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  1. Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition.William D. Casebeer - 2003 - Bradford.
    In Natural Ethical Facts William Casebeer argues that we can articulate a fully naturalized ethical theory using concepts from evolutionary biology and cognitive science, and that we can study moral cognition just as we study other forms of cognition. His goal is to show that we have "softly fixed" human natures, that these natures are evolved, and that our lives go well or badly depending on how we satisfy the functional demands of these natures. Natural Ethical Facts is a comprehensive (...)
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  • Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy.Philippa Foot - 1978 - Oxford University Press.
    "Foot stands out among contemporary ethical theorists because of her conviction that virtues and vices are more central ethical notions than rights, duties, justice, or consequences--the primary focus of most other contemporary moral theorists....[These] essays embody to some extent her commitment to an ethics of virtue. Foot's style is straightforward and readable, her arguments subtle..."--Choice.
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  • Who’s Afraid of a Final End? The Role of Practical Rationality in Contemporary Accounts of Virtue.Jennifer Baker - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):85-98.
    In this paper I argue that excising a final end from accounts of virtue does them more harm than good. I attempt to establish that the justification of contemporary virtue ethics suffers if moved this one step too far from the resources in traditional accounts. This is because virtue, as we tend to describe it, rests on an account of practical rationality wherein the role of the final end is integral. I highlight the puzzles that are generated by the ellipsis (...)
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  • Human Functioning and Social Justice: In Defense of Aristotelian Essentialism.Martha C. Nussbaum - 1992 - Political Theory 20 (2):202-246.
    It will be seen how in place of the wealth and poverty of political economy come the rich human being and rich human need. The rich human being is simultaneously the human being in need of totality of human life-activities — the man in whom his own realization exists as an inner necessity, as need. Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 Svetaketu abstained from food for fifteen days. Then he came to his father and said, `What shall I say?' (...)
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  • Modern Moral Philosophy Again: Isolating the Promulgation Problem.Candace Vogler - 2006 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (3):345–362.
    There are different ways of understanding the place of virtue in ethics. I will be interested in certain of the most ambitious, those neo-Aristotelian views that take it that right action is action from and for the sake of virtue, that right practical reasoning is virtuous practical reasoning, that the virtues are corrective,[i] and that, as Philippa Foot put it, "not every man who has a virtue has something that is a virtue in him."[ii] Virtues regulate individual action and response (...)
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  • Natural Goodness and Natural Evil.Joseph Millum - 2006 - Ratio 19 (2):199–213.
    In Natural Goodness Philippa Foot gives an analysis of the concepts we use to describe the characteristics of living things. She suggests that we describe them in functional terms, and this allows us to judge organisms as good or defective depending on how well they perform their distinctive functions. Foot claims that we can judge intentional human actions in the same way: the virtues contribute in obvious ways to good human functioning, and this provides us with grounds for making moral (...)
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  • Sorts of Naturalism: Requirements for a Successful Theory.Christopher Toner - 2008 - Metaphilosophy 39 (2):220–250.
    In this article I investigate several "sorts of naturalism" that have been advanced in recent years as possible foundations for virtue ethics: those of Michael Thompson, Philippa Foot, Rosalind Hursthouse, John McDowell, and Larry Arnhart. Each of these impressive attempts fails in illuminatingly different ways, and in the opening sections I analyze what has gone variously wrong. I next use this analysis to articulate four criteria that any successful Aristotelian naturalism must meet (my goal is to show what naturalism must (...)
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  • What is Natural About Foot's Ethical Naturalism?John Hacker-Wright - 2009 - Ratio 22 (3):308-321.
    Philippa Foot's Natural Goodness is in the midst of a cool reception. It appears that this is due to the fact that Foot's naturalism draws on a picture of the biological world at odds with the view embraced by most scientists and philosophers. Foot's readers commonly assume that the account of the biological world that she must want to adhere to, and that she nevertheless mistakenly departs from, is the account offered by contemporary neo-Darwinian biological sciences. But as is evident (...)
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  • Goodness.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 2013 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (2):467-475.
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  • Natural Goodness.Philippa Foot - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Philippa Foot has for many years been one of the most distinctive and influential thinkers in moral philosophy. Long dissatisfied with the moral theories of her contemporaries, she has gradually evolved a theory of her own that is radically opposed not only to emotivism and prescriptivism but also to the whole subjectivist, anti-naturalist movement deriving from David Hume. Dissatisfied with both Kantian and utilitarian ethics, she claims to have isolated a special form of evaluation that predicates goodness and defect only (...)
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  • Ethics Without Principles.Jonathan Dancy - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    In this much-anticipated book, Jonathan Dancy offers the only available full-scale treatment of particularism in ethics, a view with which he has been associated for twenty years. Dancy now presents particularism as the view that the possibility of moral thought and judgement does not in any way depend on an adequate supply of principles. He grounds this claim on a form of reasons-holism, holding that what is a reason in one case need not be any reason in another, and maintaining (...)
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  • Moral Dilemmas.Philippa Foot - 2005 - Mind 114 (454):371-389.
    Moral Dilemmas is the second volume of collected essays by the eminent moral philosopher Philippa Foot, gathering the best of her work from the late 1970s to the 1990s. It fills the gap between her famous 1978 collection Virtues and Vices and her acclaimed monograph Natural Goodness, published in 2001. In this new collection Professor Foot develops further her critique of the dominant ethical theories of the last fifty years, and discusses such topics as the nature of moral judgement, practical (...)
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  • Virtue, Vice, and Value.Thomas Hurka - 2001 - Oup Usa.
    What are virtue and vice, and how do they relate to other moral properties such as goodness and rightness? Thomas Hurka defends a distinctive perfectionist view according to which the virtues are higher-level intrinsic goods, ones that involve morally appropriate attitudes to other, independent goods and evils. He develops this highly original view in detail and argues for its superiority over rival views, including those given by virtue ethics.
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  • Getting On in a Varied World.Chrisoula Andreou - 2006 - Social Theory and Practice 32 (1):61-73.
    The core argument in favor of the view that immorality is a natural defect for human beings, which has been developed by Foot, assumes that if justice and compassion have important functions in human survival and reproduction, then injustice and cruelty are natural defects in human beings. But this ignores possibilities and results that cannot reasonably be ignored. Multiple and mixed naturally sound types can and do occur in nature. Moreover, research in the life sciences suggests that at least some (...)
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  • Flourishing and the Failure of the Ethics of Virtue.Sarah Conly - 1988 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13 (1):83-96.
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  • Utilitarianism, Integrity, and Partiality.Elizabeth Ashford - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):421-439.
  • Utilitarianism, Integrity and Partiality.Elizabeth Ashford - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):421.
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  • Review of E Thics and the Limits of Philosophy.Thomas Nagel - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (6):351-360.
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  • On Virtue Ethics.Rosalind Hursthouse - 1999 - Oxford University Press.
    Virtue ethics is perhaps the most important development within late twentieth-century moral philosophy. Rosalind Hursthouse, who has made notable contributions to this development, here presents a full exposition and defense of her neo-Aristotelian version of virtue ethics. She shows how virtue ethics can provide guidance for action, illuminate moral dilemmas, and bring out the moral significance of the emotions.
     
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  • Virtue Theory and Abortion.Rosalind Hursthouse - 1997 - In Roger Crisp & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  • Humanizing Personhood.Adam Kadlac - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):421 - 437.
    This paper explores the debate between personists, who argue that the concept of a person if of central importance for moral thought, and personists, who argue that the concept of a human being is of greater moral significance. On the one hand, it argues that normative naturalism, the most ambitious defense of the humanist position, fails to identify moral standards with standards of human behavior and thereby fails to undermine the moral significance of personhood. At the same time, it contends (...)
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  • Neo-Aristotelian Social Justice: An Unanswered Question.Simon Hope - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (2):157-172.
    In this paper I assess the possibility of advancing a modern conception of social justice under neo-Aristotelian lights, focussing primarily on conceptions that assert a fundamental connection between social justice and eudaimonia. After some preliminary remarks on the extent to which a neo-Aristotelian account must stay close to Aristotle’s own, I focus on Martha Nussbaum’s sophisticated neo-Aristotelian approach, which I argue implausibly overworks the aspects of Aristotle’s thought it appeals to. I then outline the shape of a deeper and more (...)
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  • Moral Explanations.Nicholas Sturgeon - 1984 - In David Copp & David Zimmerman (eds.), Morality, Reason and Truth. Totowa, NJ: pp. 49-78.
  • Moral Realism.Peter Railton - 1986 - Philosophical Review 95 (2):163-207.
  • What is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being.Richard Kraut - 2007 - Harvard University Press.
    What is good, how do we know, and how important is it? In this book, one of our most respected analytical philosophers reorients these questions around the notion of what causes human beings to flourish. Observing that we can sensibly address what is good for plants and animals no less than what is good for people, Kraut applies a general principle to the entire living world: what is good for complex organisms consists in the exercise of their natural powers.
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  • Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution.Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd - 2005 - Chicago University Press.
    Acknowledgments 1. Culture Is Essential 2. Culture Exists 3. Culture Evolves 4. Culture Is an Adaptation 5. Culture Is Maladaptive 6. Culture and Genes Coevolve 7. Nothing about Culture Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution.
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  • The Fragmentation of Reason: Preface to a Pragmatic Theory of Cognitive Evaluation.Stephen P. Stich - 1990 - Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
    From Descartes to Popper, philosophers have criticized and tried to improve the strategies of reasoning invoked in science and in everyday life. In recent years leading cognitive psychologists have painted a detailed, controversial, and highly critical portrait of common sense reasoning. Stephen Stich begins with a spirited defense of this work and a critique of those writers who argue that widespread irrationality is a biological or conceptual impossibility.Stich then explores the nature of rationality and irrationality: What is it that distinguishes (...)
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  • Virtue Ethics Without Right Action: Anscombe, Foot, and Contemporary Virtue Ethics.John Hacker-Wright - 2010 - Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (2):209-224.
  • Three Methods of Ethics. [REVIEW]Mark Van Roojen - 2001 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 62 (3):721-723.
    This book is a good idea, well-executed. The setup of the book mirrors one way of dividing up normative ethics. We divide theorists into Kantians, consequentialists and virtue theorists on the assumption that these are distinct and incompatible approaches to ethics. Each position is represented by one of the co-authors with Baron representing Kantians, Pettit consequentialists and Slote virtue theorists. What emerges is that each approach has virtues, but also that the division is neither neat nor exhaustive. As Pettit notes, (...)
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  • Philippa Foot’s Virtue Ethics Has an Achilles’ Heel.Scott Woodcock - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (3):445-468.
    My aim in this article is to argue that Philippa Foot fails to provide a convincing basis for moral evaluation in her book Natural Goodness. Foot’s proposal fails because her conception of natural goodness and defect in human beings either sanctions prescriptive claims that are clearly objectionable or else it inadvertently begs the question of what constitutes a good human life by tacitly appealing to an independent ethical standpoint to sanitize the theory’s normative implications. Foot’s appeal to natural facts about (...)
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  • Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition.William D. Casebeer - 2003 - Bradford.
    In Natural Ethical Facts William Casebeer argues that we can articulate a fully naturalized ethical theory using concepts from evolutionary biology and cognitive science, and that we can study moral cognition just as we study other forms of cognition. His goal is to show that we have "softly fixed" human natures, that these natures are evolved, and that our lives go well or badly depending on how we satisfy the functional demands of these natures. Natural Ethical Facts is a comprehensive (...)
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  • Teleology and the Norms of Nature.William J. FitzPatrick - 2000 - Routledge.
    This work is an examination of teleological attributions i.e. ascriptions of proper functions and natural ends) to the features and behavior of living things with a view to understanding their application to human life.
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  • On Some Vices of Virtue Ethics.Robert Louden - 1984 - American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (3):227 - 236.
    IN THIS ESSAY I SKETCH SOME VICES OF VIRTUE ETHICS, DRAW ON INFERENCE ABOUT THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOURCE OF THE VICES, AND CONCLUDE WITH A RECOMMENDATION CONCERNING FUTURE EFFORTS IN MORAL THEORY CONSTRUCTION. THE SOURCE OF THE VICES, I ARGUE, LIES IN A MONONOMIC OR SINGLE-PRINCIPLE STRATEGY WITHIN NORMATIVE THEORY CONSTRUCTION, A REDUCTIONIST CONCEPTUAL SCHEME WHICH DISTORTS CERTAIN INTEGRAL ASPECTS OF OUR MORAL EXPERIENCE. MY RECOMMENDATION IS THAT THIS STRATEGY BE ABANDONED, FOR THE MORAL FIELD IS NOT UNITARY--MONONOMIC METHODS ARE NOT (...)
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  • Virtue Theory and Abortion.Rosalind Hursthouse - 1991 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 20 (3):223-246.
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  • Virtue Ethics: What Kind of Naturalism?Julia Annas - 2005 - In Stephen Mark Gardiner (ed.), Virtue Ethics, Old and New. Cornell University Press. pp. 11--29.
     
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  • The Misfortunes of Virtue.J. B. Schneewind - 1990 - Ethics 101 (1):42-63.
  • Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy.Bernard Williams - 1985 - Harvard University Press.
    By the time of his death in 2003, Bernard Williams was one of the greatest philosophers of his generation. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy is not only widely acknowledged to be his most important book, but also hailed a contemporary classic of moral philosophy. Presenting a sustained critique of moral theory from Kant onwards, Williams reorients ethical theory towards ‘truth, truthfulness and the meaning of an individual life’. He explores and reflects upon the most difficult problems in contemporary philosophy (...)
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  • Moral Explanations.Nicholas Sturgeon - 1985 - In James Rachels (ed.), Ethical Theory 1: The Question of Objectivity. Oxford University Press.
     
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  • Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity.Christine M. Korsgaard - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Agency and identity -- Necessitation -- Acts and actions -- Aristotle and Kant -- Agency and practical identity -- The metaphysics of normativity -- Constitutive standards -- The constitution of life -- In defense of teleology -- The paradox of self-constitution -- Formal and substantive principles of reason -- Formal versus substantive -- Testing versus weighing -- Maximizing and prudence -- Practical reason and the unity of the will -- The empiricist account of normativity -- The rationalist account of normativity (...)
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  • Eudaimonist Virtue Ethics and Right Action: A Reassessment.Frans Svensson - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (4):321-339.
    My question in this paper concerns what eudaimonist virtue ethics (EVE) might have to say about what makes right actions right. This is obviously an important question if we want to know what (if anything) distinguishes EVE from various forms of consequentialism and deontology in ethical theorizing. The answer most commonly given is that according to EVE, an action is right if and only if it is what a virtuous person would do in the circumstances. However, understood as a claim (...)
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  • Virtue Ethics: A Misleading Category? [REVIEW]Martha C. Nussbaum - 1999 - The Journal of Ethics 3 (3):163-201.
    Virtue ethics is standardly taught and discussed as a distinctive approach to the major questions of ethics, a third major position alongside Utilitarian and Kantian ethics. I argue that this taxonomy is a confusion. Both Utilitarianism and Kantianism contain treatments of virtue, so virtue ethics cannot possibly be a separate approach contrasted with those approaches. There are, to be sure, quite a few contemporary philosophical writers about virtue who are neither Utilitarians nor Kantians; many of these find inspiration in ancient (...)
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  • Values, Objectivity, and Relationalism.Adam D. Moore - 2004 - Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (1):75-90.
  • The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intuition and Intrinsic Value.Robert Audi - 2004 - Princeton Up.
    "Robert Audi's magisterial "The Good in the Right" offers the most comprehensive and developed account of rational ethical intuitionism to date."--Roger Crisp, St. Anne's College, University of Oxford "This is an excellent book.
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  • Nature, Reason, and the Good Life: Ethics for Human Beings.Roger Teichmann - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Starting from an examination of foundational issues, the book covers a range of topics, including animals, agency, enjoyment, the good life, contemplation, ...
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  • Virtues and Vices.Philippa Foot - 1997 - In Roger Crisp & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
     
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  • On Some Vices of Virtue Ethics.Robert B. Louden - 1997 - In Roger Crisp & Michael Slote (eds.), Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  • Normativity.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 2008 - Open Court.
    Goodness -- Goodness properties -- Expressivism -- Betterness relations -- Virtue/kind properties -- Correctness properties (acts) -- Correctness properties (mental states) -- Reasons-for (mental states) -- Reasons-for (acts) -- On some views about "ought" : relativism, dilemmas, means-ends -- On some views about "ought" : belief, outcomes, epistemic ought -- Directives -- Addendum 1: "Red" and "good" -- Addendum 2: Correctness -- Addendum 3: Reasons -- Addendum 4: Reasoning.
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  • Life and Action: Elementary Structures of Practice and Practical Thought.Michael Thompson - 2008 - Harvard University Press.
    Part I: The representation of life -- Can life be given a real definition? -- The representation of the living individual -- The representation of the life-form itself -- Part II: Naive action theory -- Types of practical explanation -- Naive explanation of action -- Action and time -- Part III: Practical generality -- Two tendencies in practical philosophy -- Practices and dispositions as sources of the goodness of individual actions -- Practice and disposition as sources of individual action.
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  • Plural and Conflicting Values.Michael Stocker - 1989 - Oxford University Press.
    Plural and conflicting values are often held to be conceptually problematic, threatening the very possibility of ethics, or at least rational ethics. Rejecting this view, Stocker first demonstrates why it is so important to understand the issues raised by plural and conflicting values, focusing on Aristotle's treatment of them. He then shows that plurality and conflict are commonplace and generally unproblematic features of our everyday choice and action, and that they do allow for a sound and rational ethics.
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  • Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue.Nancy Sherman - 1997 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is the first to offer a detailed analysis of Aristotelian and Kantian ethics together, in a way that remains faithful to the texts and responsive to debates in contemporary ethics. Recent moral philosophy has seen a revival of interest in the concept of virtue, and with it a reassessment of the role of virtue in the work of Aristotle and Kant. This book brings that re-assessment to a new level of sophistication. Nancy Sherman argues that Kant preserves a (...)
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