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  1. Are Rcts the Gold Standard?Nancy Cartwright - 2007 - Biosocieties 1:11-20.
    The claims of randomized controlled trials to be the gold standard rest on the fact that the ideal RCT is a deductive method: if the assumptions of the test are met, a positive result implies the appropriate causal conclusion. This is a feature that RCTs share with a variety of other methods, which thus have equal claim to being a gold standard. This article describes some of these other deductive methods and also some useful non-deductive methods, including the hypothetico-deductive method. (...)
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  • Evidence: Philosophy of Science Meets Medicine.John Worrall - unknown
    Obviously medicine should be evidence-based. The issues lie in the details: what exactly counts as evidence? Do certain kinds of evidence carry more weight than others? And how exactly should medicine be based on evidence? When it comes to these details, the evidence-based medicine movement has got itself into a mess – or so it will be argued. In order to start to resolve this mess, we need to go 'back to basics'; and that means turning to the philosophy of (...)
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  • Preparing for a Post-Placebo Paradigm: Ethics and Choice of Control in Clinical Trials.Robin Nunn - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (9):51-52.
  • Questioning the Methodologic Superiority of 'Placebo' Over 'Active' Controlled Trials.Jeremy Howick - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (9):34-48.
    A resilient issue in research ethics is whether and when a placebo-controlled trial is justified if it deprives research subjects of a recognized treatment. The clinicians' moral duty to provide the best available care seems to require the use of ‘active’ controlled trials that use an established treatment as a control whenever such a therapy is available. In another regard, ACTs are supposedly methodologically inferior to PCTs. Hence, the moral duty of the clinical researcher to use the best methods will (...)
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  • Evidence in Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine.John Worrall - 2007 - Philosophy Compass 2 (6):981–1022.