and Attitudes in the United Kingdom.A. J. Newson - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):139-145.
    Clinical ethics committees (CECs) in the United Kingdom (UK) have developed significantly over the past 15 years. The issue of access to and participation in clinical ethics consultation by patients and family members has, however, gone largely unrecognized. There are various dimensions to this kind of contact, including patient notification, consent and participation. This study reports the first specific investigation of patient contact with UK CECs. A questionnaire study was carried out with representatives from UK CECs. Results suggest that patient (...)
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  • Interplays of Reflection and Text: Telling the Case.Stuart G. Finder & Mark J. Bliton - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (1):56-57.
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  • A National Study of Ethics Committees.Glenn McGee, Joshua P. Spanogle, Arthur L. Caplan & David A. Asch - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (4):60-64.
    Conceived as a solution to clinical dilemmas, and now required by organizations for hospital accreditation, ethics committees have been subject only to small-scale studies. The wide use of ethics committees and the diverse roles they play compel study. In 1999 the University of Pennsylvania Ethics Committee Research Group (ECRG) completed the first national survey of the presence, composition, and activities of U.S. healthcare ethics committees (HECs). Ethics committees are relatively young, on average seven years in operation. Eighty-six percent of ethics (...)
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  • Ethics Consultation in United States Hospitals: A National Survey.Ellen Fox, Sarah Myers & Robert A. Pearlman - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):13 – 25.
    Context: Although ethics consultation is commonplace in United States (U.S.) hospitals, descriptive data about this health service are lacking. Objective: To describe the prevalence, practitioners, and processes of ethics consultation in U.S. hospitals. Design: A 56-item phone or questionnaire survey of the "best informant" within each hospital. Participants: Random sample of 600 U.S. general hospitals, stratified by bed size. Results: The response rate was 87.4%. Ethics consultation services (ECSs) were found in 81% of all general hospitals in the U.S., and (...)
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  • The Failure of the Consult Model: Why "Mediation" Should Replace "Consultation".Autumn Fiester - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (2):31 – 32.
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  • Paradigms for Clinical Ethics Consultation Practice.Mark D. Fox, Glenn Mcgee & Arthur Caplan - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):308-314.
    Clinical bioethics is big business. There are now hundreds of people who bioethics in community and university hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation and home care settings, and some who play the role of clinical ethics consultant to transplant teams, managed care companies, and genetic testing firms. Still, there is as much speculation about what clinically active bioethicists actually do as there was ten years ago. Various commentators have pondered the need for training standards, credentials, exams, and malpractice insurance for ethicists engaged (...)
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  • The Current State of Clinical Ethics and Healthcare Ethics Committees in Belgium.T. Meulenbergs - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (6):318-321.
    Ethics committees are the most important practical instrument of clinical ethics in Belgium and fulfil three tasks: the ethical review of experimental protocols, advising on the ethical aspects of healthcare practice, and ethics consultation. In this article the authors examine the current situation of ethics committees in Belgium from the perspective of clinical ethics. Firstly, the most important steps which thus far have been taken in Belgium are examined. Secondly, recent opinion by the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics with regard (...)
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  • Teaching Ethics in the Clinic. The Theory and Practice of Moral Case Deliberation.A. C. Molewijk, T. Abma, M. Stolper & G. Widdershoven - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (2):120-124.
    A traditional approach to teaching medical ethics aims to provide knowledge about ethics. This is in line with an epistemological view on ethics in which moral expertise is assumed to be located in theoretical knowledge and not in the moral experience of healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative, contextual approach to teaching ethics, which is grounded in a pragmatic-hermeneutical and dialogical ethics. This approach is called moral case deliberation. Within moral case deliberation, healthcare professionals (...)
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  • What is Happening During Case Deliberations in Clinical Ethics Committees? A Pilot Study.R. Pedersen, V. Akre & R. Forde - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (3):147-152.
    Background: Clinical ethics consultation services have been established in many countries during recent decades. An important task is to discuss concrete clinical cases. However, empirical research observing what is happening during such deliberations is scarce. Objectives: To explore clinical ethics committees’ deliberations and to identify areas for improvement. Design: A pilot study including observations of committees deliberating a paper case, semistructured group interviews, and qualitative analysis of the data. Participants: Nine hospital ethics committees in Norway. Results and interpretations: Key elements (...)
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  • For Experts Only? Access to Hospital Ethics Committees.George J. Agich & Stuart J. Youngner - 1991 - Hastings Center Report 21 (5):17-24.
  • Why Quality Is Addressed So Rarely in Clinical Ethics Consultation.George J. Agich - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (4):339.
    In a practice like ethics consultation, quality and accountability are intertwined. Critics of ethics consultation have complained that clinical ethics consultants exercise power or influence in patient care without sufficient external oversight. Without oversight or external accountability, ethics consultation is seen as more sophistical than philosophical. Although there has been more discussion of accountability, concern for quality in ethics consultation is arguably more important, because it represents a central challenge for the field, namely, how to structure a responsible practice of (...)
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  • A Critical Analysis of Australian Clinical Ethics Committees and the Functions They Serve.Paul M. McNeill - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (5-6):443-460.
  • A Descriptive Study of Healthcare Ethics Consultants in Canada: Results of a National Survey. [REVIEW]Michael D. Coughlin & John Watts - 1993 - HEC Forum 5 (3):144-164.
    As part of a project to examine health care ethics consultation in Canada, we surveyed individuals who were considered by themselves or others to play a significant role in health care ethics consultation. Since one goal of the project was to examine the education and abilities necessary for consultants, we sought to determine the qualifications and skills currently possessed by persons considered to be ethics consultants. For the purposes of the questionnaire, health care ethics consultation was defined broadly to include (...)
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  • Physicians' Access to Ethics Support Services in Four European Countries.Samia A. Hurst, Stella Reiter-Theil, Arnaud Perrier, Reidun Forde, Anne-Marie Slowther, Renzo Pegoraro & Marion Danis - 2007 - Health Care Analysis 15 (4):321-335.
    Clinical ethics support services are developing in Europe. They will be most useful if they are designed to match the ethical concerns of clinicians. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey on random samples of general physicians in Norway, Switzerland, Italy, and the UK, to assess their access to different types of ethics support services, and to describe what makes them more likely to have used available ethics support. Respondents reported access to formal ethics support services such as clinical ethics committees (...)
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  • Dealing with the Normative Dimension in Clinical Ethics Consultation.Stella Reiter-Theil - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (4):347.
    Clinical ethics consultation not only interprets moral issues at the bedside and is not restricted to giving support for the “technical” handling of these moral issues, but it has to substantively address moral values, norms, and conflicts in the process of discussing cases and problems. We call this the normative dimension and use normative in the sense of embracing moral values and convictions of persons and groups, norms, and relevant professional and ethical guidelines as well as legal frameworks. The roles (...)
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  • Implementing Moral Case Deliberation in a Psychiatric Hospital: Process and Outcome. [REVIEW]Bert Molewijk, Maarten Verkerk, Henk Milius & Guy Widdershoven - 2008 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):43-56.
    Background Clinical moral case deliberation consists of the systematic reflection on a concrete moral case␣by health care professionals. This paper presents the study of a 4-year moral deliberation project.Objectives The objectives of this paper are to: (a) describe the practice and the theoretical background of moral deliberation, (b) describe the moral deliberation project, (c) present the outcomes of␣the evaluation of the moral case deliberation sessions, and (d) present the implementation process.Methods The implementation process is both monitored and supported by an (...)
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  • Balancing the Perspectives. The Patient's Role in Clinical Ethics Consultation.Stella Reiter-Theil - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (3):247-254.
    The debate and implementation of Clinical Ethics Consultation is still in its beginnings in Europe and the issue of the patient's perspective has been neglected so far, especially at the theoretical and methodological level. At the practical level, recommendations about the involvement of the patient or his/her relatives are missing, reflecting the general lack of quality and practice standards in CEC. Balance of perspectives is a challenge in any interpersonal consultation, which has led to great efforts to develop “technical”approaches, e.g., (...)
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  • Ethics Committees in Germany: An Empirical Survey of Christian Hospitals. [REVIEW]Alfred Simon - 2001 - HEC Forum 13 (3):225-231.
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  • Patient Involvement in Clinical Ethics Services: From Access to Participation and Membership.G. Neitzke - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):146-151.
    Ethics consultation is a novel paradigm in European health-care institutions. In this paper, patient involvement in all clinical ethics activities is scrutinized. It is argued that patients should have access to case consultation services via clearly defined access paths. However, the right of both health-care professionals and patients indicates that patients should not always be notified of a consultation. Ethics education, another well-established function of an ethics committee, should equally be available for patients, lay people and hospital staff. Beyond access (...)
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  • Strengths and Limitations of Considering Patients as Ethics 'Actors' Equal to Doctors: Reflections on the Patients' Position in a French Clinical Ethics Consultation Setting.E. Rari & V. Fournier - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):152-155.
    The Clinical ethics centre in Paris offers its services equally to doctors and patients/proxies. Its primary goal is to re-equilibrate doctor–patient roles through giving greater voice to patients individually in medical decisions. Patients are present at virtually all levels, initiating consults, providing their point of view and receiving feedback. The implications of patients' involvement are threefold. At an operational level, decision-making is facilitated by repositioning the debate on ethical grounds and introducing a dynamic of decisional partnership, although contact with patients (...)
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  • Involving Patients and Relatives in a Norwegian Clinical Ethics Committee: What Have We Learned?R. Forde & T. W. R. Hansen - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):125-130.
    To date, few Norwegian clinical ethics committees (CECs) have included patients or next of kin in case discussions. In 2008, Rikshospitalet's (The National Hospital's) CEC began to routinely invite patients and relatives into case discussions. In this paper, we describe seven cases discussed by this committee in 2008. Six involved life and death decision-making in collaboration with the next of kin, while one related case did not include relatives. In our opinion, representing the patient's perspective was advantageous to the discussion (...)
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  • Why Quality is so Rarely Addressed in Clinical Ethics Consultation.G. J. Agich - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (4):339-346.
  • Report of the Maastricht Meeting of the European Clinical Ethics Network.B. Molewijk & G. Widdershoven - 2007 - Clinical Ethics 2 (1):42-45.
  • The Structure and Process of Ethics Consultation Services.J. C. Fletcher & K. L. Moseley - 2003 - In Mark P. Aulisio, Robert M. Arnold & Stuart J. Youngner (eds.), Ethics Consultation: From Theory to Practice. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 96--120.
  • Understanding the Practice of Ethics Consultation: Results of an Ethnographic Multi-Site Study.Susan E. Kelly, Patricia A. Marshall, Lee M. Sanders, Thomas A. Raffin & Barbara A. Koenig - 1997 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (2):136-149.
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