Results for 'CONTRADICTORIES'

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  1.  61
    Contraries and Contradictories: Reasoning in Schelling’s Late Philosophy.John Burbidge - 1984 - The Owl of Minerva 16 (1):55-68.
    In the year 1841, the sixty-six year old philosopher, Schelling, was installed in the chair of philosophy at Berlin. Because he wanted someone with sufficient authority to combat the influence of Hegel, the new king of Prussia supported his appointment. As Crown Prince he had been concerned about the liberal and subversive elements in Hegel’s political philosophy. In power, he chose an associate of Hegel’s youth to lead the attack, a man who had disappeared from the intellectual scene just as (...)
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  2.  1
    Opposites, Contradictories, and Mediation in Kierkegaard's Critique of Hegel.Shannon Nason - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (1):24-36.
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  3.  66
    Contradictories and Contraries.P. T. Geach - 1969 - Analysis 29 (6):187 - 190.
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  4.  57
    Opposites, Contradictories, and Mediation in Kierkegaard's Critique of Hegel.Shannon Nason - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (6):24-36.
    In this paper I argue that Kierkegaard endorses Hegel's theory of mediation, the view that relative opposites are mediated. However, I show that Kierkegaard denies Hegel's thesis that there are all and only relative opposites. I develop two of his arguments against this thesis. The first is existential. This argument comes from the dramatic interplay between A, the often disagreeable aesthete of Either/Or I, and Judge William, the dutiful ethicist of Either/Or II. Judge William convincingly argues that the possibility of (...)
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  5.  27
    Contradictories and Entailment.U. T. Place & J. J. C. Smart - 1954 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (4):541-544.
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  6.  25
    Contradictories and Strict Implication.J. M. Shorter - 1956 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (1):122-124.
  7.  21
    The Cancellation of Symmetrical Contraries and the Principle of Significant Contradictories.James H. Moor - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (4):550-559.
  8. Contradictories and contraries.P. T. Geach - 1969 - Analysis 29 (6):187.
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  9. Parmenides' Modal Fallacy.Frank Lewis - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):1-8.
    In his great poem, Parmenides uses an argument by elimination to select the correct "way of inquiry" from a pool of two, the ways of is and of is not , joined later by a third, "mixed" way of is and is not . Parmenides' first two ways are soon given modal upgrades - is becomes cannot not be , and is not becomes necessarily is not (B2, 3-6) - and these are no longer contradictories of one another. And (...)
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  10.  67
    Antonyms and Paradoxes.Alessandra Bertocchi - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (1):113-122.
    Adjectives can be gradable or non-gradable and this aspect of their meaning is responsible for their different distribution and also for their classification into two different classes of antonyms. Non-gradable antonyms are called contradictories: they are neither true nor false together and exclude any middle term; gradable antonyms are called contraries: they are not simultaneously true, but may be simultaneously false. While with contraries a negative disjunction (neque...neque) can define an intermediate level, with contradictories it simply means that (...)
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  11.  93
    Non-Positivism and Encountering a Weakened Necessity of the Separation Between Law and Morality – Reflections on the Debate Between Robert Alexy and Joseph Raz.Wei Feng - 2019 - Archiv Für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie, Beiheft 158:305-334.
    Nearly thirty years ago, Robert Alexy in his book The Concept and Validity of Law as well as in other early articles raised non-positivistic arguments in the Continental European tradition against legal positivism in general, which was assumed to be held by, among others, John Austin, Hans Kelsen and H.L.A. Hart. The core thesis of legal positivism that was being discussed among contemporary German jurists, just as with their Anglo- American counterparts, is the claim that there is no necessary connection (...)
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  12.  43
    A Partial Defense of Permissivism.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2017 - Ratio 30 (1):57-71.
    Permissivism is the view that sometimes an agent's total evidential state entails both that she is epistemically permitted to believe that P and that she is epistemically permitted to believe that Q, where P and Q are contradictories. Uniqueness is the denial of Permissivism. Permissivism has recently come under attack on several fronts. If these attacks are successful, then we may be forced to accept an unwelcome asymmetry between epistemic and practical rationality. In this essay I clarify the debate (...)
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  13. A Partial Defense of Permissivism.Nathaniel Sharadin - 2015 - Ratio 28 (2):57-71.
    Permissivism is the view that sometimes an agent's total evidential state entails both that she is epistemically permitted to believe that P and that she is epistemically permitted to believe that Q, where P and Q are contradictories. Uniqueness is the denial of Permissivism. Permissivism has recently come under attack on several fronts. If these attacks are successful, then we may be forced to accept an unwelcome asymmetry between epistemic and practical rationality. In this essay I clarify the debate (...)
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  14. The Problem of Future Contingents: Scoping Out a Solution.Patrick Todd - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    Various philosophers have long since been attracted to the doctrine that future contingent propositions systematically fail to be true - what is sometimes called the doctrine of the open future. However, open futurists have always struggled to articulate how their view interacts with standard principles of classical logic - most notably, with the Law of Excluded Middle (LEM). For consider the following two claims: (a) Trump will be impeached tomorrow; (b) Trump will not be impeached tomorrow. According to the kind (...)
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  15.  4
    Swyneshed, Aristotle and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - 2020 - Logica Universalis 14 (1):27-50.
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles, dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries from his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict what Whitaker, in his iconoclastic reading of Aristotle’s De Interpretatione, dubbed “The Rule of Contradictory Pairs”, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Whitaker argued that, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  16.  21
    Using Syllogistics to Teach Metalogic.Lorenz6 Demey - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (4):575-590.
    This article describes a specific pedagogical context for an advanced logic course and presents a strategy that might facilitate students’ transition from the object-theoretical to the metatheoretical perspective on logic. The pedagogical context consists of philosophy students who in general have had little training in logic, except for a thorough introduction to syllogistics. The teaching strategy tries to exploit this knowledge of syllogistics, by emphasizing the analogies between ideas from metalogic and ideas from syllogistics, such as existential import, the distinction (...)
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  17. Positive Duties, Maxim Realism and the Deliberative Field.Samuel Kahn - 2017 - Philosophical Inquiry 41 (4):2-34.
    My goal in this paper is to show that it is not the case that positive duties can be derived from Kant’s so-called universalizability tests. I begin by explaining in detail what I mean by this and distinguishing it from a few things that I am not doing in this paper. After that, I confront the idea of a maxim contradictory, a concept that is advanced by many com- mentators in the attempt to derive positive duties from the universalizability tests. (...)
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  18.  35
    ‘Everything True Will Be False’: Paul of Venice’s Two Solutions to the Insolubles.Stephen Read - manuscript
    In his Quadratura, Paul of Venice considers a sophism involving time and tense which appears to show that there is a valid inference which is also invalid. His argument runs as follows: consider this inference concerning some proposition A: A will signify only that everything true will be false, so A will be false. Call this inference B. Then B is valid because the opposite of its conclusion is incompatible with its premise. In accordance with the standard doctrine of ampliation, (...)
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  19. Quasi-Miracles, Typicality, and Counterfactuals.Dylan Dodd - 2011 - Synthese 179 (3):351 - 360.
    If one flips an unbiased coin a million times, there are 2 1,000,000 series of possible heads/tails sequences, any one of which might be the sequence that obtains, and each of which is equally likely to obtain. So it seems (1) 'If I had tossed a fair coin one million times, it might have landed heads every time' is true. But as several authors have pointed out, (2) 'If I had tossed a fair coin a million times, it wouldn't have (...)
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  20.  83
    Why Does Aristotle Defend the Principle of Non‐Contradiction Against its Contrary?Daniel Coren - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (1):39-59.
    In his Metaphysics Γ.4, Aristotle defends the principle of non-contradiction (PNC). The PNC says that all contradictions are false. So if some contradictions are true, then PNC is false. Even if PNC’s contrary is false, PNC’s contradictory might still be true. But it’s been noted in the literature for over a century that Aristotle seems to be exclusively interested in attacking PNC’s contrary (‘All contradictions are true’) rather than PNC’s contradictory (‘Some contradictions are true’). So his defense of PNC seems (...)
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  21.  16
    Les Arguments de Zénon D’Après le Parménide de Platon.Mathieu Marion - 2014 - Dialogue 53 (3):393-434.
    Après avoir présenté les règles de l’antilogique éléatique, je soutiens que Zénon pratiquait celle-ci et, à partir de l’étude de passages duParménidede Platon, que ses paradoxes sur la divisibilité et le mouvement ne sont pas des réfutations par l’absurde, mais plutôt de simples dérivations d’impossibilités employées pour ridiculiser les adversaires de Parménide. Zénon ne cherchait donc pas à prouver l’inexistence du mouvement, mais simplement à l’inférer des prémisses de ses adversaires. Je montre en outre que ces paradoxes sont conçus, conformément (...)
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  22. Stoic Trichotomies.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 51:207-230.
    Chrysippus often talks as if there is a third option when we might expect that two options in response to a question are exhaustive. Things are true, false or neither; equal, unequal, or neither; the same, different, or neither.. and so on. There seems to be a general pattern here that calls for a general explanation. This paper offers a general explanation of this pattern, preserving Stoic commitments to excluded middle and bivalence, arguing that Chrysippus employs this trichotomy move when (...)
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  23.  67
    Paraconsistent logics!Greg Restall - 1997 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 26 (3):156-163.
    In this note I respond to Hartley Slater's argument 12 to the e ect that there is no such thing as paraconsistent logic. Slater's argument trades on the notion of contradictoriness in the attempt to show that the negation of paraconsistent logics is merely a subcontrary forming operator and not one which forms contradictories. I will show that Slater's argument fails, for two distinct reasons. Firstly, the argument does not consider the position of non-dialethic paraconsistency which rejects the possible (...)
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  24.  74
    Aristotle and Corruptibility: A Discussion of Aristotle "De Caelo" I, Xii. Part II.C. J. F. Williams - 1966 - Religious Studies 1 (2):203.
    ἆρ' ∈ἰ kaì ⋯γ ∈´νητον … πρòς τò ɸθαρτόν, ⋯ϕ' ᾧΘ . Aristotle claims so far to have proved that the eternal is incorruptible and that it is ungenerated. He has still to prove the converse of each of these propositions, namely, that whatever is incorruptible is eternal and that whatever is ungenerated is eternal also. After putting the thesis in question form he gives a further definition of ⋯γ∈´νητος and ἄɸθαρτος in the parenthesis of 282 a 27–30. Unfortunately in (...)
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  25. Comparative Dialectics: Nishida Kitarō's Logic of Place and Western Dialectical Thought.G. S. Axtell - 1991 - Philosophy East and West 41 (2):163-184.
    Philosophical anthropologist Mircea Eliade once said that "the union of opposites" is a basic category of archaic ontology and comparative world religions. In this paper I develop the theory of contrariety or opposition as a prime focus for East/West comparative philosophy. The paper considers especially Nishida Kitaro's later works and the complex phrase "zettai mujuntekijikodbitsu," variously translated by Schinzinger as "absolute contradictory self-identity," "the self-identity of absolute contradictories," or more simply as "oneness" or "unity" of opposites.
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  26.  33
    Inconsistency and Contradiction.John N. Williams - 1981 - Mind 90 (360):600-602.
    Inconsistency and contradiction are important concepts. Unfortunately, they are easily confused. A proposition or belief which is inconsistent is one which is self- contradictory and vice-versa. Moreover two propositions or beliefs which are contradictories are inconsistent with each other. Nonetheless it is a mistake to suppose that inconsistency is the same as contradiction.
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  27.  65
    Iterated Privation and Positive Predication.Bjørn Jespersen, Massimiliano Carrara & Marie Duží - 2017 - Journal of Applied Logic 25:S48-S71.
    The standard rule of single privative modification replaces privative modifiers by Boolean negation. This rule is valid, for sure, but also simplistic. If an individual a instantiates the privatively modified property (MF) then it is true that a instantiates the property of not being an F, but the rule fails to express the fact that the properties (MF) and F have something in common. We replace Boolean negation by property negation, enabling us to operate on contrary rather than contradictory properties. (...)
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  28.  80
    Reid on Favors, Injuries, and the Natural Virtue of Justice.Lewis Powell & Gideon Yaffe - 2015 - In Todd Buras & Rebecca Copenhaver (eds.), Thomas Reid on Mind, Knowledge and Value. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 249-266.
    Reid argues that Hume’s claim that justice is an artificial virtue is inconsistent with the fact that gratitude is a natural sentiment. This chapter shows that Reid’s argument succeeds only given a philosophy of mind and action that Hume rejects. Among other things, Reid assumes that one can conceive of one of a pair of contradictories only if one can conceive of the other—a claim that Hume denies. So, in the case of justice, the disagreement between Hume and Reid (...)
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  29.  49
    Movimento da razão especulativa à razão prática em Kant: contribuições de Wilhelm Windelband para interpretação do método crítico: Série 2 / Movements from speculative reason to practical reason in Kant’s system: Contributions from Wilhelm Windelband to the critical method.Luis Roselino - 2008 - Kant E-Prints 3:67-87.
    This article intend to elucidate how Wilhelm Windelband employed the Kantian critic method without devoid its typical features, going through this, what is fundamental for the approach from speculative reason to practical reason would be identified. We understand that practical reason, as a theoretical interest, is prefigured on the first critic, and that the Kantian system suffers mutations until his second critic formulation. Windelband’s critical view, can offer the tips of how to interpreter Kant’s passage from speculative to practical reason, (...)
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  30.  11
    Internal Negation and the Principles of Non-Contradiction and of Excluded Middle in Aristotle.Christopher Izgin - 2019 - History and Philosophy of Logic 41 (1):1-15.
    It has long been recognized that negation in Aristotle’s term logic differs syntactically from negation in classical logic: modern external negation attaches to propositions fully formed, whereas Aristotelian internal negation forms propositions from sentential constituents. Still, modern external negation is used to render Aristotelian internal negation, as may be seen in formalizations of Aristotle’s semantic principles of non-contradiction and of excluded middle. These principles govern the distribution of truth values among pairs of contradictory propositions, and Aristotelian contradictories always consist (...)
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  31. Presuppositions, Negation, and Existence.Barbara Abbott - unknown
    Last year (2005) marked the 100th anniversary of the publication of Russell’s classic ‘On denoting’. It should not cast any shadow on that great work to note that the problems it provided solutions to are still the subject of controversy. Two of those problems involved noun phrases (NPs) which fail to denote. Russell’s examples (1a) and (1b) (1) a. The king of France is bald. b. The king of France is not bald. are puzzling because they have the form of (...)
     
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  32. Paraconsistent Logic!Jean-Yves Béziau - 2006 - Sorites 17:17-25.
    We answer Slater's argument according to which paraconsistent logic is a result of a verbal confusion between «contradictories» and «subcontraries». We show that if such notions are understood within classical logic, the argument is invalid, due to the fact that most paraconsistent logics cannot be translated into classical logic. However we prove that if such notions are understood from the point of view of a particular logic, a contradictory forming function in this logic is necessarily a classical negation. In (...)
     
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  33.  56
    The Square of Opposition and the Four Fundamental Choices.Antonino Drago - 2008 - Logica Universalis 2 (1):127-141.
    . Each predicate of the Aristotelian square of opposition includes the word “is”. Through a twofold interpretation of this word the square includes both classical logic and non-classical logic. All theses embodied by the square of opposition are preserved by the new interpretation, except for contradictories, which are substituted by incommensurabilities. Indeed, the new interpretation of the square of opposition concerns the relationships among entire theories, each represented by means of a characteristic predicate. A generalization of the square of (...)
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  34.  8
    The Method of Antinomies: Oakeshott and Others.Stephen Turner - 2018 - Cosmos and Taxis 6 (1-2):54-63.
    Michael Oakeshott employed a device of argument and analysis that appears in a number of other thinkers, where it is given the name “antinomies.” These differ from binary oppositions or contradictories in that the two poles are bound together. In this discussion, the nature of this binding is explored in detail, in large part in relation to Oakeshott’s own usages, such as his discussion of the relation of faith and skepticism, between collective goal-oriented associations and those based on contract, (...)
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  35.  13
    Contradictoriness, Paraconsistent Negation and Non-Intended Models of Classical Logic.Carlos A. Oller - 2016 - In Holger Andreas & Peter Verdee (eds.), Logical Studies of Paraconsistent Reasoning in Science and Mathematics, Trends In Logic. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 103-110.
    It is usually accepted in the literature that negation is a contradictory-forming operator and that two statements are contradictories if and only if it is logically impossible for both to be true and logically impossible for both to be false. These two premises have been used by Hartley Slater [Slater, 1995] to argue that paraconsistent negation is not a “real” negation because a sentence and its paraconsistent negation can be true together. In this paper we claim that a counterpart (...)
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  36.  66
    The Square of Opposition and the Paradoxes.Teresa Marques - 2008 - Logica Universalis 2 (1):87-105.
    Can an appeal to the difference between contrary and contradictory statements, generated by a non-uniform behaviour of negation, deal adequately with paradoxical cases like the sorites or the liar? This paper offers a negative answer to the question. This is done by considering alternative ways of trying to construe and justify in a useful way (in this context) the distinction between contraries and contradictories by appealing to the behaviour of negation only. There are mainly two ways to try to (...)
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  37.  47
    Relativism Vs. Pluralism and Objectivism.Joseph Margolis - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:95-106.
    Relativism may take a coherent and self-consistent form, by replacing a bivalent logic with a many-valued logic; “incongruent” propositions may then be valid, that is, propositions that on a bivalent model but not now would be or would yield contradictories. I reject “relationalism,” any relativism in accord with which “true” means “true-for-x” (in accord with the usual reading of Plato’s Theaetetus). I show how epistemic pluralism is an analogue of the “is”/“appears” distinction and presupposes a form of objectivism, however (...)
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  38.  41
    The Resolution of the Clock Paradox.Geoffrey Builder - 1959 - Philosophy of Science 26 (2):135-144.
    Two ideal standard clocks, effectively isolated from interaction with other physical systems, and in a region of the universe free of gravitational fields, are assumed to move in any arbitrary manner so that they coincide on at least two occasions. In general, the reading of one of them will become retarded relative to the other in the interval between successive coincidences. This relative retardation is predicted by the restricted theory of relativity, taken together with the assumption that the 'rate' of (...)
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  39.  24
    Translation, Analysis and Ontology.R. J. Haack - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (2):298 - 317.
    We shall be concerned to show that the argument is unsound; that is, even if the premises were true, and we shall argue that they are not, the conclusions of the various forms of the argument do not follow from them. In particular, we wish to deny that the activity of translation commits us to accepting abstract entities such as propositions. Hence we do not regard the argument as providing support for any of,, and. However, although we accept the (...) of and, and although we reject we do not wish to analyze belief in terms of sentence acceptance. For while the set of sentences to which a person is prepared to assent is evidence of what he believes, it follows from Quine’s indeterminacy thesis that a person’s pattern of belief is underdetermined by this evidence. In fact, the translation argument that we are about to discuss may itself be rejected on the basis of Quine’s indeterminacy thesis, but we are concerned here to challenge the argument by its own standards. (shrink)
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  40.  10
    On Dying1: PHILOSOPHY.C. J. F. Williams - 1969 - Philosophy 44 (169):217-230.
    The first solid bit of argumentation you get in Plato's Phaedo goes something like this: Whatever comes to be, comes to be from its opposite . If at a certain time t a given thing a begins to be F , before that time t it must have been non- F . Wherever a pair of predicates, F and G , are genuine contradictories; where, that is, they stand to each other in the same relation as F stands in (...)
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  41.  12
    Relativism Vs. Pluralism and Objectivism.Joseph Margolis - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Research 21:95-106.
    Relativism may take a coherent and self-consistent form, by replacing a bivalent logic with a many-valued logic; “incongruent” propositions may then be valid, that is, propositions that on a bivalent model but not now would be or would yield contradictories. I reject “relationalism,” any relativism in accord with which “true” means “true-for-x”. I show how epistemic pluralism is an analogue of the “is”/“appears” distinction and presupposes a form of objectivism, however attenuated. By “objectivism” I understand the thesis that what (...)
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  42.  18
    Disrupted Cognition as an Alternative Solution to Heidegger’s Ontotheological Challenge: F. H. Bradley and John Duns Scotus.Cal Ledsham - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74 (4):310-328.
    Heidegger accuses ontotheologies of reducing God to a mere object of intelligibility, and thereby falsifying them, and in doing so distracting attention from or forgetting the ground of Being as unconcealment in the Lichtung. Conventional theistic responses to Heidegger’s ontotheological challenges proceed by offering analogy, speech-act theorising or negative theology as solutions. Yet these conventional solutions, however suitable as responses to Heidegger’s Die ontotheologische Verfassung der Metaphysik version of the ontotheological problem, still fall foul of Heidegger’s more profound characterisation of (...)
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  43.  9
    Quasi-Aristotelians and Proto-Scotists.William O. Duba - 2017 - Vivarium 55 (1-3):60-84.
    In a seminal article, Simo Knuuttila and Anja Inkeri Lehtinen drew attention to a “curious doctrine” holding that contradictories can be true at the same temporal instant, and identified the major defenders of the doctrine as John Baconthorpe, Landolfo Caracciolo, and Hugh of Novocastro. Normann Kretzmann later asserted as fact the suggestion by Knuuttila and Inkeri Lehtinen that the doctrine comes from a misreading of a passage from Aristotle’s Physics. In fact, a study of the relevant texts reveals that (...)
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  44.  9
    The Fourfold Division of Opposition in Questions on Aristotle’s “Categories” by Benedict Hesse, Paul of Pyskowice and in the Oldest Cracow Commentary on the Categories Preserved in Cod. Bj 1941.Monika Mansfeld - 2016 - Studia Neoaristotelica 13 (2):101-120.
    In the first half of the 15ᵗʰ century there was a coherent philosophical system of teaching at the Jagiellonian university, so-called ars vetus, concerning the interpretation of three treatises: Aristotle’s Categories and Hermeneutics and Porphyry’s Isagoge. The question-commentaries on the Categories that have been preserved in several manuscripts show astonishing similarity in solving individual problems – there are three copies of Benedict Hesse’s commentary and one copy of Paul of Pyskowice’s work, moreover, in BJ 1941 there is an anonymous commentary (...)
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  45. Observaciones Sobre El Así Llamado Silogismo Práctico.Niels Öffenberger & Rózsa Bertók - 1999 - Anuario Filosófico 32 (63):149-156.
    This paper provides, from a systematic point of view, some remarks about the identity and difference of theoretical and practical syllogism. While stressing the structural analogy of bolh forms of inference, it draws attention to important differences, such as the possibility of deriving contradictories conclusions from a single set of premises in practical syllogism.
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  46. O obliczach sprzeczności.Krystyna Misiuna - 2010 - Filozofia Nauki 18 (3).
    The concept of inconsistency has become recently the subject of many studies focused on the principle ex contradictione sequitur quodlibet which is a hallmark of the classical inconsistency. Stanisław Jaśkowski was the first who took a non-classical standpoint toward this principle building a system of propositional logic which rejects this classical principle. Rejecting it implies important consequences for the concept of classical negation, and poses the question in which properties the op-eration of negation should be endowed. The intention of this (...)
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