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  1. Philosophy of Biology Today. [REVIEW]Keith R. Benson - 1991 - Journal of the History of Biology 24 (2):341-342.
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  • Physics and Chance: Philosophical Issues in the Foundations of Statistical Mechanics.Robert Batterman & Lawrence Sklar - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (4):624.
    Philosophers of physics are very familiar with foundational problems in quantum mechanics and in the theory of relativity. In both fields, the puzzles, if not solved, are at least reasonably well formulated and possess well-characterized solution strategies. Sklar’s book Physics and Chance focuses on a pair of theories, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, for which puzzles and foundational paradoxes abound, but where there is very little agreement upon the means with which they may best be approached. As he notes in the (...)
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  • Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World.Ronald N. Giere & Wesley C. Salmon - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (3):444.
  • Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.Barbara L. Horan & Robert Brandon - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):483.
    This collection of essays by Robert Brandon spans two decades and most of the important problems in the philosophy of biology. Four of his five most important contributions to the philosophy of biology can be found here: the concept of relative adaptedness and its role in the propensity interpretation of fitness; the principle of natural selection; the use of the screening-off relation in defense of organismic selection; and the distinction between units of selection and levels of selection. The fifth major (...)
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  • Aspects of Scientific Explanation and Other Essays in the Philosophy of Science.Edward J. Nell & Carl G. Hempel - 1968 - History and Theory 7 (2):224.
  • Of Biology.James G. Lennox - 1992 - In Merrilee H. Salmon (ed.), Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Hackett. pp. 269.
  • Darwin Was a Teleologist.James G. Lennox - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):409-421.
    It is often claimed that one of Darwin''s chief accomplishments was to provide biology with a non-teleological explanation of adaptation. A number of Darwin''s closest associates, however, and Darwin himself, did not see it that way. In order to assess whether Darwin''s version of evolutionary theory does or does not employ teleological explanation, two of his botanical studies are examined. The result of this examination is that Darwin sees selection explanations of adaptations as teleological explanations. The confusion in the nineteenth (...)
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  • Teleological Explanations.Andrew Woodfield & Larry Wright - 1978 - Philosophical Quarterly 28 (110):86.
  • The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects.Charles Darwin - 1985 - Journal of the History of Biology 18 (1):158-158.
     
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  • Reasons and Causes in the Phaedo.Gregory Vlastos - 1969 - Philosophical Review 78 (3):291-325.
    An analysis of phaedo 96c-606c seeks to demonstrate that when forms are cited as either "safe" or "clever" aitiai they are not meant to function as either final or efficient causes, But as logico-Metaphysical essences which have no causal efficacy whatever, But which do have definite (and far-Reaching) implications for the causal order of the physical universe, For it is assumed that a causal statement, Such as "fire causes heat" will be true if, And only if, The asserted physical bond (...)
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  • A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition occurs among their (...)
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  • Teleology by Another Name: A Reply to Ghiselin. [REVIEW]James G. Lennox - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):493-495.
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  • Teleology in Nature.T. L. Short - 1983 - American Philosophical Quarterly 20 (4):311 - 320.
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  • Darwin's Language May Seem Teleological, but His Thinking is Another Matter.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):489-492.
    Darwin''s biology was teleological only if the term teleology is defined in a manner that fails to recognize his contribution to the metaphysics and epistemology of modern science. His use of teleological metaphors in a strictly teleonomic context is irrelevant to the meaning of his discourse. The myth of Darwin''s alleged teleology is partly due to misinterpretations of discussions about whether morphology should be a purely formal science. Merely rejecting such notions as special creation and vitalism does not prevent the (...)
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  • Peirce's Concept of Final Causation.T. L. Short - 1981 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 17 (4):369 - 382.