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  1. East Meets West: Tacit Messages About Business Ethics in Stories Told by Chinese Managers.Heidi Weltzien Hoivik - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):457-469.
    This article examines how culture influences Chinese managers' perception of some western management instruments, such as codes of ethics and performance evaluation systems. The research is based on analyzing the tacit messages in "stories told" by managers and reviewing some of the barriers that may hinder understanding. Major obstacles lie in failing to 'read' each other's cultures correctly. Assumptions and biases are left alone instead of being addressed openly. Western management systems and tools do not necessarily function equally well in (...)
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  • The Effects of Cultural Dimensions on Ethical Decision Making in Marketing: An Exploratory Study. [REVIEW]Long-Chuan Lu, Gregory M. Rose & Jeffrey G. Blodgett - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (1):91 - 105.
    As more and more firms operate globally, an understanding of the effects of cultural differences on ethical decision making becomes increasingly important for avoiding potential business pitfalls and for designing effective international marketing management programs. Although several articles have addressed this area in general, differences along specific, cultural dimensions have not been directly examined. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in ethical decision making within Hofstede's cultural framework. The results confirm the utility of Hofstede's cultural dimensions (...)
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  • The Institutional Determinants of Social Responsibility.Marc T. Jones - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (2):163 - 179.
    Previous research in the social responsibility/social performance area has failed to systematically address the institutional determinants of social responsibility and its various manifestations in terms of social performance. This paper examines the relationship between the configuration of institutional structures at various levels and the necessary and sufficient conditions for the concept of social responsibility to manifest in the practice of stakeholder management. In particular we hypothesize that smaller, closely held firms in profitable niches are in the optimum position to practice (...)
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  • Business Ethical Values in China and the U.S.Laura L. Whitcomb, Carolyn B. Erdener & Chen Li - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (8):839-852.
    The research presented in this paper focuses on business ethical values inChina, a country in which the process of institutional transformation has left cultural values in a state of flux. A survey was conducted in China and the U.S. by using five business scenarios. Survey results show similarities between the Chinese and American decision choices for three out of five scenarios. However, the results reveal significant differences in rationales, even forsimilar decisions. The implications of similarities and differences between the U.S. (...)
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  • Ethical Cognition of Business Students Individually and in Groups.Mohammad J. Abdolmohammadi, David R. L. Gabhart & M. Francis Reeves - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (16):1717-1725.
    This study provides evidence regarding the level of ethical cognition of business students at the entry to college as compared to a national norm. It also provides comparative evidence on the effects of group versus individual ethical cognition upon completion of a business ethics course. The Principled Score (P-score) from the Defining Issues Test (DIT) was used to measure the ethical cognition of a total sample of 301 business students (273 entering students plus 28 students in a business ethics course). (...)
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  • Values and the Perceived Importance of Ethics and Social Responsibility: The U.S. Versus China.William E. Shafer, Kyoko Fukukawa & Grace Meina Lee - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):265-284.
    This study examines the effects of nationality (U.S. vs. China) and personal values on managers’ responses to the Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility (PRESOR) scale. Evidence that China’s transition to a socialist market economy has led to widespread business corruption, led us to hypothesize that People’s Republic of China (PRC) managers would believe less strongly in the importance of ethical and socially responsible business conduct. We also hypothesized that after controlling for national differences, managers’ personal values (more specifically, (...)
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  • Business Students' Perception of Ethics and Moral Judgment: A Cross-Cultural Study. [REVIEW]Mohamed M. Ahmed, Kun Young Chung & John W. Eichenseher - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):89 - 102.
    Business relations rely on shared perceptions of what is acceptable/expected norms of behavior. Immense expansion in transnational business made rudimentary consensus on acceptable business practices across cultural boundaries particularly important. Nonetheless, as more and more nations with different cultural and historical experiences interact in the global economy, the potential for misunderstandings based on different expectations is magnified. Such misunderstandings emerge in a growing literature on "improper" business practices – articulated from a narrow cultural perspective. This paper reports an ongoing research (...)
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  • "Graceful Merchants": A Contemporary View of Chinese Business Ethics. [REVIEW]Brian Harvey - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (1):85 - 92.
    This paper reports on a research project on "the status and understanding of business ethics in contemporary China". The project was funded by The British Council and conducted by means of visits to Chinese companies, Ministries and Universities, in preparation for a seminar which was held in Beijing.
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  • Industry Type, Culture, Mode of Entry and Perceptions of International Marketing Ethics Problems: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. [REVIEW]Robert W. Armstrong & Jill Sweeney - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (10):775 - 785.
    The authors investigate the differences in ethical perceptions of Australian and Hong Kong international managers. Ethical perceptions are measured with respect to different industry types, cultures and modes of entry into international markets. Mode of entry refers to how firms select to enter foreign markets. Modes of entry include: exporting (indirect or direct), contractual methods (licensing and franchising) and via direct foreign investment (joint ventures and wholly-owned subsidiaries). It was determined that culture and mode of entry have a significant effect (...)
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  • Ethical Perceptions of Business Students: Differences Between East Asia and the USA and Among "Confucian" Cultures. [REVIEW]Kun Young Chung, John W. Eichenseher & Teruso Taniguchi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1-2):121 - 132.
    This paper reports the results of a survey of 842 undergraduate business students in four nations - the United States of America (the USA), the Peoples' Republic of China (the PRC), Japan, and the Republic of Korea (the ROK). This survey asked students to respond to four scenarios with potentially unethical business behavior and a string of questions related to the importance of ethics in business strategy and in personal behaviors. Based on arguments related to differences in recent historical experiences, (...)
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  • Business Students and Ethics: A Meta-Analysis. [REVIEW]Susan C. Borkowski & Yusuf J. Ugras - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11):1117-1127.
    Given the proliferation of research regarding the ethical development of students in general, and business students in particular, it is difficult to draw conclusions from the contradictory results of many studies. In this meta-analysis of empirical studies from 1985 through 1994, the relationships of gender, age and undergraduate major to the ethical attitudes and behavior of business students are analyzed. The results indicate that female students exhibit stronger ethical attitudes than males. The same is also true for older versus younger (...)
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  • Moral Choice and the Declining Influence of Traditional Value Orientations Within the Financial Sector of a Rapidly Developing Region of the People's Republic of China.Gordon Francis Woodbine - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (1):43 - 60.
    This paper describes the results of a field experiment involving 400 employees from ten financial institutions operating within the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone of the Peoples Republic of China. It was found that, when faced with an agency-based problem, employees indicated they would be less inclined to advise management of the existence of unethical work practices. Younger employees without supervisory experience displayed significant risk aversion. Traditional Chinese values associated with Confucian work dynamism, were shown to be poor predictors of moral (...)
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  • Cross-Cultural Methodological Issues in Ethical Research.Gael McDonald - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):89 - 104.
    Despite the fundamental and administrative difficulties associated with cross-cultural research the rewards are significant and, given an increasing trend toward globalisation, the move away from singular location studies to more comparative research is to be encouraged. In order to facilitate this research process it is imperative, however, that considerable attention is given to the methodological issues that can beset cross-cultural research, specifically as these issues relate to the primary domain or discipline of investigation, which in this instance is research on (...)
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  • Ethical Perceptions of Business Students: Differences Between East Asia and the USA and Among “Confucian” Cultures.Kun Young Chung, John W. Eichenseher & Teruso Taniguchi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1-2):121-132.
    This paper reports the results of a survey of 842 undergraduate business students in four nations - the United States of America, the Peoples' Republic of China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. This survey asked students to respond to four scenarios with potentially unethical business behavior and a string of questions related to the importance of ethics in business strategy and in personal behaviors. Based on arguments related to differences in recent historical experiences, the authors suggest that student responses (...)
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  • Moral Choice and the Declining Influence of Traditional Value Orientations Within the Financial Sector of a Rapidly Developing Region of the People?S Republic of China.Gordon Francis Woodbine - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (1):43-60.
    This paper describes the results of a field experiment involving 400 employees from ten financial institutions operating within the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone of the People's Republic of China. It was found that, when faced with an agency-based problem, employees indicated they would be less inclined to advise management of the existence of unethical work practices. Younger employees without supervisory experience displayed significant risk aversion. Traditional Chinese values associated with Confucian work dynamism, were shown to be poor predictors of moral (...)
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