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  1. Stem Cell-Derived Gametes, Iterated in Vitro Reproduction, and Genetic Parenthood.T. Douglas - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):723-724.
    Robert Sparrow has recently raised the possibility that stem cell technology could in the future be used to create multiple generations of embryos in the laboratory before transferring one embryo to a woman’s womb to create a pregnancy. Sparrow argues that any children produced in this way would be genetic orphans—they would lack living genetic parents—and explores the possible moral implications of this. A number of other authors have raised objections to Sparrow’s moral claims, but his descriptive claim remains unchallenged. (...)
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  • "Are You My Mommy?" On the Genetic Basis of Parenthood.Avery Kolers & Tim Bayne - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (3):273–285.
    What exactly is it that makes someone a parent? Many people hold that parenthood is grounded, in the first instance, in the natural derivation of one person's genetic constitution from the genetic constitutions of others. We refer to this view as "Geneticism". In Part I we distinguish three forms of geneticism on the basis of whether they hold that direct genetic derivation is sufficient, necessary, or both sufficient and necessary, for parenthood. Parts two through four examine three arguments for geneticism: (...)
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  • Orphaned at Conception: The Uncanny Offspring of Embryos.Robert Sparrow - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (4):173-181.
    A number of advances in assisted reproduction have been greeted by the accusation that they would produce children ‘without parents’. In this paper I will argue that while to date these accusations have been false, there is a limited but important sense in which they would be true of children born of a reproductive technology that is now on the horizon. If our genetic parents are those individuals from whom we have inherited 50% of our genes, then, unlike in any (...)
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  • Gamete Derivation From Stem Cells: Revisiting the Concept of Genetic Parenthood.H. Mertes - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):744-747.
  • Mummy Was a Fetus: Motherhood and Fetal Ovarian Transplantation.J. M. Berkowitz - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (5):298-304.
    Infertility affects 15 per cent of the world's couples. Research at Edinburgh University has been directed at transplanting fetal ovarian tissue into infertile women, thus enabling them to bear children. Fetal ovary transplantation (FOT) has generated substantial controversy; in fact, one ethicist deemed the procedure 'so grotesque as to be unbelievable' (1). Some have suggested that fetal eggs may harbour unknown chromosomal abnormalities: however, there is no evidence that these eggs possess a higher incidence of genetic anomaly than ova found (...)
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  • Gametes or Organs? How Should We Legally Classify Ovaries Used for Transplantation in the USA?Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (3):166-170.
    Ovarian tissue transplantation is an experimental procedure that can be used to treat both infertility and premature menopause. Working within the current legal framework in the USA, I examine whether ovarian tissue should be legally treated like gametes or organs in the case of ovarian tissue transplantation between two women. One option is to base classification upon its intended use: ovarian tissue used to treat infertility would be classified like gametes, and ovarian tissue used to treat premature menopause would be (...)
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  • Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived Gametes and Genetic Parenthood: A Problematic Relationship.Heidi Mertes & Guido Pennings - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):7-14.
    The recent success in generating live offspring from embryonic stem cell –derived gametes in mice sparked visions of growing tailor-made sperm for men faced with infertility. However, although this development will almost certainly lead to new insights into the processes underlying spermatogenesis and thus in the possible causes of male infertility, it is less certain if deriving sperm from ES cells, which are in turn derived from a sterile man, can make someone a genetic parent. As the gap between newly (...)
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  • Cloning and Genetic Parenthood.Avery Kolers - 2003 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (4):401-410.
    This paper explores the implications of human reproductive cloning for our notions of parenthood. Cloning comes in numerous varieties, depending on the kind of cell to be cloned, the age of the source at the time the clone is created, the intended social relationship, if any, between source and clone, and whether the clone is to be one of one, or one of many, genetically identical individuals alive at a time. The moral and legal character of an act of cloning (...)
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  • “Mummy Was A Fetus": Motherhood and Fetal Ovarian Transplantation.[author unknown] - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):77-77.
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  • Toward a Pluralist Account of Parenthood.Tim Bayne & Avery Kolers - 2003 - Bioethics 17 (3):221–242.
    What is it that makes someone a parent? Many writers – call them ‘monists’– claim that parenthood is grounded solely in one essential feature that is both necessary and sufficient for someone's being a parent. We reject not only monism but also ‘necessity’ views, in which some specific feature is necessary but not also sufficient for parenthood. Our argument supports what we call ‘pluralism’, the view that any one of several kinds of relationship is sufficient for parenthood. We begin by (...)
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  • Cloning, Parenthood, and Genetic Relatedness.Robert Sparrow - 2006 - Bioethics 20 (6):308–318.
    In this paper I examine what I take to be the best case for reproductive human cloning, as a medical procedure designed to overcome infertility, and argue that it founders on an irresolvable tension in the attitude towards the importance of being ‘genetically related’ to our children implied in the desire to clone. Except in the case where couples are cloning a child they have previously conceived naturally, cloning is unable to establish the right sort of genetic relation to make (...)
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  • Killing Embryos for Stem Cell Research.Jeff Mcmahan - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (2-3):170–189.
    The main objection to human embryonic stem cell research is that it involves killing human embryos, which are essentially beings of the same sort that you and I are. This objection presupposes that we once existed as early embryos and that we had the same moral status then that we have now. This essay challenges both those presuppositions, but focuses primarily on the first. I argue first that these presuppositions are incompatible with widely accepted beliefs about both assisted conception and (...)
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  • A Right to Reproduce?Muireann Quigley - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (8):403-411.
    ABSTRACTHow should we conceive of a right to reproduce? And, morally speaking, what might be said to justify such a right? These are just two questions of interest that are raised by the technologies of assisted reproduction. This paper analyses the possible legitimate grounds for a right to reproduce within the two main theories of rights; interest theory and choice theory.
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  • Tied Up in Nots Over Genetic Parentage.Josephine Johnston - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (4):28-31.
  • Development Aid: On Ontogeny and Ethics.T. Lewens - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (2):195-217.
    Human development is a matter of complex interactions between nutritional regimes, genes, educational regimes and other diverse developmental resources. I argue that there is no ethically salient difference between the contributions made to development by genes and the contributions made by these other resources. Since we think nutrition and schooling should be included in the calculus of distributive justice, we should include at least some genes in this calculus too. What is more, under the right circumstances genetic engineering may become (...)
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  • Development Aid: On Ontogeny and Ethics.Tim Lewens - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 33 (2):195-217.
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