Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge.Deborah Mayo - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):455-459.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   114 citations  
  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Davis Baird - 1983 - Noûs 22 (2):299-307.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   229 citations  
  • The Neglect of Experiment.Steven French - 1990 - Noûs 24 (4):631-634.
    What role have experiments played, and should they play, in physics? How does one come to believe rationally in experimental results? The Neglect of Experiment attempts to provide answers to both of these questions. Professor Franklin's approach combines the detailed study of four episodes in the history of twentieth century physics with an examination of some of the philosophical issues involved. The episodes are the discovery of parity nonconservation in the 1950s; the nondiscovery of parity nonconservation in the 1930s, when (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   93 citations  
  • Does Matter Really Matter? Computer Simulations, Experiments, and Materiality.Wendy S. Parker - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):483-496.
    A number of recent discussions comparing computer simulation and traditional experimentation have focused on the significance of “materiality.” I challenge several claims emerging from this work and suggest that computer simulation studies are material experiments in a straightforward sense. After discussing some of the implications of this material status for the epistemology of computer simulation, I consider the extent to which materiality (in a particular sense) is important when it comes to making justified inferences about target systems on the basis (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   81 citations  
  • A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation.Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):593-613.
    Computer simulations are an exciting tool that plays important roles in many scientific disciplines. This has attracted the attention of a number of philosophers of science. The main tenor in this literature is that computer simulations not only constitute interesting and powerful new science, but that they also raise a host of new philosophical issues. The protagonists in this debate claim no less than that simulations call into question our philosophical understanding of scientific ontology, the epistemology and semantics of models (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • The Philosophy of Simulation: Hot New Issues or Same Old Stew?Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):593-613.
    Computer simulations are an exciting tool that plays important roles in many scientific disciplines. This has attracted the attention of a number of philosophers of science. The main tenor in this literature is that computer simulations not only constitute interesting and powerful new science , but that they also raise a host of new philosophical issues. The protagonists in this debate claim no less than that simulations call into question our philosophical understanding of scientific ontology, the epistemology and semantics of (...)
    Direct download (14 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   49 citations  
  • Understanding Pluralism in Climate Modeling.W. S. Parker - 2006 - Foundations of Science 11 (4):349-368.
    To study Earth’s climate, scientists now use a variety of computer simulation models. These models disagree in some of their assumptions about the climate system, yet they are used together as complementary resources for investigating future climatic change. This paper examines and defends this use of incompatible models. I argue that climate model pluralism results both from uncertainty concerning how to best represent the climate system and from difficulties faced in evaluating the relative merits of complex models. I describe how (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   51 citations  
  • Models of Success Versus the Success of Models: Reliability Without Truth.Eric Winsberg - 2006 - Synthese 152 (1):1-19.
    In computer simulations of physical systems, the construction of models is guided, but not determined, by theory. At the same time simulations models are often constructed precisely because data are sparse. They are meant to replace experiments and observations as sources of data about the world; hence they cannot be evaluated simply by being compared to the world. So what can be the source of credibility for simulation models? I argue that the credibility of a simulation model comes not only (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   29 citations  
  • Computer Simulation Through an Error-Statistical Lens.Wendy S. Parker - 2008 - Synthese 163 (3):371-384.
    After showing how Deborah Mayo’s error-statistical philosophy of science might be applied to address important questions about the evidential status of computer simulation results, I argue that an error-statistical perspective offers an interesting new way of thinking about computer simulation models and has the potential to significantly improve the practice of simulation model evaluation. Though intended primarily as a contribution to the epistemology of simulation, the analysis also serves to fill in details of Mayo’s epistemology of experiment.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • A Tale of Two Methods.Eric Winsberg - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):575 - 592.
    Simulations (both digital and analog) and experiments share many features. But what essential features distinguish them? I discuss two proposals in the literature. On one proposal, experiments investigate nature directly, while simulations merely investigate models. On another proposal, simulations differ from experiments in that simulationists manipulate objects that bear only a formal (rather than material) similarity to the targets of their investigations. Both of these proposals are rejected. I argue that simulations fundamentally differ from experiments with regard to the background (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  • Computational Science and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  • Simulated Experiments: Methodology for a Virtual World.Winsberg Eric - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (1):105-125.
    This paper examines the relationship between simulation and experiment. Many discussions of simulation, and indeed the term "numerical experiments," invoke a strong metaphor of experimentation. On the other hand, many simulations begin as attempts to apply scientific theories. This has lead many to characterize simulation as lying between theory and experiment. The aim of the paper is to try to reconcile these two points of viewto understand what methodological and epistemological features simulation has in common with experimentation, while at the (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   70 citations  
  • Simulations, Models, and Theories: Complex Physical Systems and Their Representations.Eric Winsberg - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S442-.
    Using an example of a computer simulation of the convective structure of a red giant star, this paper argues that simulation is a rich inferential process, and not simply a "number crunching" technique. The scientific practice of simulation, moreover, poses some interesting and challenging epistemological and methodological issues for the philosophy of science. I will also argue that these challenges would be best addressed by a philosophy of science that places less emphasis on the representational capacity of theories (and ascribes (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge.Deborah Mayo - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (1):455-459.
  • Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science.Ian Hacking - 1983 - Cambridge University Press.
    This 1983 book is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates about (...)
  • II—Wendy S. Parker: Confirmation and Adequacy-for-Purpose in Climate Modelling.Wendy S. Parker - 2009 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1):233-249.
    Lloyd (2009) contends that climate models are confirmed by various instances of fit between their output and observational data. The present paper argues that what these instances of fit might confirm are not climate models themselves, but rather hypotheses about the adequacy of climate models for particular purposes. This required shift in thinking—from confirming climate models to confirming their adequacy-for-purpose—may sound trivial, but it is shown to complicate the evaluation of climate models considerably, both in principle and in practice.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  • Franklin, Holmes, and the Epistemology of Computer Simulation.Wendy S. Parker - 2008 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 22 (2):165 – 183.
    Allan Franklin has identified a number of strategies that scientists use to build confidence in experimental results. This paper shows that Franklin's strategies have direct analogues in the context of computer simulation and then suggests that one of his strategies—the so-called 'Sherlock Holmes' strategy—deserves a privileged place within the epistemologies of experiment and simulation. In particular, it is argued that while the successful application of even several of Franklin's other strategies (or their analogues in simulation) may not be sufficient for (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Sanctioning Models: The Epistemology of Simulation.Eric Winsberg - 1999 - Science in Context 12 (2):275-292.
  • Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Computational methods have become the dominant technique in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of these new methods and their consequences for scientific method. This book will be of interest to philosophers of science and to anyone interested in the role played by computers in modern science.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   124 citations  
  • Varieties of Support and Confirmation of Climate Models.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 2009 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1):213-232.
    Today's climate models are supported in a couple of ways that receive little attention from philosophers or climate scientists. In addition to standard 'model fit', wherein a model's simulation is compared to observational data, there is an additional type of confirmation available through the variety of instances of model fit. When a model performs well at fitting first one variable and then another, the probability of the model under some standard confirmation function, say, likelihood, goes up more than under each (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • On the Stability of the Laboratory Sciences.Ian Hacking - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (10):507-514.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • Handshaking Your Way to the Top: Simulation at the Nanoscale.Eric Winsberg - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):582-594.
    Should philosophers of science be paying attention to developments in "nanoscience"? Undoubtedly, it is too early to tell for sure. The goal of this paper is to take a preliminary look. In particular, I look at the use of computational models in the study of nano-sized solid-state materials. What I find is that there are features of these models that appear on their face to be at odds with some basic philosophical intuitions about the relationships between different theories and between (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  • Simulations, Models, and Theories: Complex Physical Systems and Their Representations.Eric Winsberg - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S442-S454.
    Using an example of a computer simulation of the convective structure of a red giant star, this paper argues that simulation is a rich inferential process, and not simply a "number crunching" technique. The scientific practice of simulation, moreover, poses some interesting and challenging epistemological and methodological issues for the philosophy of science. I will also argue that these challenges would be best addressed by a philosophy of science that places less emphasis on the representational capacity of theories and more (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  • The Neglect of Experiment.Allan Franklin - 1988 - Philosophy of Science 55 (2):306-308.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Handshaking Your Way to the Top: Inconsistency and Falsification in Intertheoretic Reduction.Eric Winsberg - 2006 - In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. pp. 73--582.
  • Computer Simulations.Paul Humphreys - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:497 - 506.
    This article provides a survey of some of the reasons why computational approaches have become a permanent addition to the set of scientific methods. The reasons for this require us to represent the relation between theories and their applications in a different way than do the traditional logical accounts extant in the philosophical literature. A working definition of computer simulations is provided and some properties of simulations are explored by considering an example from quantum chemistry.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   31 citations  
  • Computer Simulation in the Physical Sciences.Fritz Rohrlich - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:507-518.
    Computer simulation is shown to be philosophically interesting because it introduces a qualitatively new methodology for theory construction in science different from the conventional two components of "theory" and "experiment and/or observation". This component is "experimentation with theoretical models." Two examples from the physical sciences are presented for the purpose of demonstration but it is claimed that the biological and social sciences permit similar theoretical model experiments. Furthermore, computer simulation permits theoretical models for the evolution of physical systems which use (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  • The Sciences of the Artificial.Herbert A. Simon - 1969 - [Cambridge, M.I.T. Press.
    Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   774 citations