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  1. The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy—Two Thousand Years of Stasis.David L. Hull - 1965 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (61):1-18.
  • The Effect of Essentialism on Taxonomy—Two Thousand Years of Stasis.David L. Hull - 1964 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15 (60):314-326.
  • Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept.Brent D. Mishler & Robert N. Brandon - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):397-414.
    The concept of individuality as applied to species, an important advance in the philosophy of evolutionary biology, is nevertheless in need of refinement. Four important subparts of this concept must be recognized: spatial boundaries, temporal boundaries, integration, and cohesion. Not all species necessarily meet all of these. Two very different types of pluralism have been advocated with respect to species, only one of which is satisfactory. An often unrecognized distinction between grouping and ranking components of any species concept is necessary. (...)
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  • The Ontological Status of Species: Scientific Progress and Philosophical Terminology.Ernst Mayr - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):145-66.
  • Genealogical Actors in Ecological Roles.David L. Hull - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):168-184.
  • Why Does the Nature of Species Matter?Alexander Rosenberg - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):192-7.
  • Species Concepts, Individuality, and Objectivity.Michael Ghiselin - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):127-43.
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  • The Structure of Biological Science.Alexander Rosenberg - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides a comprehensive guide to the conceptual methodological, and epistemological problems of biology, and treats in depth the major developments in molecular biology and evolutionary theory that have transformed both biology and its philosophy in recent decades. At the same time the work is a sustained argument for a particular philosophy of biology that unifies disparate issues and offers a framework for expectations about the future directions of the life sciences. The argument explores differences between autonomist and anti-autonomist (...)
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  • A Matter of Individuality.David L. Hull - 1978 - Philosophy of Science 45 (3):335-360.
    Biological species have been treated traditionally as spatiotemporally unrestricted classes. If they are to perform the function which they do in the evolutionary process, they must be spatiotemporally localized individuals, historical entities. Reinterpreting biological species as historical entities solves several important anomalies in biology, in philosophy of biology, and within philosophy itself. It also has important implications for any attempt to present an "evolutionary" analysis of science and for sciences such as anthropology which are devoted to the study of single (...)
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  • Phylogenetic Systematics.Willi Hennig - 1966 - University of Illinois Press.
    Argues for the primacy of the phylogenetic system as the general reference system in biology. This book, first published in 1966, generated significant controversy and opened possibilities for evolutionary biology.
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  • Phylogenetic Systematics.Willi Hennig, D. Dwight Davis & Rainer Zangerl - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (3):499-502.
     
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  • Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks.Leigh Van Valen - 1976 - Taxon 25 (2/3):233-239.
    Oaks exemplify problems with the reproductive species concept which motivate a reconsideration of the use and nature of species. Ecology is important in the reconsideration. The species level is usually overemphasized in evolutionary thought; selection acts on phenotypes and any mutualistic units. Standard definitions tend to inhibit free conceptual progress. Multispecies, sets of broadly sympatric species that exchange genes, may occur among animals as well as plants and may conceivably bridge kingdoms. This phenomenon can be adaptively important. There may be (...)
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  • The Evolutionary Species Concept Reconsidered.E. O. Wiley - 1978 - Systematic Zoology 27:17-26.
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  • The Structure of Biological Science.Alexander Rosenberg - 1986 - Journal of the History of Biology 19 (1):161-162.
     
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  • A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition occurs among their (...)
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  • The Recognition Concept of Species.H. E. H. Paterson - 1985 - In E. Vrba (ed.), Species and Speciation. Transvaal Museum Monograph No. 4. Pretoria.
  • The Problems of Biology.John Maynard Smith - 1986
  • Systematics and Biogeography.Gareth Nelson & Norman I. Platnick - 1981 - Harcourt, Brace and World.
     
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  • Differentiation of Populations.Paul Ehrlich - 1969 - Science 165:1228-32.
     
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  • On Psychologism in the Logic of Taxonomic Controversies.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1966 - Systematic Zoology 15 (3):207-215.
  • Answers to These Comments.Ernst Mayr - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (2):212-225.
  • Species Concepts and the Ontology of Evolution.Joel Cracraft - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (3):329-346.
    Biologists and philosophers have long recognized the importance of species, yet species concepts serve two masters, evolutionary theory on the one hand and taxonomy on the other. Much of present-day evolutionary and systematic biology has confounded these two roles primarily through use of the biological species concept. Theories require entities that are real, discrete, irreducible, and comparable. Within the neo-Darwinian synthesis, however, biological species have been treated as real or subjectively delimited entities, discrete or nondiscrete, and they are often capable (...)
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  • Animal Species and Evolution.Ernst Mayr - 1963 - Belknap of Harvard University Press.
  • Evolution and Classification: The Reformation of Cladism.Mark Ridley - 1986 - Longman.
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