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  1. Bi-facial Truth: a Case for Generalized Truth Values.Dmitry Zaitsev & Yaroslav Shramko - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (6):1299-1318.
    We explore a possibility of generalization of classical truth values by distinguishing between their ontological and epistemic aspects and combining these aspects within a joint semantical framework. The outcome is four generalized classical truth values implemented by Cartesian product of two sets of classical truth values, where each generalized value comprises both ontological and epistemic components. This allows one to define two unary twin connectives that can be called “semi-classical negations”. Each of these negations deals only with one of the (...)
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  • First-order logic.Raymond Merrill Smullyan - 1968 - New York [etc.]: Springer Verlag.
    This completely self-contained study, widely considered the best book in the field, is intended to serve both as an introduction to quantification theory and as ...
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  • First-order Logic.William Craig - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (2):237-238.
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  • Entailment: The Logic of Relevance and Neccessity, Vol. I.Alan Ross Anderson & Nuel D. Belnap - 1975 - Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Edited by Nuel D. Belnap & J. Michael Dunn.
    In spite of a powerful tradition, more than two thousand years old, that in a valid argument the premises must be relevant to the conclusion, twentieth-century logicians neglected the concept of relevance until the publication of Volume I of this monumental work. Since that time relevance logic has achieved an important place in the field of philosophy: Volume II of Entailment brings to a conclusion a powerful and authoritative presentation of the subject by most of the top people working in (...)
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  • Meaning and Partiality.Reinhard Muskens - 1995 - Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
    This book radically simplifies Montague Semantics and generalizes the theory by basing it on a partial higher order logic. The resulting theory is a synthesis of Montague Semantics and Situation Semantics. In the late sixties Richard Montague developed the revolutionary idea that we can understand the concept of meaning in ordinary languages much in the same way as we understand the semantics of logical languages. Unfortunately, however, he formalized his idea in an unnecessarily complex way - two outstanding researchers in (...)
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  • A useful four-valued logic.N. D. Belnap - 1977 - In J. M. Dunn & G. Epstein (eds.), Modern Uses of Multiple-Valued Logic. D. Reidel.
     
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  • A calculus for Belnap's logic in which each proof consists of two trees.Stefan Wintein & Reinhard Muskens - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 220:643-656.
    In this paper we introduce a Gentzen calculus for (a functionally complete variant of) Belnap's logic in which establishing the provability of a sequent in general requires \emph{two} proof trees, one establishing that whenever all premises are true some conclusion is true and one that guarantees the falsity of at least one premise if all conclusions are false. The calculus can also be put to use in proving that one statement \emph{necessarily approximates} another, where necessary approximation is a natural dual (...)
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  • Meaning and Partiality.Reinhard Muskens - 1989 - Dissertation, University of Amsterdam