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  1. Personal Values' Influence on the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making.David J. Fritzsche & Effy Oz - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):335-343.
    Personal values have long been associated with individual decision behavior. The role played by personal values in decision making within an organization is less clear. Past research has found that managers tend to respond to ethical dilemmas situationally. This study examines the relationship between personal values and the ethical dimension of decision making using Partial Least Squares analysis. The study examines personal values as they relate to five types of ethical dilemmas. We found a significant positive contribution of altruistic values (...)
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  • An Exploration of Ethical Decision-Making Processes in the United States and Egypt.Rafik I. Beekun, Ramda Hamdy, James W. Westerman & Hassan R. HassabElnaby - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):587-605.
    In this comparative survey of 191 Egyptian and 92 U.S. executives, we explore the relationship between national culture and ethical decision-making within the context of business. Using Reidenbach and Robin’s (1988) multi-criteria ethics instrument, we examine how differences on two of Hofstede’s national culture dimensions, individualism/collectivism, and power distance, are related to the manner in which business practitioners make ethical decisions. Egypt and the U.S. provide an interesting comparison because of the extreme differences in their economies and related business development. (...)
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  • Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.Immanuel Kant - 1785/2002 - Oxford University Press.
    In this classic text, Kant sets out to articulate and defend the Categorical Imperative - the fundamental principle that underlies moral reasoning - and to lay the foundation for a comprehensive account of justice and human virtues. This new edition and translation of Kant's work is designed especially for students. An extensive and comprehensive introduction explains the central concepts of Groundwork and looks at Kant's main lines of argument. Detailed notes aim to clarify Kant's thoughts and to correct some common (...)
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  • Re-Examining the Influence of Individual Values on Ethical Decision Making.Saundra H. Glover, Minnette A. Bumpus, John E. Logan & James R. Ciesla - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1319-1329.
    This paper presents the results of five years of research involving three studies. The first two studies investigated the impact of the value honesty/integrity on the ethical decision choice an individual makes, as moderated by the individual personality traits of self-monitoring and private self-consciousness. The third study, which is the focus of this paper, expanded the two earlier studies by varying the level of moral intensity and including the influence of demographical factors and other workplace values: achievement, fairness, and concern (...)
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  • An Examination of Differences in Ethical Decision-Making Between Canadian Business Students and Accounting Professionals.Jeffrey R. Cohen, Laurie W. Pant & David J. Sharp - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (4):319 - 336.
    This study investigates the differences in individuals'' ethical decision making between Canadian university business students and accounting professionals. We examine the differences in three measures known to be important in the ethical decision-making process: ethical awareness, ethical orientation, and intention to perform questionable acts. We tested for differences in these three measures in eight different questionable actions among three groups: students starting business studies, those in their final year of university, and professional accountants.The measures of awareness capture the extent to (...)
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  • Business Students and Ethics: A Meta-Analysis. [REVIEW]Susan C. Borkowski & Yusuf J. Ugras - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11):1117-1127.
    Given the proliferation of research regarding the ethical development of students in general, and business students in particular, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the contradictory results of many studies. In this meta-analysis of empirical studies from 1985 through 1994, the relationships of gender, age and undergraduate major to the ethical attitudes and behavior of business students are analyzed. The results indicate that female students exhibit stronger ethical attitudes than males. The same is also true for older versus younger (...)
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  • Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals.Immanuel Kant & James W. Ellington - 1981 - Hackett.
    In this classic text, Kant sets out to articulate and defend the Categorical Imperative - the fundamental principle that underlies moral reasoning - and to lay the foundation for a comprehensive account of justice and human virtues. This new edition and translation of Kant's work is designed especially for students. An extensive and comprehensive introduction explains the central concepts of Groundwork and looks at Kant's main lines of argument. Detailed notes aim to clarify Kant's thoughts and to correct some commonmisunderstandings (...)
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  • Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien.Eugen Bleuler - 1911 - Verlag Franz Deuticke.
    "Unsere Literatur ist voll von Klagen über den chaotischen Zustand der Systematik der Psychosen, und jeder Psychiater weiß, daß man sich auf Grund der alten Diagnosen gar nicht genügend verständigen kann. (...) So können sich mit den alten Begriffen nicht einmal die Koryphäen der Wissenschaft verständigen, und viele Patienten tragen genau so viele Diagnosen mit sich herum, als sie Anstalten besucht haben. (...) Irrtümer hindern die Wissenschaft am meisten am Fortschreiten; sie zu beseitigen hat mehr praktischen Wert, als eine neue (...)
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  • The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) and Philosophical Moral Theories – an Empirical Investigation.Claus Strue Frederiksen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (3):357 - 371.
    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some (...)
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  • The Promise of a Managerial Values Approach to Corporate Philanthropy.Jaepil Choi & Heli Wang - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):345-359.
    This article presents an alternative rationale for corporate philanthropy based on managerial values of benevolence and integrity. On the one hand, top managers with benevolence and integrity values are more likely to spread their intrinsic concern for others into the wider society in the form of corporate philanthropy. On the other hand, top managers high in benevolence and integrity are likely to contribute to improved managerial credibility and trusting firm-stakeholder relationships, thereby improving corporate financial performance. Therefore, the article makes the (...)
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  • Exploring the Dynamics of Business Values: A Self-Affirmation Perspective. [REVIEW]George W. Watson, Steven D. Papamarcos, Bruce T. Teague & Cindy Bean - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (4):337-346.
    In this paper our aim is to augment the value-congruency literature by demonstrating the dynamics of business value structures. The relationship between cognitive discomforts and value restructuring is examined by applying self-affirmation theory. Subjects (N = 115) were randomly assigned either to the treatment group (n = 69) or control group (n = 46). Those subjects in the treatment group were tasked with deciding between two different organizational re-structuring options that involved downsizing. The values of job-entitlement, and obligations to the (...)
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  • Have Ethical Attitudes Changed? An Intertemporal Comparison of the Ethical Perceptions of College Students in 1985 and 2001.Tisha L. N. Emerson & Stephen J. Conroy - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (2):167-176.
    Recent ethical breeches by corporate governorsat the highest levels have called into questionwhether ethical attitudes have changed sincethe Corporate Raider scandals of the mid-1980s. We exploit a unique opportunity to follow-up ona previous investigation of college students inthe mid-1980s to analyze this question. Usinga similar survey instrument, we find thatstudents surveyed in 2001 are significantlyless accepting of the ethically questionablesituations in seven of 15 scenarios and moreaccepting in only one. Seven scenarios showedno significant change. We conclude that,overall, ethical attitudes of (...)
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  • The Nature of Human Values.Milton Rokeach - 1973 - New York: Free Press.
    Integrating personality, behavioral, and cognitive theories of change, the author examines the operations, measurement, and evolution of behavioral and ethical standards that distinguish capitalism from other ideologies.
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  • Enhancing Police Integrity.Carl B. Klockars - 2006 - Springer.
    How can we enhance police integrity? The authors surveyed over 3000 police officers from 30 U.S. police departments on how they would respond to typical scenarios where integrity is challenged. They studied three police agencies which scored highly on the integrity scale: Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina; Charleston, South Carolina; and St. Petersburg, Florida. The authors conclude that enhancing police integrity goes well beyond culling out "bad apple" police officers. Police administrators should focus on four aspects: organizational rulemaking; detecting, investigating and disciplining (...)
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  • Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics.Jane Jacobs - 1994 - Vintage Books.
    The author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities looks at business fraud and criminal enterprise, overextended government farm subsidies and zealous transit police, to show what happens when the moral systems of commerce collide with those of politics.
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  • Business Ethics: A Kantian Perspective.Norman E. Bowie - 1999 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book provides essential reading for anyone with an academic or professional interest in business ethics today.
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  • Social Accountability and Corporate Greenwashing.William S. Laufer - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (3):253 - 261.
    Critics of SRI have said little about the integrity of corporate representations resulting in screening inclusion or exclusion. This is surprising given social and environmental accounting research that finds corporate posturing and deception in the absence of external verification, and a parallel body of literature describing corporate "greenwashing" and other forms of corporate disinformation. In this paper I argue that the problems and challenges of ensuring fair and accurate corporate social reporting mirror those accompanying corporate compliance with law. Similarities and (...)
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  • Simmel to Rokkan and Beyond: Towards a Network Theory of (New) Social Movements.Mario Diani - 2000 - European Journal of Social Theory 3 (4):387-406.
    This paper assesses the novelty of NSMs - or better, of any social and political movement in contemporary Western societies - in the light of their capacity to develop systems of relationships which cut across established social and political cleavages. It illustrates first the relational bases of Rokkan's concept of cleavage, and its contribution to the understanding of social movements; it then shows how Simmel's concept of the intersection of social circles and his distinction between concentric and crosscutting circles may (...)
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  • Conflict and The Web of Group-Affiliations.H. S. Harris - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (4):327-327.
  • The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories – An Empirical Investigation.Claus Strue Frederiksen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (3):357-371.
    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some normative (...)
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  • Predictor of Business Students’ Attitudes Toward Sustainable Business Practices.Eddy S. Ng & Ronald J. Burke - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):603-615.
    This study examined individual difference characteristics as predictors of business students’ attitudes toward sustainable business practices. Three types of predictors were considered: personal values, individualism–collectivism, and leadership styles. Data were collected from 248 business students attending a mid-sized university in western United States using self-reported questionnaires. Few gender differences were present. Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for personal demographic characteristics, indicated that business students scoring higher on Rokeach’s social value scale, collectivism, and transformational leadership also reported more positive attitudes toward sustainable (...)
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  • Predictor of Business Students' Attitudes Toward Sustainable Business Practices.Eddy S. Ng & Ronald J. Burke - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):603 - 615.
    This study examined individual difference characteristics as predictors of business students' attitudes toward sustainable business practices. Three types of predictors were considered: personal values, individualism—collectivism, and leadership styles. Data were collected from 248 business students attending a mid-sized university in western United States using self-reported questionnaires. Few gender differences were present.Hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for personal demographic characteristics, indicated that business students scoring higher on Rokeach's social value scale, collectivism, and transformational leadership also reported more positive attitudes toward sustainable business (...)
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  • Cause Related Marketing and Corporate Philanthropy in the Privately Held Enterprise.Karen Maru File & Russ Alan Prince - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (14):1529-1539.
    Owners of businesses represent an interesting case in the study of the intersection of personal and corporate philanthropic values. Because individuals who own businesses have the means and the ability to act on philanthropic motivations through the medium of their businesses, it is interesting to explore the extent to which their corporate contributions to nonprofits are philanthropic in nature or instrumentally motivated, as in the instance of cause related marketing. The trade-offs between cause related marketing and corporate support of nonprofits (...)
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  • Managerial Morality and Behavior: The Questionable Payments Issue. [REVIEW]Richard D. Rosenberg - 1987 - Journal of Business Ethics 6 (1):23 - 36.
    This research examined the effect of managers' value systems and personality traits on ethical decision behavior, in the context of questionable payments to foreign officials to assure business. Using a complex international management game to simulate the real-world competitive business environment, the study measured the instrumental and terminal value systems of the game participants as well as their tendencies towards Machiavellianism. It then observed their decision behavior in response to what was clearly a demand for an illegal payment.The findings indicate (...)
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  • Some Ethical Consequences of Economic Competition.James H. Michelman - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):79 - 87.
    Commonly accepted dictates of morality clash with the a priori laws of free economic competition. These divergent directives — that stem from the essence of their sources and cannot be changed or negated without altering their sources — contradict each other and so set up conflicts of the most fundamental kind in men's psyches (or souls). In addition, this clash of moralities implies a most serious question respecting real freedom under a system of so-called free-enterprise. For, if in order to (...)
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  • The Impact of Public Scrutiny on Corporate Philanthropy.Ailian Gan - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (3):217-236.
    This paper proposes that a corporation’s vulnerability to public scrutiny drives its corporate giving. The hypothesis that companies donate for strategic motives is tested against the alternative that they do so for altruistic reasons. Court cases and news articles were selected as proxies for public scrutiny. Macroeconomic variables were used to gauge the level of public charitable need and test for altruism. Through examining the philanthropic behavior of 40 Fortune 500 companies over 7 years, this paper finds that companies are (...)
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  • A Novel Approach to Business Ethics Training: Improving Moral Reasoning in Just a Few Weeks.David Allen Jones - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (2):367-379.
    I assessed change in students’ moral reasoning following five 75-min classes on business ethics and two assignments utilizing a novel pedagogical approach designed to foster ethical reasoning skills. To minimize threats to validity present in previous studies, an untreated control group design with pre- and post-training measures was used. Training (n = 114) and control (n = 76) groups comprised freshmen business majors who completed the Defining Issues Test before and after the training. Results showed that, controlling for pre-training levels (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375-413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996–2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable – awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • Ethics in Education: A Comparative Study. [REVIEW]Michael S. Lane & Dietrich Schaupp - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (12):943 - 949.
    This study reports the results of a survey designed to assess the impact of education on the perceptions of ethical beliefs of students. The study examines the beliefs of students from selected colleges in an eastern university. The results indicate that beliefs which students perceive are required to succeed in the university differ among colleges. Business and economics students consistently perceive a greater need for unethical beliefs than students from other colleges.
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  • Context, Values and Moral Dilemmas: Comparing the Choices of Business and Law School Students. [REVIEW]Donald L. McCabe, Janet M. Dukerich & Jane E. Dutton - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (12):951 - 960.
    Much has been written about the ethics and values of today's business student, but this research has generally been characterized by a variety of methodological shortcomings — the use of convenience samples, a failure to establish the relevance of comparison groups employed, attempts to understand behavior in terms of unidimensional values preselected by the researcher, and the lack of well-designed longitudinal studies. The research reported here addresses many of these concerns by comparing the values and ethical decision making behavior of (...)
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  • Concerns of College Students Regarding Business Ethics.Richard F. Beltramini, Robert A. Peterson & George Kozmetsky - 1984 - Journal of Business Ethics 3 (3):195 - 200.
    Although some attention has been devoted to assessing the attitudes and concerns of businesspeople toward ethics, relatively little attention has focused on the attitudes and concerns of tomorrow's business leaders, today's college students. In this investigation a national sample was utilized to study college students' attitudes toward business ethics, with the results being analyzed by academic classification, academic major, and sex. Results of the investigation indicate that college students are currently somewhat concerned about business ethics in general, and that female (...)
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  • Situational Ethics: An Empirical Study of Differentiators of Student Attitudes. [REVIEW]Charles W. McNichols & Thomas W. Zimmerer - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (3):175 - 180.
    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire administered to 1178 undergraduate students and discusses how they responded to ten situations which asked them to assess their personal evaluation of the ethical acceptability, how society would similarly assess the situation and how business persons would respond. Multiple versions of the instrument were developed to investigate if the sex of the person involved in the situation would influence the respondents' perception of the ethical action involved. No differences were identified. Further, the (...)
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  • Personal Values' Influence on the Ethical Dimension of Decision Making.David Fritzsche & E. Oz - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):335 - 343.
    Personal values have long been associated with individual decision behavior. The role played by personal values in decision making within an organization is less clear. Past research has found that managers tend to respond to ethical dilemmas situationally. This study examines the relationship between personal values and the ethical dimension of decision making using Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. The study examines personal values as they relate to five types of ethical dilemmas. We found a significant positive contribution of altruistic (...)
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  • Shaping Ethical Perceptions: An Empirical Assessment of the Influence of Business Education, Culture, and Demographic Factors.Yvette P. Lopez, Paula L. Rechner & Julie B. Olson-Buchanan - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (4):341-358.
    Recent events at Enron, K-Mart, Adelphia, and Tyson would seem to suggest that managers are still experiencing ethical lapses. These lapses are somewhat surprising and disappointing given the heightened focus on ethical considerations within business contexts during the past decade. This study is designed, therefore, to increase our understanding of the forces that shape ethical perceptions by considering the effects of business school education as well as a number of other individual-level factors (such as intra-national culture, area of specialization within (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375 - 413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996-2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable - awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • Beyond Resources The Mediating Effect of Top Management Discretion and Values on Corporate Philanthropy.Ann K. Buchholtz, Allen C. Amason & Matthew A. Rutherford - 1999 - Business and Society 38 (2):167-187.
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  • Philanthropy as Strategy When Corporate Charity “Begins at Home”.David H. Saiia, Archie B. Carroll & Ann K. Buchholtz - 2003 - Business and Society 42 (2):169-201.
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  • Is Business Bluffing Ethical?Albert Z. Carr - forthcoming - Essentials of Business Ethics.
     
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  • Philanthropy as Strategy.A. Buchholtz, A. Carroll & D. Saiia - 2003 - Business and Society 42 (2):169-201.
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