Results for ' Classification'

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  1. Potato Classification Using Deep Learning.Abeer A. Elsharif, Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (12):1-8.
    Abstract: Potatoes are edible tubers, available worldwide and all year long. They are relatively cheap to grow, rich in nutrients, and they can make a delicious treat. The humble potato has fallen in popularity in recent years, due to the interest in low-carb foods. However, the fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals it provides can help ward off disease and benefit human health. They are an important staple food in many countries around the world. There are an estimated 200 varieties of (...)
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  2. Lemon Classification Using Deep Learning.Jawad Yousif AlZamily & Samy Salim Abu Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (12):16-20.
    Abstract : Background: Vegetable agriculture is very important to human continued existence and remains a key driver of many economies worldwide, especially in underdeveloped and developing economies. Objectives: There is an increasing demand for food and cash crops, due to the increasing in world population and the challenges enforced by climate modifications, there is an urgent need to increase plant production while reducing costs. Methods: In this paper, Lemon classification approach is presented with a dataset that contains approximately 2,000 (...)
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  3. Glass Classification Using Artificial Neural Network.Mohmmad Jamal El-Khatib, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (23):25-31.
    As a type of evidence glass can be very useful contact trace material in a wide range of offences including burglaries and robberies, hit-and-run accidents, murders, assaults, ram-raids, criminal damage and thefts of and from motor vehicles. All of that offer the potential for glass fragments to be transferred from anything made of glass which breaks, to whoever or whatever was responsible. Variation in manufacture of glass allows considerable discrimination even with tiny fragments. In this study, we worked glass (...) and testing of artificial neural network model created by the JustNN. The aim of the study is help investigator in identifying the type of glass found in arena of the crime. The Neural Network model was trained and validated using the type of glass dataset. The accuracy of model in predicting the type of glass reached 96.7%. Thus neural network is suitable for predicating type of glasses. (shrink)
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  4.  36
    Biocognitive classification of antisocial individuals without explanatory reductionism.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2020 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 15 (4):957-972.
    Effective and specifically targeted social and therapeutic responses for antisocial personality disorders and psychopathy are scarce. Some authors maintain that this scarcity should be overcome by revising current syndrome - based classifications of these conditions and devising better biocognitive classifications of antisocial individuals. The inspiration for the latter classifications has been embedded in the Research domain criteria approach (RDoC). RDoC - type approaches to psychiatric research aim at transforming diagnosis, provide valid measures of disorders, aid clinical practice, and improve health (...)
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  5. Classification, Kinds, Taxonomic Stability, and Conceptual Change.Jaipreet Mattu & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - forthcoming - Aggression and Violent Behavior.
    Scientists represent their world, grouping and organizing phenomena into classes by means of concepts. Philosophers of science have historically been interested in the nature of these concepts, the criteria that inform their application and the nature of the kinds that the concepts individuate. They also have sought to understand whether and how different systems of classification are related and more recently, how investigative practices shape conceptual development and change. Our aim in this paper is to provide a critical overview (...)
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  6. Causal classification of diseases.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes.
    „Errors are the greatest obstacles to the progress of science; to correct such errors is of more practical value than to achieve new knowledge,“ asserted Eugen Bleuler. Basic error of several prevailing classification schemes of pathological conditions, as for example ICD-10, lies in confusing and mixing symptoms with diseases, what makes them unscientific. Considering the need to bring order into the chaos and light into terminological obscureness, I introduce the Causal classification of diseases originating from the notion of (...)
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  7.  12
    Diagrammatic classifications of birds, 1819–1901: views of the natural system in 19th-century British ornithology.Robert J. O'Hara - 1988 - Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: pp. 2746–2759.
    Classifications of animals and plants have long been represented by hierarchical lists of taxa, but occasional authors have drawn diagrammatic versions of their classifications in an attempt to better depict the "natural relationships" of their organisms. Ornithologists in 19th-century Britain produced and pioneered many types of classificatory diagrams, and these fall into three groups: (a) the quinarian systems of Vigors and Swainson (1820s and 1830s); (b) the "maps" of Strickland and Wallace (1840s and 1850s); and (c) the evolutionary diagrams of (...)
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  8. The Classification of Sciences in Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy.Harry Austryn Wolfson - 2022 - Hebrew Union College.
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  9. The classification of emotion and scientific realism.Peter Zachar - 2006 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):120-138.
    The scientific study of emotion has been characterized by classification schemes that propose to 'carve nature at the joints.' This article examines several of these classifications, drawn from both the categorical and dimensional perspectives. Each classification is given credit for what it contributes to our understanding, but the dream of a single, all purpose taxonomy of emotional phenomena is called into question. Such hopes are often associated with the carving at the joints metaphor, which is here argued to (...)
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  10. Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences.Matt L. Drabek - 2010 - Poroi 6 (2):62-80.
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  11.  10
    The Classification of the Sciences: To Which Are Added Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comte.Herbert Spencer - 2018 - Franklin Classics Trade Press.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be (...)
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  12. Racial Classification Without Race: Edwards’ Fallacy.Adam Hochman - 2022 - In Ludovica Lorusso & Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (eds.), Remapping Race in a Global Context. London: Routledge. pp. 74–91.
    A. W. F. Edwards famously named “Lewontin’s fallacy” after Richard Lewontin, the geneticist who showed that most human genetic diversity can be found within any given racialized group. “Lewontin’s fallacy” is the assumption that uncorrelated genetic data would be sufficient to classify genotypes into conventional “racial” groups. In this chapter, I argue that Lewontin does not commit the fallacy named after him, and that it is not a genuine fallacy. Furthermore, I argue that when Edwards assumes that stable classification (...)
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  13.  9
    Primitive Classification.Émile Durkheim & Marcel Mauss - 1963 - Routledge.
    In this influential work, first published in English in 1963, Durkheim and Mauss claim that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the ‘classificatory function’ in society. On the basis of an intensive examination of forms and principles of symbolic classification reported from the Australian aborigines, the Zuñi and traditional China, they try to establish a formal correspondence between social and symbolic classification. From this they argue that the mode of (...) is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society. Dr Needham’s introduction assesses the validity of Durkhiem and Mauss’s argument, traces its continued influence in various disciplines, and indicates its analytical value for future researches in social anthropology. (shrink)
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  14.  10
    Biological Classification: A Philosophical Introduction.Richard A. Richards - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modern biological classification is based on the system developed by Linnaeus, and interpreted by Darwin as representing the tree of life. But despite its widespread acceptance, the evolutionary interpretation has some problems and limitations. This comprehensive book provides a single resource for understanding all the main philosophical issues and controversies about biological classification. It surveys the history of biological classification from Aristotle to contemporary phylogenetics and shows how modern biological classification has developed and changed over time. (...)
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  15. Classification of Global Catastrophic Risks Connected with Artificial Intelligence.Alexey Turchin & David Denkenberger - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):147-163.
    A classification of the global catastrophic risks of AI is presented, along with a comprehensive list of previously identified risks. This classification allows the identification of several new risks. We show that at each level of AI’s intelligence power, separate types of possible catastrophes dominate. Our classification demonstrates that the field of AI risks is diverse, and includes many scenarios beyond the commonly discussed cases of a paperclip maximizer or robot-caused unemployment. Global catastrophic failure could happen at (...)
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  16. Psychiatric classification and diagnosis. Delusions and confabulations.Lisa Bortolotti - 2011 - Paradigmi (1):99-112.
    In psychiatry some disorders of cognition are distinguished from instances of normal cognitive functioning and from other disorders in virtue of their surface features rather than in virtue of the underlying mechanisms responsible for their occurrence. Aetiological considerations often cannot play a significant classificatory and diagnostic role, because there is no sufficient knowledge or consensus about the causal history of many psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it is not always possible to uniquely identify a pathological behaviour as the symptom of a certain (...)
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  17.  74
    A classification scheme for codes of business ethics.Bruce R. Gaumnitz & John C. Lere - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (4):329-335.
    A great deal of interest in codes of ethics exists in both the business community and the academic community. Within the academic community, this interest has given rise to a number of studies of codes of ethics. Many of these studies have focused on the content of various codes.One important way the study of codes of ethics can be advanced is by applying formal tools of analysis to codes of ethics. An understanding of important dimensions that may differ across codes (...)
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  18.  50
    How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman Among the Social Sciences.Nelson Goodman, Mary Douglas & David L. Hull (eds.) - 1992 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    How Classification Works attempts to bridge the gap between philosophy and the social sciences using as a focus some of the work of Nelson Goodman. Throughout his long career Goodman has addressed the question: are some ways of conceptualizing more natural than others? This book looks at the rightness of categories, assessing Goodman's role in modern philosophy and explaining some of his ideas on the relation between aesthetics and cognitive theory. Two papers by Nelson Goodman are included in the (...)
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  19. Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice.Catherine Kendig (ed.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on natural kinds (...)
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  20. Ethnobiological classification.Brent Berlin - 1978 - In Eleanor Rosch & Barbara Lloyd (eds.), Cognition and Categorization. Lawrence Elbaum Associates. pp. 9--26.
     
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  21. Classification of the Sciences in Medieval Thought.James A. Weisheipl - 1965 - Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
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  22. Defeasible Classifications and Inferences from Definitions.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (1):34-61.
    We contend that it is possible to argue reasonably for and against arguments from classifications and definitions, provided they are seen as defeasible (subject to exceptions and critical questioning). Arguments from classification of the most common sorts are shown to be based on defeasible reasoning of various kinds represented by patterns of logical reasoning called defeasible argumentation schemes. We show how such schemes can be identified with heuristics, or short-cut solutions to a problem. We examine a variety of arguments (...)
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  23.  50
    Classifications.Ludger Jansen - 2008 - Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
    It has long been a standard practice for the natural sciences to classify things. Thus, it is no wonder that, for two and a half millennia, philosophers have been reflecting on classifications, from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary philosophy of science. Some of the results of these reflections will be presented in this chapter. I will start by discussing a parody of a classification, namely: the purportedly ancient Chinese classification of animals described by Jorge Luis Borges. I will (...)
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  24.  16
    Classification.Roy Boyne - 2006 - Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3):21-30.
    First thoughts about classification inevitably turn to the simultaneously mundane and extraordinary ambition to capture the universe of all that there is and has been. This dream of the universal has two basic modes (and so the process begins!). First, I will follow the spirit of theos and logos as represented by the Platonic embrace of totality enshrined in Socrates’ scrupulous rejection of rhetorical dishonesty. Second, I will address the later part of the march to subjectivity as expressed by (...)
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  25.  1
    Nouvelle classification des sciences: étude philosophique.Adrien Naville - 1991 - Klincksieck.
    Previously published: Paris: Ancienne librairie Germer Bailliaere, 1901.
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  26.  25
    Perspectives on Classification in Synthetic Sciences: Unnatural Kinds.Julia Bursten - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    This volume launches a new series of contemporary conversations about scientific classification. Most philosophical conversations about kinds have focused centrally or solely on natural kinds, that is, kinds whose existence is not dependent on the scientific process of synthesis. This volume refocuses conversations about classification on unnatural, or synthetic, kinds via extensive study of three paradigm cases of unnatural kinds: nanomaterials, stem cells, and synthetic biology.
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  27.  10
    Primitive Classification.Emile Durkheim & Marcel Mauss - 1963 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 19 (3):449-449.
    In this influential work, first published in English in 1963, Durkheim and Mauss claim that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the ‘classificatory function’ in society. On the basis of an intensive examination of forms and principles of symbolic classification reported from the Australian aborigines, the Zuñi and traditional China, they try to establish a formal correspondence between social and symbolic classification. From this they argue that the mode of (...) is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society. Dr Needham’s introduction assesses the validity of Durkhiem and Mauss’s argument, traces its continued influence in various disciplines, and indicates its analytical value for future researches in social anthropology. (shrink)
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  28.  28
    Enzyme classification and the entanglement of values and epistemic standards.Stijn Conix - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:37-45.
    This paper investigates the case of enzyme classification to evaluate different ideals for regulating values in science. I show that epistemic and non-epistemic considerations are inevitably and untraceably entangled in enzyme classification, and argue that this has significant implications for the two main kinds of views on values in science, namely, Epistemic Priority Views and Joint Satisfaction Views. More precisely, I argue that the case of enzyme classification poses a problem for the usability and descriptive accuracy of (...)
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  29. The classification of religions.Duren J. H. Ward - 1909 - Chicago,: The Open court publishing company [etc., etc.].
     
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  30.  18
    Biological Classification: Toward a Synthesis of Opposing Methodologies.Ernst Mayr - 1994 - In E. Sober (ed.), Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books. pp. 510--277.
  31. Availability classification for applications in construction production system: A review.Milan Mirkovic - 2019 - Facta Universitatis, Series: Linguistics and Literature 17 (1):1-17.
    The aim of the paper is to improve availability classifications of components for application in construction systems. Construction production systems belong to project-based systems with serial-parallel structures with or without redundant components, and the availability function has a significant impact on the performance indicators of components and systems. The main indicators of function of the components are the availability, capacity, costs, and project time. A new approach to classification makes it possible to choose the most appropriate methodology for assessing (...)
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  32. Disagreement & classification in comparative cognitive science.Alexandria Boyle - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Comparative cognitive science often involves asking questions like ‘Do nonhumans have C?’ where C is a capacity we take humans to have. These questions frequently generate unproductive disagreements, in which one party affirms and the other denies that nonhumans have the relevant capacity on the basis of the same evidence. I argue that these questions can be productively understood as questions about natural kinds: do nonhuman capacities fall into the same natural kinds as our own? Understanding such questions in this (...)
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  33. Phenomenological Psychopathology and Psychiatric Classification.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - 2019 - In Giovanni Stanghellini, Matthew Broome, Anthony Vincent Fernandez, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrea Raballo & René Rosfort (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology. Oxford, UK: pp. 1016-1030.
    In this chapter, I provide an overview of phenomenological approaches to psychiatric classification. My aim is to encourage and facilitate philosophical debate over the best ways to classify psychiatric disorders. First, I articulate phenomenological critiques of the dominant approach to classification and diagnosis—i.e., the operational approach employed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Second, I describe the type or typification approach to psychiatric classification, which I (...)
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  34.  15
    Classification and causal mechanisms: a deflationary approach to the classification problem.Derek Bolton - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press. pp. 6-11.
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  35.  24
    Classification objects, ideal observers & generative models.Cheryl Olman & Daniel Kersten - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (2):227-239.
    A successful vision system must solve the problem of deriving geometrical information about three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional photometric input. The human visual system solves this problem with remarkable efficiency, and one challenge in vision research is to understand howneural representations of objects are formed and what visual information is used to form these representations. Ideal observer analysis has demonstrated the advantages of studying vision from the perspective of explicit generative models and a specified visual task, which divides the causes of (...)
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  36. The Classification, Definition, and Ontology of Delusion.José Eduardo Porcher - 2016 - Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatología Fundamental 19 (1):167-181.
    Although delusion is one of the central concepts of psychopathology, it stills eludes precise conceptualization. In this paper, I present certain basic issues concerning the classification and definition of delusion, as well as its ontological status. By examining these issues, I aim to shed light on the ambiguity of the clinical term ‘delusion’ and its extension, as well as provide clues as to why philosophers are increasingly joining the ranks of psychiatrists, psychologists, and neuroscientists in the effort to come (...)
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  37. Classification of Fallacies of Relevance.Douglas Walton - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
    Fallacies of relevance, a major category of informal fallacies, include two that could be called pure fallacies of relevance-the wrong conclusion fallacy and the red herring digression, diversion) fallacy. The problem is how to classify examples of these fallacies so that they clearly fall into the one category or the other, on some rational system of classification. In this paper, the argument diagramming software system, Araucaria. is used to analyze the argumentation in some selected textbook examples of pure fallacies (...)
     
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  38.  2
    Classification des sciences.Herbert Spencer - 1901 - Paris: F. Alcan. Edited by François Réthoré.
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  39. A classification system for argumentation schemes.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - Argument and Computation 6 (3):219-245.
    This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely useful defeasible argumentation schemes are surveyed and explained systematically, including some that are difficult to classify. A new classification system covering these centrally important schemes is built.
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  40. A classification system for argumentation schemes.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2015 - Argument and Computation 6 (3):219-245.
    This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely useful defeasible argumentation schemes are surveyed and explained systematically, including some that are difficult to classify. A new classification system covering these centrally important schemes is built.
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  41.  8
    The classification of psychiatric disorders according to DSM-5 deserves an internationally standardized psychological test battery on symptom level.Dalena Van Heugten - Van Der Kloet & Ton van Heugten - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:153486.
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  42. The classifications of living beings.Peter Heuer & Boris Hennig - 2008 - In Applied Ontology. pp. 197--217.
    This chapter proceeds in five steps. First, we will describe and justify the structure of the traditional system of species classification. Second, we will discuss three formal principles governing the development of taxonomies in general. It will emerge that, in addition to these formal principles, a division of living beings must meet certain empirical constraints. In the third section, we will show that the traditional division of living beings into species best meets these constraints. Fourth, we will argue that (...)
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  43.  27
    Faceted Classification and Logical Division in Information Retrieval.Jack Mills - unknown
    The main object of the paper is to demonstrate in detail the role of classification in information retrieval (IR) and the design of classificatory structures by the application of logical division to all forms of the content of records, subject and imaginative. The natural product of such division is a faceted classification. The latter is seen not as a particular kind of library classification but the only viable form enabling the locating and relating of information to be (...)
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  44.  71
    Classification from a computable viewpoint.Wesley Calvert & Julia F. Knight - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (2):191-218.
    Classification is an important goal in many branches of mathematics. The idea is to describe the members of some class of mathematical objects, up to isomorphism or other important equivalence, in terms of relatively simple invariants. Where this is impossible, it is useful to have concrete results saying so. In model theory and descriptive set theory, there is a large body of work showing that certain classes of mathematical structures admit classification while others do not. In the present (...)
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  45.  1
    Nouvelle classification des sciences.Adrien Naville - 1901 - Paris,: F. Alcan.
    Previously published: Paris: Ancienne librairie Germer Bailliaere, 1901.
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  46. La classification des animaux chez Aristote. Statut de la Biologie et unité de l'aristotélisme.Pierre Pellegrin - 1982 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 91 (3):428-430.
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  47. Information Classification on University Websites: A Two-Country Card Sort Study.Torkil Clemmensen and Morten Hertzum Ather Nawaz - 2013 - Iris 34.
     
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  48. Classification of All Parabolic Subgroup Schemes of a Reductive Linear Algebraic Group over an Algebraically Closed Field.Christian Wenzel - 1993 - Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 337 (1):211-218.
     
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  49. Classification. Class B, part I, B-BJ: Philosophy.Edwin Wiley & Charles Martel (eds.) - 1910 - Washington,: Govt. print. off..
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  50.  2
    Classification, Disease, and Evidence.P. Huneman (ed.) - 2014 - Dordrecht: Springer Science + Business.
    This anthology of essays presents a sample of studies from recent philosophy of medicine addressing issues which attempt to answer very general (interdependent) questions: (a) what is a disease and what is health? (b) How do we (causally) explain diseases? (c) And how do we distinguish diseases, i.e. define classes of diseases and recognize that an instance X of disease belongs to a given class B? (d) How do we assess and choose cure/ therapy?
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