Results for ' Classification'

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  1.  26
    How Classification Works: Nelson Goodman Among the Social Sciences.Nelson Goodman, Mary Douglas & David L. Hull (eds.) - 1992 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    How Classification Works attempts to bridge the gap between philosophy and the social sciences using as a focus some of the work of Nelson Goodman. Throughout his long career Goodman has addressed the question: are some ways of conceptualizing more natural than others? This book looks at the rightness of categories, assessing Goodman's role in modern philosophy and explaining some of his ideas on the relation between aesthetics and cognitive theory. Two papers by Nelson Goodman are included in the (...)
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  2. Classification of Global Catastrophic Risks Connected with Artificial Intelligence.Alexey Turchin & David Denkenberger - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):147-163.
    A classification of the global catastrophic risks of AI is presented, along with a comprehensive list of previously identified risks. This classification allows the identification of several new risks. We show that at each level of AI’s intelligence power, separate types of possible catastrophes dominate. Our classification demonstrates that the field of AI risks is diverse, and includes many scenarios beyond the commonly discussed cases of a paperclip maximizer or robot-caused unemployment. Global catastrophic failure could happen at (...)
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  3. Potato Classification Using Deep Learning.Abeer A. Elsharif, Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (12):1-8.
    Abstract: Potatoes are edible tubers, available worldwide and all year long. They are relatively cheap to grow, rich in nutrients, and they can make a delicious treat. The humble potato has fallen in popularity in recent years, due to the interest in low-carb foods. However, the fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals it provides can help ward off disease and benefit human health. They are an important staple food in many countries around the world. There are an estimated 200 varieties of (...)
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  4. Causal classification of diseases.Andrej Poleev - 2020
    „Errors are the greatest obstacles to the progress of science; to correct such errors is of more practical value than to achieve new knowledge,“ asserted Eugen Bleuler. Basic error of several prevailing classification schemes of pathological conditions, as for example ICD-10, lies in confusing and mixing symptoms with diseases, what makes them unscientific. Considering the need to bring order into the chaos and light into terminological obscureness, I introduce the Causal classification of diseases originating from the notion of (...)
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  5.  20
    Biocognitive classification of antisocial individuals without explanatory reductionism.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti Brazil - 2020 - Perspectives on Psychological Science 15 (4):957-972.
    Effective and specifically targeted social and therapeutic responses for antisocial personality disorders and psychopathy are scarce. Some authors maintain that this scarcity should be overcome by revising current syndrome - based classifications of these conditions and devising better biocognitive classifications of antisocial individuals. The inspiration for the latter classifications has been embedded in the Research domain criteria approach (RDoC). RDoC - type approaches to psychiatric research aim at transforming diagnosis, provide valid measures of disorders, aid clinical practice, and improve health (...)
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  6. Lemon Classification Using Deep Learning.Jawad Yousif AlZamily & Samy Salim Abu Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (12):16-20.
    Abstract : Background: Vegetable agriculture is very important to human continued existence and remains a key driver of many economies worldwide, especially in underdeveloped and developing economies. Objectives: There is an increasing demand for food and cash crops, due to the increasing in world population and the challenges enforced by climate modifications, there is an urgent need to increase plant production while reducing costs. Methods: In this paper, Lemon classification approach is presented with a dataset that contains approximately 2,000 (...)
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  7. Glass Classification Using Artificial Neural Network.Mohmmad Jamal El-Khatib, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (23):25-31.
    As a type of evidence glass can be very useful contact trace material in a wide range of offences including burglaries and robberies, hit-and-run accidents, murders, assaults, ram-raids, criminal damage and thefts of and from motor vehicles. All of that offer the potential for glass fragments to be transferred from anything made of glass which breaks, to whoever or whatever was responsible. Variation in manufacture of glass allows considerable discrimination even with tiny fragments. In this study, we worked glass (...) and testing of artificial neural network model created by the JustNN. The aim of the study is help investigator in identifying the type of glass found in arena of the crime. The Neural Network model was trained and validated using the type of glass dataset. The accuracy of model in predicting the type of glass reached 96.7%. Thus neural network is suitable for predicating type of glasses. (shrink)
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  8.  69
    A classification scheme for codes of business ethics.Bruce R. Gaumnitz & John C. Lere - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (4):329-335.
    A great deal of interest in codes of ethics exists in both the business community and the academic community. Within the academic community, this interest has given rise to a number of studies of codes of ethics. Many of these studies have focused on the content of various codes.One important way the study of codes of ethics can be advanced is by applying formal tools of analysis to codes of ethics. An understanding of important dimensions that may differ across codes (...)
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  9. Defeasible Classifications and Inferences from Definitions.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (1):34-61.
    We contend that it is possible to argue reasonably for and against arguments from classifications and definitions, provided they are seen as defeasible (subject to exceptions and critical questioning). Arguments from classification of the most common sorts are shown to be based on defeasible reasoning of various kinds represented by patterns of logical reasoning called defeasible argumentation schemes. We show how such schemes can be identified with heuristics, or short-cut solutions to a problem. We examine a variety of arguments (...)
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  10. Classification, Kinds, Taxonomic Stability, and Conceptual Change.Jaipreet Mattu & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - forthcoming - Aggression and Violent Behavior.
    Scientists represent their world, grouping and organizing phenomena into classes by means of concepts. Philosophers of science have historically been interested in the nature of these concepts, the criteria that inform their application and the nature of the kinds that the concepts individuate. They also have sought to understand whether and how different systems of classification are related and more recently, how investigative practices shape conceptual development and change. Our aim in this paper is to provide a critical overview (...)
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  11.  11
    Diagrammatic classifications of birds, 1819–1901: views of the natural system in 19th-century British ornithology.Robert J. O'Hara - 1988 - Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: pp. 2746–2759.
    Classifications of animals and plants have long been represented by hierarchical lists of taxa, but occasional authors have drawn diagrammatic versions of their classifications in an attempt to better depict the "natural relationships" of their organisms. Ornithologists in 19th-century Britain produced and pioneered many types of classificatory diagrams, and these fall into three groups: (a) the quinarian systems of Vigors and Swainson (1820s and 1830s); (b) the "maps" of Strickland and Wallace (1840s and 1850s); and (c) the evolutionary diagrams of (...)
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  12. The classification of emotion and scientific realism.Peter Zachar - 2006 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 26 (1-2):120-138.
    The scientific study of emotion has been characterized by classification schemes that propose to 'carve nature at the joints.' This article examines several of these classifications, drawn from both the categorical and dimensional perspectives. Each classification is given credit for what it contributes to our understanding, but the dream of a single, all purpose taxonomy of emotional phenomena is called into question. Such hopes are often associated with the carving at the joints metaphor, which is here argued to (...)
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  13.  66
    Classification from a computable viewpoint.Wesley Calvert & Julia F. Knight - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (2):191-218.
    Classification is an important goal in many branches of mathematics. The idea is to describe the members of some class of mathematical objects, up to isomorphism or other important equivalence, in terms of relatively simple invariants. Where this is impossible, it is useful to have concrete results saying so. In model theory and descriptive set theory, there is a large body of work showing that certain classes of mathematical structures admit classification while others do not. In the present (...)
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  14.  18
    Enzyme classification and the entanglement of values and epistemic standards.Stijn Conix - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:37-45.
    This paper investigates the case of enzyme classification to evaluate different ideals for regulating values in science. I show that epistemic and non-epistemic considerations are inevitably and untraceably entangled in enzyme classification, and argue that this has significant implications for the two main kinds of views on values in science, namely, Epistemic Priority Views and Joint Satisfaction Views. More precisely, I argue that the case of enzyme classification poses a problem for the usability and descriptive accuracy of (...)
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  15.  3
    Primitive Classification.Emile Durkheim & Marcel Mauss - 1963 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 19 (3):449-449.
    In this influential work, first published in English in 1963, Durkheim and Mauss claim that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the ‘classificatory function’ in society. On the basis of an intensive examination of forms and principles of symbolic classification reported from the Australian aborigines, the Zuñi and traditional China, they try to establish a formal correspondence between social and symbolic classification. From this they argue that the mode of (...) is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society. Dr Needham’s introduction assesses the validity of Durkhiem and Mauss’s argument, traces its continued influence in various disciplines, and indicates its analytical value for future researches in social anthropology. (shrink)
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  16. A classification system for argumentation schemes.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2016 - Argument and Computation 6 (3):219-245.
    This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely useful defeasible argumentation schemes are surveyed and explained systematically, including some that are difficult to classify. A new classification system covering these centrally important schemes is built.
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  17.  82
    A classification system for argumentation schemes.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2015 - Argument and Computation 6 (3):219-245.
    This paper explains the importance of classifying argumentation schemes, and outlines how schemes are being used in current research in artificial intelligence and computational linguistics on argument mining. It provides a survey of the literature on scheme classification. What are so far generally taken to represent a set of the most widely useful defeasible argumentation schemes are surveyed and explained systematically, including some that are difficult to classify. A new classification system covering these centrally important schemes is built.
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  18.  6
    Biological Classification: A Philosophical Introduction.Richard A. Richards - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modern biological classification is based on the system developed by Linnaeus, and interpreted by Darwin as representing the tree of life. But despite its widespread acceptance, the evolutionary interpretation has some problems and limitations. This comprehensive book provides a single resource for understanding all the main philosophical issues and controversies about biological classification. It surveys the history of biological classification from Aristotle to contemporary phylogenetics and shows how modern biological classification has developed and changed over time. (...)
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  19. Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences.Matt L. Drabek - 2010 - Poroi 6 (2):62-80.
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  20. Classification of the sciences in medieval thought.James A. Weisheipl - 1965 - Mediaeval Studies 27 (1):54-90.
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  21.  14
    Multiclass Classification Procedure for Detecting Attacks on MQTT-IoT Protocol.Hector Alaiz-Moreton, Jose Aveleira-Mata, Jorge Ondicol-Garcia, Angel Luis Muñoz-Castañeda, Isaías García & Carmen Benavides - 2019 - Complexity 2019:1-11.
    The large number of sensors and actuators that make up the Internet of Things obliges these systems to use diverse technologies and protocols. This means that IoT networks are more heterogeneous than traditional networks. This gives rise to new challenges in cybersecurity to protect these systems and devices which are characterized by being connected continuously to the Internet. Intrusion detection systems are used to protect IoT systems from the various anomalies and attacks at the network level. Intrusion Detection Systems can (...)
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  22. Heuristic classification.William J. Clancey - 1985 - Artificial Intelligence 27 (3):289-350.
  23. Psychiatric classification and diagnosis. Delusions and confabulations.Lisa Bortolotti - 2011 - Paradigmi (1):99-112.
    In psychiatry some disorders of cognition are distinguished from instances of normal cognitive functioning and from other disorders in virtue of their surface features rather than in virtue of the underlying mechanisms responsible for their occurrence. Aetiological considerations often cannot play a significant classificatory and diagnostic role, because there is no sufficient knowledge or consensus about the causal history of many psychiatric disorders. Moreover, it is not always possible to uniquely identify a pathological behaviour as the symptom of a certain (...)
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  24.  11
    Religion, classification struggles, and the state’s exercise of symbolic power.Sadia Saeed - 2021 - Theory and Society 50 (2):255-281.
    The capacity to classify social groups legally is a central characteristic of modern states. Social groups, however, often resist the classificatory schemas of the state. This raises the following question: how do modern states exercise symbolic power in social fields beset by acute classification struggles? While existing scholarship has demonstrated that states exercise symbolic power, there has not been a concomitant effort to systematize and theorize the various strategies through which they do so. This article addresses this lacuna through (...)
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  25. Ethnobiological classification.Brent Berlin - 1978 - In Eleanor Rosch & Barbara Lloyd (eds.), Cognition and Categorization. Lawrence Elbaum Associates. pp. 9--26.
     
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  26.  39
    Faceted classification: Management and use. [REVIEW]Aida Slavic - 2008 - Axiomathes 18 (2):257-271.
    The paper discusses issues related to the use of faceted classifications in an online environment. The author argues that knowledge organization systems can be fully utilized in information retrieval only if they are exposed and made available for machine processing. The experience with classification automation to date may be used to speed up and ease the conversion of existing faceted schemes or the creation of management tools for new systems. The author suggests that it is possible to agree on (...)
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  27.  39
    A classification of certain group-like FL $$_e$$ e -chains.Sándor Jenei & Franco Montagna - 2015 - Synthese 192 (7):2095-2121.
    Classification of certain group-like FL $_e$ -chains is given: We define absorbent-continuity of FL $_e$ -algebras, along with the notion of subreal chains, and classify absorbent-continuous, group-like FL $_e$ -algebras over subreal chains: The algebra is determined by its negative cone, and the negative cone can only be chosen from a certain subclass of BL-chains, namely, one with components which are either cancellative (that is, those components are negative cones of totally ordered Abelian groups) or two-element MV-algebras, and with (...)
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  28.  39
    Classification procedures as the targets of conceptual engineering.Jennifer Nado - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  29. Classification of the Sciences in Medieval Thought.James A. Weisheipl - 1965 - Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
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  30.  63
    Faceted classification for the web.Brian Vickery - 2008 - Axiomathes 18 (2):145-160.
    The article describes the nature of a faceted classification, and its application in document retrieval. The kinds of facet used are illustrated. Procedures are then discussed for identifying facets in a subject field, populating the facets with individual subject terms, arranging these in helpful sequences, using the scheme to classify documents, and searching the resultant classified index, with particular reference to Internet search.
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  31.  5
    Primitive Classification.Émile Durkheim & Marcel Mauss - 1963 - Routledge.
    In this influential work, first published in English in 1963, Durkheim and Mauss claim that the individual mind is capable of classification and they seek the origin of the ‘classificatory function’ in society. On the basis of an intensive examination of forms and principles of symbolic classification reported from the Australian aborigines, the Zuñi and traditional China, they try to establish a formal correspondence between social and symbolic classification. From this they argue that the mode of (...) is determined by the form of society and that the notions of space, time, hierarchy, number, class and other such cognitive categories are products of society. Dr Needham’s introduction assesses the validity of Durkhiem and Mauss’s argument, traces its continued influence in various disciplines, and indicates its analytical value for future researches in social anthropology. (shrink)
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  32.  41
    Classifications.Ludger Jansen - forthcoming - Applied Ontology: An Introduction.
    It has long been a standard practice for the natural sciences to classify things. Thus, it is no wonder that, for two and a half millennia, philosophers have been reflecting on classifications, from Plato and Aristotle to contemporary philosophy of science. Some of the results of these reflections will be presented in this chapter. I will start by discussing a parody of a classification, namely: the purportedly ancient Chinese classification of animals described by Jorge Luis Borges. I will (...)
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  33.  4
    The Classification of the Sciences: To Which Are Added Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comte.Herbert Spencer - 2018 - Franklin Classics Trade Press.
    This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be (...)
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  34.  26
    Numerical classification of the chemical elements and its relation to the periodic system.P. H. A. Sneath - 2000 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (3):237-263.
    A numerical classification was performed on 69 elements with 54 chemicaland physicochemical properties. The elements fell into clusters in closeaccord with the electron shell s-, p- andd-blocks. The f-block elements were not included forlack of sufficiently complete data. The successive periods ofs- and p-block elements appeared in an ovalconfiguration, with d-block elements lying to one side. Morethan three axes were required to give good representation of thevariation, although the interpretation of the higher axes is difficult.Only 15 properties were scorable (...)
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  35.  72
    Cladistic classification and functional explanation.P. E. Griffiths - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (2):206-227.
    I adopt a cladistic view of species, and explore the possibility that there exists an equally valuable cladistic view of organismic traits. This suggestion seems to run counter to the stress on functional views of biological traits in recent work in philosophy and psychology. I show how the tension between these two views can be defused with a multilevel view of biological explanation. Despite the attractions of this compromise, I conclude that we must reject it, and adopt an essentially cladistic (...)
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  36.  43
    Classifications of degree classes associated with r.e. subspaces.R. G. Downey & J. B. Remmel - 1989 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 42 (2):105-124.
    In this article we show that it is possible to completely classify the degrees of r.e. bases of r.e. vector spaces in terms of weak truth table degrees. The ideas extend to classify the degrees of complements and splittings. Several ramifications of the classification are discussed, together with an analysis of the structure of the degrees of pairs of r.e. summands of r.e. spaces.
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  37.  17
    Functional Classification of the Gut Microbiota: The Key to Cracking the Microbiota Composition Code.Connor E. Rosen & Noah W. Palm - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (12):1700032.
    The last decade has seen an explosion of research on the gut microbiota—the trillions of microorganisms that colonize the human gut. It is now clear that interindividual diversity in microbiota composition plays an important role in determining susceptibility to a wide variety of diseases. However, identifying the precise changes in microbiota composition that play causal roles has remained a largely unrealized goal. Here, we propose that functional classifications of microbes based on their interactions with and effects on the host—particularly the (...)
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  38. Type of Tomato Classification Using Deep Learning.Mahmoud A. Alajrami & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (12):21-25.
    Abstract: Tomatoes are part of the major crops in food security. Tomatoes are plants grown in temperate and hot regions of South American origin from Peru, and then spread to most countries of the world. Tomatoes contain a lot of vitamin C and mineral salts, and are recommended for people with constipation, diabetes and patients with heart and body diseases. Studies and scientific studies have proven the importance of eating tomato juice in reducing the activity of platelets in diabetics, which (...)
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  39. On classification of scientific revolutions.Ladislav Kvasz - 1999 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 30 (2):201-232.
    The question whether Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions could be applied to mathematics caused many interesting problems to arise. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether there are different kinds of scientific revolution, and if so, how many. The basic idea of the paper is to discriminate between the formal and the social aspects of the development of science and to compare them. The paper has four parts. In the first introductory part we discuss some of the questions (...)
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  40. Classification Struggles.[author unknown] - 2019
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  41.  73
    Classification, Disease, and Diagnosis.Annemarie Jutel - 2011 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 54 (2):189-205.
    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. As clinicians classify symptoms and illnesses, they trigger a range of actions and consequences. The assignment of particular disease labels is linked to both therapeutic and social responses. However, the classifications of medicine, natural though they may seem, contain significant social content, and are arrived at via a number of cultural framing devices (Aronowitz 2008). This article will explore the social intent and construction of classification and their embodiment in medical diagnosis.Effective (...)
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  42.  13
    Classification of deceptive behavior according to levels of cognitive complexity.Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2):249-251.
  43.  41
    Natural classification: John S. Wilkins and Malte C. Ebach: The nature of classification: relationships and kinds in the natural sciences. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, x+197pp, $60.00 HB. [REVIEW]Joeri Witteveen - 2014 - Metascience 24 (2):275-278.
    Writing a book about ‘natural classification’ is not a natural thing to do these days. As the authors of The Nature of Classification point out, classification as a stand-alone topic—separated from discussions of hypothesis testing, experimentation and concept formation—was all the rage in mid-nineteenth century philosophy of science, but interest has steadily dwindled ever since. In most twentieth century philosophy of science, classification was treated either as a pre-scientific endeavor, or as a product of theory-driven science. (...)
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  44. Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice.Catherine Kendig (ed.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on natural kinds (...)
  45. Les classifications des sciences mathématiques en Grèce ancienne.Bernard Vitrac - 2005 - Archives de Philosophie 2 (2):269-301.
    Cet article étudie les principales classifications grecques anciennes des sciences mathématiques. Je souligne le rôle joué par Platon dans cette topique.
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  46.  33
    Classification of Trade-offs Encountered in the Practice of Corporate Sustainability.Merriam Haffar & Cory Searcy - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (3):495-522.
    Trade-offs between the conflicting aspects of corporate sustainability have hindered the realization of win–win opportunities that advance both sustainable development and the bottom line. The question today is no longer whether these trade-offs are encountered in the pursuit of CS, but under which circumstances they occur, with which responses, and how best to navigate them. This study conducted a systematic review and content analysis of the trade-off literature published to-date at both conceptual and applied levels. Through this process, a hierarchical (...)
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  47.  33
    The Classification of Visual Art: A Philosophical Myth and its History.Tiffany Sutton - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is an important contribution to the philosophy of art that bridges the disciplines of philosophy and art. It engages with a long-standing debate about what it is that bestows the designation 'art' on an artwork. Tiffany Sutton shows how the history of art should influence the classification of visual art. She considers the various theories that have been put forward to define the nature of the artwork and then offers her own set of classificatory norms. Amongst the (...)
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  48.  17
    Primitive Classification.E. B., Emile Durkheim, Marcel Mauss & Rodney Needham - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (2):278.
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  49. The Classification, Definition, and Ontology of Delusion.José Eduardo Porcher - 2016 - Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatología Fundamental 19 (1):167-181.
    Although delusion is one of the central concepts of psychopathology, it stills eludes precise conceptualization. In this paper, I present certain basic issues concerning the classification and definition of delusion, as well as its ontological status. By examining these issues, I aim to shed light on the ambiguity of the clinical term ‘delusion’ and its extension, as well as provide clues as to why philosophers are increasingly joining the ranks of psychiatrists, psychologists, and neuroscientists in the effort to come (...)
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  50. Nouvelle Classification des Sciences 'Etude Philosophique.Adrien Naville - 1991
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