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  1. Justifying Physician-Assisted Death in Organ Donation.Joseph L. Verheijde & Mohamed Y. Rady - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):52-54.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 52-54, August 2011.
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  • Commentary on the Concept of Brain Death within the Catholic Bioethical Framework.Joseph L. Verheijde & Michael Potts - 2010 - Christian Bioethics 16 (3):246-256.
    Since the introduction of the concept of brain death by the Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death in 1968, the validity of this concept has been challenged by medical scientists, as well as by legal, philosophical, and religious scholars. In light of increased criticism of the concept of brain death, Stephen Napier, a staff ethicist at the National Catholic Bioethics Center, set out to prove that the whole-brain death criterion serves as (...)
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  • Brain death, states of impaired consciousness, and physician-assisted death for end-of-life organ donation and transplantation.Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):491-491.
  • Brain death, states of impaired consciousness, and physician-assisted death for end-of-life organ donation and transplantation.Joseph L. Verheijde, Mohamed Y. Rady & Joan L. McGregor - 2009 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):409-421.
    In 1968, the Harvard criteria equated irreversible coma and apnea with human death and later, the Uniform Determination of Death Act was enacted permitting organ procurement from heart-beating donors. Since then, clinical studies have defined a spectrum of states of impaired consciousness in human beings: coma, akinetic mutism, minimally conscious state, vegetative state and brain death. In this article, we argue against the validity of the Harvard criteria for equating brain death with human death. Brain death does not disrupt somatic (...)
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  • Transplanting Hearts after Death Measured by Cardiac Criteria: The Challenge to the Dead Donor Rule.R. M. Veatch - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):313-329.
    The current definition of death used for donation after cardiac death relies on a determination of the irreversible cessation of the cardiac function. Although this criterion can be compatible with transplantation of most organs, it is not compatible with heart transplantation since heart transplants by definition involve the resuscitation of the supposedly "irreversibly" stopped heart. Subsequently, the definition of "irreversible" has been altered so as to permit heart transplantation in some circumstances, but this is unsatisfactory. There are three available strategies (...)
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  • Religious and secular death: A parting of the ways.Nicholas Tonti-Filippini - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (8):410-421.
    Most organized religions have indicated a level of support for organ donation including the diagnosis of death by the brain criterion. Organ donation is seen as a gift of love and fits within a communitarian ethos that most religions embrace. The acceptance of the determination of death by the brain criterion, where it has been explained, is reconciled with religious views of soul and body by using a notion of integration. Because the soul may be seen as that which integrates (...)
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  • Continuing the definition of death debate: The report of the president's council on bioethics on controversies in the determination of death.Albert Garth Thomas - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (2):101-107.
    The President's Council on Bioethics has recently released a report supportive of the continued use of brain death as a criterion for human death. The Council's conclusions were based on a conception of life that stressed external work as the fundamental marker of organismic life. With respect to human life, it is spontaneous respiration in particular that indicates an ability to interact with the external environment, and so indicates the presence of life. Conversely, irreversible apnoea marks an inability to carry (...)
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  • The brain and somatic integration: Insights into the standard biological rationale for equating brain death with death.D. Alan Shewmon - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (5):457 – 478.
    The mainstream rationale for equating brain death (BD) with death is that the brain confers integrative unity upon the body, transforming it from a mere collection of organs and tissues to an organism as a whole. In support of this conclusion, the impressive list of the brains myriad integrative functions is often cited. Upon closer examination, and after operational definition of terms, however, one discovers that most integrative functions of the brain are actually not somatically integrating, and, conversely, most integrative (...)
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  • Constructing the Death Elephant: A Synthetic Paradigm Shift for the Definition, Criteria, and Tests for Death.D. A. Shewmon - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):256-298.
    In debates about criteria for human death, several camps have emerged, the main two focusing on either loss of the "organism as a whole" (the mainstream view) or loss of consciousness or "personhood." Controversies also rage over the proper definition of "irreversible" in criteria for death. The situation is reminiscent of the proverbial blind men palpating an elephant; each describes the creature according to the part he can touch. Similarly, each camp grasps some aspect of the complex reality of death. (...)
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  • Brain Death: Can It Be Resuscitated?D. Alan Shewmon - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (2):18-24.
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  • Donation After Circulatory Death: Burying the Dead Donor Rule.David Rodríguez-Arias, Maxwell J. Smith & Neil M. Lazar - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):36-43.
    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR (...)
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  • Defining the vital condition for organ donation.Rinaldo Bellomo & Nereo Zamperetti - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:27-.
    The issue of organ donation and of how the donor pool can or should be increased is one with significant practical, ethical and logistic implications. Here we comment on an article advocating a paradigm change in the so-called.
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  • Islam and End-of-Life Practices in Organ Donation for Transplantation: New Questions and Serious Sociocultural Consequences. [REVIEW]Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph L. Verheijde & Muna S. Ali - 2009 - HEC Forum 21 (2):175-205.
    Islam and End-of-Life Practices in Organ Donation for Transplantation: New Questions and Serious Sociocultural Consequences Content Type Journal Article Pages 175-205 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9095-8 Authors Mohamed Y. Rady, Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix 5777 East Mayo Boulevard Phoenix Arizona USA 85054 Joseph L. Verheijde, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine 5777 East Mayo Boulevard Phoenix Arizona USA 85054 Muna S. Ali, Arizona State University Phoenix Arizona USA Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue Volume (...)
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  • Islamic medical ethics: A Primer.Aasim I. Padela - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (3):169–178.
    ABSTRACTModern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at (...)
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  • Islamic medical ethics: A Primer.Aasim I. Padela - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (3):169-178.
    ABSTRACTModern medical practice is becoming increasingly pluralistic and diverse. Hence, cultural competency and awareness are given more focus in physician training seminars and within medical school curricula. A renewed interest in describing the varied ethical constructs of specific populations has taken place within medical literature. This paper aims to provide an overview of Islamic Medical Ethics. Beginning with a definition of Islamic Medical Ethics, the reader will be introduced to the scope of Islamic Medical Ethics literature, from that aimed at (...)
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  • Brain death in islamic ethico-legal deliberation: Challenges for applied islamic bioethics.Aasim I. Padela, Ahsan Arozullah & Ebrahim Moosa - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (3):132-139.
    Since the 1980s, Islamic scholars and medical experts have used the tools of Islamic law to formulate ethico-legal opinions on brain death. These assessments have varied in their determinations and remain controversial. Some juridical councils such as the Organization of Islamic Conferences' Islamic Fiqh Academy (OIC-IFA) equate brain death with cardiopulmonary death, while others such as the Islamic Organization of Medical Sciences (IOMS) analogize brain death to an intermediate state between life and death. Still other councils have repudiated the notion (...)
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  • Defining death in non-heart beating organ donors.N. Zamperetti - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (3):182-185.
    Protocols for retrieving vital organs in consenting patients in cardiovascular arrest rest on the assumptions that irreversible asystole a) identifies the instant of biological death, and b) is clinically assessable at the time when retrieval of vital organs is possible. Unfortunately both assumptions are flawed. We argue that traditional life/death definitions could be actually inadequate to represent the reality of dying under intensive support, and we suggest redefining NHBD protocols on moral, social, and antrhopological criteria, admitting that irreversible asystole can (...)
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  • Death, Brain Death, and the Limits of Science: Why the Whole-Brain Concept of Death Is a Flawed Public Policy.Mike Nair-Collins - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):667-683.
    Legally defining “death” in terms of brain death unacceptably obscures a value judgment that not all reasonable people would accept. This is disingenuous, and it results in serious moral flaws in the medical practices surrounding organ donation. Public policy that relies on the whole-brain concept of death is therefore morally flawed and in need of revision.
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  • Are DCD Donors Dead?Don Marquis - 2010 - Hastings Center Report 40 (3):24-31.
  • Total brain death: A reply to Alan Shewmon.Patrick Lee & Germain Grisez - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (5):275-284.
    D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon's argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals – sentient organisms of a specific type – the loss of the radical capacity for sentience involves a (...)
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  • A Matter of Respect: A Defense of the Dead Donor Rule and of a "Whole-Brain" Criterion for Determination of Death.G. Khushf - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):330-364.
    Many accounts of the historical development of neurological criteria for determination of death insufficiently distinguish between two strands of interpretation advanced by advocates of a "whole-brain" criterion. One strand focuses on the brain as the organ of integration. Another provides a far more complex and nuanced account, both of death and of a policy on the determination of death. Current criticisms of the whole-brain criterion are effective in refuting the first interpretation, but not the second, which is advanced in the (...)
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  • Are recent defences of the brain death concept adequate?Ari Joffe - 2010 - Bioethics 24 (2):47-53.
    Brain death is accepted in most countries as death. The rationales to explain why brain death is death are surprisingly problematic. The standard rationale that in brain death there has been loss of integrative unity of the organism has been shown to be false, and a better rationale has not been clearly articulated. Recent expert defences of the brain death concept are examined in this paper, and are suggested to be inadequate. I argue that, ironically, these defences demonstrate the lack (...)
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  • Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent.Ari R. Joffe, Joe Carcillo, Natalie Anton, Allan deCaen, Yong Y. Han, Michael J. Bell, Frank A. Maffei, John Sullivan, James Thomas & Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:17.
    Many believe that the ethical problems of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) have been "worked out" and that it is unclear why DCD should be resisted. In this paper we will argue that DCD donors may not yet be dead, and therefore that organ donation during DCD may violate the dead donor rule. We first present a description of the process of DCD and the standard ethical rationale for the practice. We then present our concerns with DCD, including the following: (...)
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  • Death Revisited: Rethinking Death and the Dead Donor Rule.A. S. Iltis & M. J. Cherry - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):223-241.
    Traditionally, people were recognized as being dead using cardio-respiratory criteria: individuals who had permanently stopped breathing and whose heart had permanently stopped beating were dead. Technological developments in the middle of the twentieth century and the advent of the intensive care unit made it possible to sustain cardio-respiratory and other functions in patients with severe brain injury who previously would have lost such functions permanently shortly after sustaining a brain injury. What could and should physicians caring for such patients do? (...)
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  • Brain death and its entanglements.Omarsultan Haque - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (1):13-36.
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  • Brain death and its entanglements.Omar Sultan Haque - 2008 - Journal of Religious Ethics 36 (1):13-36.
    The Islamic philosophical, mystical, and theological sub-traditions have each made characteristic assumptions about the human person, including an incorporation of substance dualism in distinctive manners. Advances in the brain sciences of the last half century, which include a widespread acceptance of death as the end of essential brain function, require the abandonment of dualistic notions of the human person that assert an immaterial and incorporeal soul separate from a body. In this article, I trace classical Islamic notions of death and (...)
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  • Donation, Death, and Harm.Walter Glannon - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):48-49.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 48-49, August 2011.
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  • Reevaluating the Dead Donor Rule.Mike Collins - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (2):1-26.
    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but (...)
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  • “Take My Organs, Please”: A Section of My Living Will.Thomas Cochrane & Matt T. Bianchi - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):56-58.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 56-58, August 2011.
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  • How the Distinction between "Irreversible" and "Permanent" Illuminates Circulatory-Respiratory Death Determination.J. L. Bernat - 2010 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (3):242-255.
    The distinction between the "permanent" (will not reverse) and "irreversible" (cannot reverse) cessation of functions is critical to understand the meaning of a determination of death using circulatory–respiratory tests. Physicians determining death test only for the permanent cessation of circulation and respiration because they know that irreversible cessation follows rapidly and inevitably once circulation no longer will restore itself spontaneously and will not be restored medically. Although most statutes of death stipulate irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions, the accepted (...)
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  • Paper: Brain death revisited: it is not ‘complete death’ according to Islamic sources.Ahmet Bedir & Şahin Aksoy - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (5):290-294.
    Concepts, such as death, life and spirit cannot be known in their quintessential nature, but can be defined in accordance with their effects. In fact, those who think within the mode of pragmatism and Cartesian logic have ignored the metaphysical aspects of these terms. According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment of the soul is air. Cessation of breathing means leaving of the soul from the body. Those who agree on the (...)
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  • Infant heart transplantation after cardiac death: ethical and legal problems.Michael Potts, Paul A. Byrne & David W. Evans - 2010 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 21 (3):224.
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  • Are organ donors after cardiac death really dead?James L. Bernat - 2006 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (2):122.
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