Results for 'ARGUMENT BY ELIMINATION'

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  1.  99
    Parmenides' Modal Fallacy.Frank Lewis - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):1-8.
    In his great poem, Parmenides uses an argument by elimination to select the correct "way of inquiry" from a pool of two, the ways of is and of is not , joined later by a third, "mixed" way of is and is not . Parmenides' first two ways are soon given modal upgrades - is becomes cannot not be , and is not becomes necessarily is not (B2, 3-6) - and these are no longer contradictories of one another. (...)
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  2.  39
    A CULTURE OF JUSTIFICATION: THE PRAGMATIST'S EPISTEMIC ARGUMENT FOR DEMOCRACY11.This Paper has Been Improved by the Comments of David Dyzenhaus and David Estlund. Some of the Material is Drawn From Misak (2000) and (in Press). [REVIEW]Cheryl Misak - 2008 - Episteme 5 (1):94-105.
    The pragmatist view of politics is at its very heart epistemic, for it treats morals and politics as a kind of deliberation or inquiry, not terribly unlike other kinds of inquiry. With the exception of Richard Rorty, the pragmatists argue that morals and politics, like science, aim at the truth or at getting things right and that the best method for achieving this aim is a method they sometimes call the scientific method or the method of intelligence – what would (...)
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  3. Reasonableness of a Doctor’s Argument by Authority: A Pragma-Dialectical Analysis of the Specific Soundness Conditions.Roosmaryn Pilgram - 2012 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):33-50.
    Argumentation can play an important role in medical consultation. A doctor could, for instance, argue in support of a treatment advice to overcome a patient’s hesitance about it. In this argumentation, the doctor might explicitly present him- or herself as an authority, thereby presenting an argument by authority. Depending on the specific conditions under which the doctor advances such an argument, the doctor’s argument by authority can constitute a sound or a fallacious contribution to the discussion. In (...)
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  4. Argument by Analogy.André Juthe - 2005 - Argumentation 19 (1):1-27.
    ABSTRACT: In this essay I characterize arguments by analogy, which have an impor- tant role both in philosophical and everyday reasoning. Arguments by analogy are dif- ferent from ordinary inductive or deductive arguments and have their own distinct features. I try to characterize the structure and function of these arguments. It is further discussed that some arguments, which are not explicit arguments by analogy, nevertheless should be interpreted as such and not as inductive or deductive arguments. The result is that (...)
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  5.  21
    A Note on “The No Alternatives Argument” by Richard Dawid, Stephan Hartmann and Jan Sprenger.Frederik Herzberg - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (3):375-384.
    The defence of The No Alternatives Argument in a recent paper by R. Dawid, S. Hartmann and J. Sprenger rests on the assumption that the number of acceptable alternatives to a scientific hypothesis is independent of the complexity of the scientific problem. This note proves a generalisation of the main theorem by Dawid, Hartmann and Sprenger, where this independence assumption is no longer necessary. Some of the other assumptions are also discussed, and the limitations of the no-alternatives argument (...)
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  6. A New Approach to Argument by Analogy: Extrapolation and Chain Graphs.Daniel Steel & S. Kedzie Hall - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):1058-1069.
    In order to make scientific results relevant to practical decision making, it is often necessary to transfer a result obtained in one set of circumstances—an animal model, a computer simulation, an economic experiment—to another that may differ in relevant respects—for example, to humans, the global climate, or an auction. Such inferences, which we can call extrapolations, are a type of argument by analogy. This essay sketches a new approach to analogical inference that utilizes chain graphs, which resemble directed acyclic (...)
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  7.  25
    Toward a Science of Other Minds: Escaping the Argument by Analogy.Cognitive Evolution Group, Since Darwin, D. J. Povinelli, J. M. Bering & S. Giambrone - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):509-541.
    Since Darwin, the idea of psychological continuity between humans and other animals has dominated theory and research in investigating the minds of other species. Indeed, the field of comparative psychology was founded on two assumptions. First, it was assumed that introspection could provide humans with reliable knowledge about the causal connection between specific mental states and specific behaviors. Second, it was assumed that in those cases in which other species exhibited behaviors similar to our own, similar psychological causes were at (...)
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  8.  27
    Argument by Analogy in Ancient China.Yun Xie - 2019 - Argumentation 33 (3):323-347.
    Argument by analogy has long been regarded as the characteristic way of arguing in ancient Chinese culture. Classic Chinese philosophers not only prefer to use analogy to argue for their own views, but also take efforts to theorize it in a systematic way. This paper aims to provide a careful study on the relevant ideas in ancient China in order to reconstruct the ancient Chinese theory of argument by analogy, and then to reveal some of its distinctive features (...)
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  9.  25
    On the Argument by Analogy.P. R. Wilson - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (1):34-39.
    Conditions are stated under which the "argument by analogy" is consistent with the principle of inverse probability. It is contended that the argument by analogy, in conjunction with a crucial test, has a legitimate place in scientific logic. As an example the astrophysical problem of solar granulation is discussed in detail and other examples are mentioned more briefly.
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  10.  8
    The Role of the Argument by Example in Legislative Debates of the European Parliament.Bart Garssen - 2017 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 6 (1):27-43.
    This paper focuses on the role of the argument by example in the argumentation put forward by Members of the European Parliament. The argumentative patterns that come into being in legislative debates in the European Parliament depend for the most part on the problem-solving argumentation that is put forward in the opening speech by the rapporteur of the parliamentary committee report. Complex problem-solving argumentation consists of a premise stating that there is a problem and a premise stating that the (...)
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  11.  5
    Argument by Multimodal Metaphor as Strategic Maneuvering in Video Advertising.Zhang Chuanrui & Xu Cihua - 2017 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 6 (3):359-380.
    The present study analyzes the strategic maneuvering in the Lin Dan Commercial, an anti-corruption advertisement broadcasted on China Central Television, with the help of pragma-dialectics and conceptual metaphor theory. In order to evaluate the LDC’s reasonableness and effectiveness, this research aims to establish how an argument by multimodal metaphor is used in practice for disseminating of an anti-corruption view. A pragma-dialectical analysis is provided of the LDC advertisement viewed as a multimodal metaphor. According to the research, the LDC advertisement (...)
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  12.  37
    Validity and Effectiveness of Ambiguity: A Famous Argument by Socrates. [REVIEW]Pierdaniele Giaretta & Giuseppe Spolaore - 2012 - Argumentation 26 (3):393-407.
    An argument can be superficially valid and rhetorically effective even if what is plausibly meant, what is derived from what, and how it is derived is not at all clear. An example of such an argument is provided by Socrates’s famous refutation of Euthyphro’s second definition of holy, which is generally regarded as clearly valid and successful. This paper provides a stricter logical analysis than the ones in the literature. In particular, it is shown that the argument (...)
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  13.  7
    Argument by Multimodal Metaphor as Strategic Maneuvering in TV Commercials: A Case Study.Chuanrui Zhang & Cihua Xu - 2018 - Argumentation 32 (4):501-517.
    Drawing on insights from contemporary studies on conceptual metaphor and multimodal metaphor, the present study proposes a tentative analysis of multimodal metaphorical argument from the perspective of the extended theory of pragma-dialectics. A case, Liqun Commercial, is presented as an illustration. This commercial proves to use a conceptual metaphor, life is a journey, that underlies a multimodal metaphorical argument. The conceptual metaphor is highly acceptable in the cultural context of the Chinese target audience. Due to the restrictions imposed (...)
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  14.  42
    Self-Knowledge and a Refutation of the Immateriality of Human Nature: On an Epistemological Argument Reported by Razi.Pirooz Fatoorchi - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (2):189-199.
    The paper deals with an argument reported by Razi (d. 1210) that was used to attempt to refute the immateriality of human nature. This argument is based on an epistemic asymmetry between our self-knowledge and our knowledge of immaterial things. After some preliminary remarks, the paper analyzes the structure of the argument in four steps. From a methodological point of view, the argument is similar to a family of epistemological arguments (notably, the Cartesian argument from (...)
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  15.  87
    An Interpretation of Political Argument.William Bosworth - 2020 - European Journal of Political Theory 19 (3):293-313.
    How do we determine whether individuals accept the actual consistency of a political argument instead of just its rhetorical good looks? This article answers this question by proposing an interpretation of political argument within the constraints of political liberalism. It utilises modern developments in the philosophy of logic and language to reclaim ‘meaningless nonsense’ from use as a partisan war cry and to build up political argument as something more than a power struggle between competing conceptions of (...)
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  16.  28
    Refutation by Parallel Argument.André Juthe - 2008 - Argumentation 23 (2):133–169.
    This paper discusses the method when an argument is refuted by a parallel argument since the flaw of the parallel argument is clearly displayed. The method is explicated, examined and compared with two other general methods.
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  17.  48
    Refuting a Standpoint by Appealing to Its Outcomes: Reductio Ad Absurdum Vs. Argument From Consequences.Henrike Jansen - 2007 - Informal Logic 27 (3):249-266.
    Used informally, the Reductio ad Absurdum (RAA) consists in reasoning appealing to the logically implied, absurd consequences of a hypothetical proposition, in order to refute it. This kind of reasoning resembles the Argument from Consequences, which appeals to causally induced consequences. These types of argument are sometimes confused, since it is not worked out how these different kinds of consequences should be distinguished. In this article it is argued that the logical consequences in RAA-argumentation can take different appearances (...)
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  18. Kripke's Modal Argument is Challenged by His Implausible Conception of Introspection.Alexander Heinzel & Georg Northoff - 2009 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):13-31.
    Kripke presented one of the most influential modal arguments against psycho-physical identities. His argument as exemplied by the identity of pain and its respective neural correlates will be analysed in detail. It shall be argued that his reasoning relies on an implausible conception of introspection implying an implausible conception of mental phenomena such as pain. His account does not consider possible interaction of pain and attention as well as the interaction of pain with other psychological factors. Theoretical and empirical (...)
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  19. The Elimination Argument.Andrew M. Bailey - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 168 (2):475-482.
    Animalism is the view that we are animals: living, breathing, wholly material beings. Despite its considerable appeal, animalism has come under fire. Other philosophers have had much to say about objections to animalism that stem from reflection on personal identity over time. But one promising objection (the `Elimination Argument') has been overlooked. In this paper, I remedy this situation and examine the Elimination Argument in some detail. I contend that the Elimination Argument is both (...)
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  20. Refutation by Elimination.John Turri - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):35-39.
    This paper refutes two important and influential views in one fell stroke. The first is G.E. Moore’s view that assertions of the form ‘Q but I don’t believe that Q’ are inherently “absurd.” The second is Gareth Evans’s view that justification to assert Q entails justification to assert that you believe Q. Both views run aground the possibility of being justified in accepting eliminativism about belief. A corollary is that a principle recently defended by John Williams is also false, namely, (...)
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  21.  4
    A New Argument Scheme for Causal Explanations by Analogy? The Case of Galileo’s Explanation of the Tides.Alexander Kremling - 2018 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 55 (1):131-149.
    This paper is a case study. After formulating three norms for critical assessment of argumentation, I give a brief overview of Galileo’s argumentative strategy in his Dialogue and present his argument for the cause of the tides, which appears as an argument by analogy. I then discuss possible reconstructions of this argumentation, with one particular suggestion in detail. These arguments seem to fall short, given the aforementioned set of norms. This leads to my own proposal of Galileo’s (...). I defend this proposal and it’s general idea - that is, the argument’s pattern. It will be classified as ‘interventionist’ and useful regarding the goals of critical assessment. Finally, I suggest that the pattern of argument is applicable to other cases and useful for applied theory of science. (shrink)
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  22.  17
    The Aesthetics of Argument, by Martin Warner.Richard Eldridge - 2018 - Mind 127 (505):294-298.
    © Mind Association 2017Exactly how radical change in commitments on matters of fundamental concern is possible has been a problem since at least Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus and Augustine's rejection of Pelagianism and defence of divine grace. If an act of will is required to accept the offer of grace, then isn’t something important left to us to do? And if so, can or does reason play any role in such radical change? If so, how? Martin Warner (...)
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  23. Design by Elimination Vs. Design by Comparison.William Dembski - manuscript
    Behind this question are two fundamentally different approaches about how to reason with chance hypotheses. One approach, due to Ronald Fisher, rejects a chance hypothesis provided sample data appear in a prespecified rejection region. The other, due to Thomas Bayes, rejects a chance hypothesis provided an alternative hypothesis confers a bigger probability on the data in question than the original hypothesis. In the Fisherian approach, chance hypotheses are rejected in isolation for rendering data too improbable. In the Bayesian approach, chance (...)
     
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  24.  8
    Intention, Description and the Aesthetic: The by-Product Argument.Leon Culbertson - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (3):440-453.
    Stephen Mumford argues that positive aesthetic value is a by-product of both sport and art, and that the principal aim of the artist and the player or athlete could not be to produce positive aesthetic value. Three features of Mumford’s by-product argument are considered. It is argued that problems arise as a result of failure to appreciate Best’s distinction between the evaluative and conceptual uses of ‘aesthetic’, the nature of the descriptions Mumford gives of the intention of the artist (...)
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  25. Analyzing Framing Processes in Conflicts and Communication by Means of Logical Argument Mapping.Michael H. G. Hoffmann - 2011 - In . Peter Lang.
    The primary goal of this chapter is to present a new method—called Logical Argument Mapping —for the analysis of framing processes as they occur in any communication, but especially in conflicts. I start with a distinction between boundary setting, meaning construction, and sensemaking as three forms or aspects of framing, and argue that crucial for the resolution of frame-based controversies is our ability to deal with those “webs” of mutually supporting beliefs that determine sensemaking processes. Since any analysis of (...)
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  26.  37
    Wrongdoing by Results: Moore's Experiential Argument: Wrongdoing by Results.John Gardner - 2012 - Legal Theory 18 (4):459-471.
    Michael Moore and I agree about the moral importance of how our actions turn out. We even agree about some of the arguments that establish that moral importance. In Causation and Responsibility, however, Moore foregrounds one argument that I do not find persuasive or even helpful. In fact I doubt whether it even qualifies as an argument. He calls it the “experiential argument.” In this comment I attempt to analyze Moore's “experiential argument” in some detail and (...)
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  27.  5
    A Quantum Cognition Analysis of Human Behaviour by Hardy’s Non-locality Argument.Pegah Imannezhad & Ali Ahanj - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-10.
    Quantum cognition is an emerging field making uses of quantum theory to model cognitive phenomena which cannot be explained by classical theories. Usually, in cognitive tests, subjects are asked to give a response to a question, but, in this paper, we just observed the subjects’ behaviour and the question and answer method was not applied in order to prevent any mental background on participants’ minds. Finally, we examined the experimental data on Hardy’s non-locality argument, and we noticed the violation (...)
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  28.  2
    A Logical Analysis of the Main Argument in Chapter 2 of the Proslogion by Anselm of Canterbury.Peter Hinst - 2014 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 17 (1):22-44.
    The primary aim is the reconstruction of the main argument of the second chapter of Anselm’s Proslogion. To be proved is the statement that God, or something than which nothing greater can be thought, exists in reality. I proceed by a piecemeal analysis of every sentence of the Latin original and its subsequent translation into a formal second-order language with choice operator. Reconstructing Anselm’s reasoning demands interpretative input and additions. For example, the formula ‘quod maius est’ has to be (...)
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  29.  16
    Elimination of Imaginaries in Expansions of O-Minimal Structures by Generic Sets.Sergio Fratarcangeli - 2005 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 70 (4):1150 - 1160.
    Let TP be the theory obtained by adding a generic predicate to an o-minimal theory T. We prove that if T admits elimination of imaginaries, then TP also admits elimination of imaginaries.
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  30.  30
    The Ontology of Existence: The Next Paradigm. A Review of the Book "the Idea of the World: A Multi-Disciplinary Argument for the Mental Nature of Reality", by Bernardo Kastrup.O. A. Bazaluk - 2018 - Anthropological Measurements of Philosophical Research 14:180-183.
    In recent decades, attempts to create and argue a new ontology of existence that could provide a robust alternative to the mainstream physicalist metaphysics have been made in science and philosophy. A new book by Bernardo Kastrup, a well-known specialist in the field of philosophy of mind and neuroscience of consciousness, offers the author's conceptually clear and rigorous formulation of the philosophical system. The author proves that appearance and reality in ontology are fundamentally experiential. A universal phenomenal consciousness is the (...)
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  31.  4
    Call-by-Name Reduction and Cut-Elimination in Classical Logic.Kentaro Kikuchi - 2008 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 153 (1-3):38-65.
    We present a version of Herbelin’s image-calculus in the call-by-name setting to study the precise correspondence between normalization and cut-elimination in classical logic. Our translation of λμ-terms into a set of terms in the calculus does not involve any administrative redexes, in particular η-expansion on μ-abstraction. The isomorphism preserves β,μ-reduction, which is simulated by a local-step cut-elimination procedure in the typed case, where the reduction system strictly follows the “ cut=redex” paradigm. We show that the underlying untyped calculus (...)
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  32.  35
    Any Dispute May Be Resolved By Argument But Rational People May Disagree About Anything.Danny Frederick - manuscript
    Two common claims in philosophy are that deep disagreements cannot, in principle, be resolved by argument and that normal disagreements will be resolved by argument. In each claim it is assumed that the parties to the disagreement are rational. I argue that both claims are false. The first fails to take account of refutations. The second fails to recognise the role of conjectures in the dynamics of the growth of knowledge. There is no disagreement such that it is (...)
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  33.  46
    Levels of Argument: A Comparative Study of Plato’s Republic and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, by Dominic Scott.Karen Margrethe Nielsen - 2017 - Mind 126 (501):289-299.
    Levels of Argument: A Comparative Study of Plato’s Republic and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, by ScottDominic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.
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  34.  24
    An Argument for the Existence of God Formulated by Pierre Duhem.Fábio Rodrigo Leite - 2016 - Trans/Form/Ação 39 (4):33-58.
    RESUMO: O objetivo deste artigo é examinar o que entendemos ser uma prova original da existência de Deus na obra de Pierre Duhem. Cremos que a originalidade dessa prova consiste especialmente nas premissas usadas pelo filósofo. Quanto à forma, a mesma assemelha-se ao conhecido argumento do desígnio, mas a sua versão se caracteriza por buscar na história das teorias físicas a matéria da qual a existência de uma Providência é derivada. É a complexa evolução das teorias e, a despeito dela, (...)
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  35.  17
    By Genes Alone: A Model Selectionist Argument for Genetical Explanations of Cooperation in Non-Human Organisms.Armin W. Schulz - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):951-967.
    I distinguish two versions of kin selection theory—a purely genetic version and a version that also appeals to cultural forms of cooperation —and present an argument in favor of using the former when it comes to accounting for the evolution of cooperation in non-human organisms. Specifically, I first show that both GKST and WKST are equally mathematically coherent—they can both be derived from the Price equation—but not necessarily equally empirically plausible, as they are based on different assumptions about the (...)
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  36.  9
    Literary Forms of Argument in Early China Eds. By Joachim Gentz and Dirk Meyer.Erica F. Brindley - 2018 - Philosophy East and West 68 (3):1-3.
    Literary Forms of Argument in Early China examines the functions of rhetorical markers and devices as well as the patterns and larger modes structuring various styles of early Chinese argumentation. The nine contributors to the volume each present tight analyses of specific compositional or literary aspects of persuasion, hoping to demonstrate how an unabashed focus on the formal elements of philosophical writing might come to the aid of, or even more drastically alter and transform, philosophical interpretation. The volume includes (...)
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  37.  2
    Plato on the Value of Philosophy: The Art of Argument in the Gorgias and Phaedrus by Tushar Irani.Nicholas Rynearson - 2019 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 52 (4):413-418.
    Tushar Irani’s Plato on the Value of Philosophy seeks to put our understanding of Plato’s critique of rhetoric on a new footing by turning our attention to what we might call the social dimension of that critique. Irani reads the Gorgias and Phaedrus as complementary dialogues connected not only by their focus on rhetoric but also by their treatment of love and friendship as integral to Plato’s incipient model of a philosophical art of argument. Irani’s most important contribution is (...)
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  38.  12
    Argument Extension by Lexical Adjunction.D. Wunderlich - 1997 - Journal of Semantics 14 (2):95-142.
    This paper proposes a unified account of the semantic and syntactic properties of certain particle and prefix verbs in German as well as of constructions involving resultative and depictive predicates. I will argue that the secondary predicates, considered to be adjuncts, are lexically integrated into the verb by an operation called Argument Extension(ARG), a general option of the modification rule which states that the head accommodates to the adjunct, in contrast to the traditional view, according to which the adjunct (...)
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  39.  14
    Toward a Science of Other Minds: Escaping the Argument by Analogy.Daniel J. Povinelli, Jesse M. Bering & Steve Giambrone - 2000 - Cognitive Science 24 (3):509-541.
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  40.  58
    Inferring Other Minds: Failure of the Argument by Analogy.Daniel J. Povinelli & Steve Giambrone - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):167-202.
  41.  2
    Kierkegaard Descends to the Underworld: Some Remarks on the Kierkegaardian Appropriation of an Argument by F. A. Trendelenburg.G. Ferreira - 2013 - Cognitio 14 (2).
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  42.  73
    Einstein's Introduction of Photons: Argument by Analogy or Deduction From the Phenomena?Jon Dorling - 1971 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 22 (1):1-8.
  43.  10
    Inferring Other Minds: Failure of the Argument by Analogy.Daniel J. Povinelli & Steve Giambrone - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):167-201.
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  44.  25
    Kierkegaard Descends to the Underworld: Some Remarks on the Kierkegaardian Appropriation of an Argument by F. A. Trendelenburg.Gabriel Ferreira - 2014 - Cognitio: Revista de Filosofia 14 (2):235-246.
    Em 1845, ainda durante o período de redação da obra que seria o Pós-Escrito Conclusivo Não-Científico às Migalhas Filosóficas – trabalhado sob o título provisório de Problemas Lógicos –, Kierkegaard esboça em seus Papirer (IV A 145) um curioso esquete que se passaria nos Infernos – ou Submundo – envolvendo um diálogo entre Sócrates e Hegel. Neste diálogo acerca do famigerado problema do início da filosofia hegeliana, Kierkegaard descreve Hegel fazendo a leitura da página 198 do segundo volume das Logische (...)
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  45.  44
    Autonomy Platonism and the Indispensability Argument. By Russell Marcus. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2015. Pp. Xii + 247. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):591-594.
  46.  18
    Induction by Enumeration and Induction by Elimination.Jaakko Hintikka, Imre Lakatos, J. R. Lucas, R. Carnap, M. B. Hesse & J. Hintikka - 1975 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (3):448-449.
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  47.  53
    Plato's "Meno": 86E-87A: The Geometrical Illustration of the Argument by Hypothesis.Robert Sternfeld & H. Zyskind - 1977 - Phronesis 22 (3):206 - 211.
  48.  22
    Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing: A Brief Guide to Argument, by Sylvan Barnet, Hugo Bedau, and John O’Hara.Robert C. Robinson - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (4):493-495.
  49.  55
    The Kalam Cosmological Argument. By Wilham Lane Craig.Vernon J. Bourke - 1980 - Modern Schoolman 57 (4):371-371.
  50.  35
    Remarks on Argument by Chisholm.Bruce Aune - 1972 - Philosophical Studies 23 (5):327 - 334.
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