Results for 'Committee Membership'

995 found
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  1. Opinion of the National Bioethics Committee on the Therapeutic Use of Stem Cells.National Bioethics Committee - forthcoming - Rome: National Bioethics Committee.
     
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  2.  12
    Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO (IBC) on Consent.International Bioethics Committee - 2009 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 14 (1).
  3.  27
    Who Decides? A Look at Ethics Committee Membership.Raymond de Vries & Carl P. Forsberg - 2002 - HEC Forum 14 (3):252-258.
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  4.  4
    Hartford Hospital Ethics Committee: Membership Policy.J. K. Swift - 1989 - Hec Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues 2 (4):263-265.
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  5.  2
    Ethics Committee Membership Selection: A Moral Preference Tool.S. J. Humphreys - 2010 - Research Ethics 6 (2):37-42.
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  6.  11
    The Membership and Function of the Research Ethics Committee.Colin Parker - 2008 - Research Ethics 4 (1):31-33.
  7. The Views of Members of Local Research Ethics Committees, Researchers and Members of the Public Towards the Roles and Functions of LRECs.G. Kent - 1997 - Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):186-190.
    BACKGROUND: It can be argued that the ethical conduct of research involves achieving a balance between the rights and needs of three parties-potential research participants, society, and researchers. Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) have a number of roles and functions in the research enterprise, but there have been some indications that LREC members, researchers and the public can have different views about these responsibilities. Any such differences are potential sources of disagreement and misunderstanding. OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of LREC (...)
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  8.  40
    Composition, Training Needs and Independence of Ethics Review Committees Across Africa: Are the Gate-Keepers Rising to the Emerging Challenges?A. Nyika, W. Kilama, R. Chilengi, G. Tangwa, P. Tindana, P. Ndebele & J. Ikingura - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (3):189-193.
    Background: The high disease burden of Africa, the emergence of new diseases and efforts to address the 10/90 gap have led to an unprecedented increase in health research activities in Africa. Consequently, there is an increase in the volume and complexity of protocols that ethics review committees in Africa have to review. Methods: With a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET) undertook a survey of 31 ethics review committees (ERCs) across sub-Saharan Africa (...)
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  9.  42
    Status of National Research Bioethics Committees in the WHO African Region.Joses Kirigia, Charles Wambebe & Amido Baba-Moussa - 2005 - BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-7.
    Background The Regional Committee for Africa of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 expressed concern that some health-related studies undertaken in the Region were not subjected to any form of ethics review. In 2003, the study reported in this paper was conducted to determine which Member country did not have a national research ethics committee (REC) with a view to guiding the WHO Regional Office in developing practical strategies for supporting those countries. Methods This is a descriptive (...)
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  10.  73
    Performance of Research Ethics Committees in Spain. A Prospective Study of 100 Applications for Clinical Trial Protocols on Medicines.R. Dal-Re, J. Espada & R. Ortega - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (3):268-273.
    OBJECTIVES: To review the characteristics and performance of research ethics committees in Spain in the evaluation of multicentre clinical trial drug protocols. DESIGN: A prospective study of 100 applications. SETTING: Forty-one committees reviewing clinical trial protocols, involving 50 hospitals in 25 cities. MAIN MEASURES: Protocol-related features, characteristics of research ethics committees and evaluation dynamics. RESULTS: The 100 applications involved 15 protocols (of which 12 were multinational) with 12 drugs. Committees met monthly (except one). They had a mean number of 12 (...)
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  11.  12
    The Changing Composition of a Hospital Ethics Committee: A Tertiary Care Center’s Experience. [REVIEW]Andrew Courtwright, Sharon Brackett, Alexandra Cist, M. Cornelia Cremens, Eric L. Krakauer & Ellen M. Robinson - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (1):59-68.
    A growing body of research has demonstrated significant heterogeneity of hospital ethics committee (HEC) size, membership and training requirements, length of appointment, institutional support, clinical and policy roles, and predictors of self identified success. Because these studies have focused on HECs at a single point in time, however, little is known about how the composition of HECs changes over time and what impact these changes have on committee utilization. The current study presents 20 years of data on (...)
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  12.  10
    Resource and Needs of Research Ethics Committees in Africa: Preparations for HIV Vaccine Trials.C. Milford, D. Wassenaar & C. Slack - 2005 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 28 (2):1-9.
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  13.  14
    Composition and Operation of Selected Research Ethics Review Committees in Latin America.R. Rivera & E. Ezcurra - 2000 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 23 (5):9-12.
  14.  25
    Conclusions: Poland 2050.Future Studies Committee - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (1):78-90.
    “Poland 2050” Report is a publication of a distinctive sort. While the idea of producingthis report has a long history, it began to take shape about two years ago. It isbased on the two tenets. The first, raised at numerous conferences held in the past underthe auspices of the “Poland 2000 Plus” Committee, is the conviction that economicgrowth does not transpose automatically into societal advancement. Indeed, the preliminary analysis has indicated that the two processes are,in fact, divergent. While there (...)
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  15.  15
    A Model of Poland in 2050.Future Studies Committee - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (1):32-62.
    “Poland 2050” Report is a publication of a distinctive sort. While the idea of producingthis report has a long history, it began to take shape about two years ago. It isbased on the two tenets. The first, raised at numerous conferences held in the past underthe auspices of the “Poland 2000 Plus” Committee, is the conviction that economicgrowth does not transpose automatically into societal advancement. Indeed, the preliminary analysis has indicated that the two processes are,in fact, divergent. While there (...)
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  16.  9
    Scenarios for Poland’s Development Through 2050.Future Studies Committee - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (1):63-77.
    “Poland 2050” Report is a publication of a distinctive sort. While the idea of producingthis report has a long history, it began to take shape about two years ago. It isbased on the two tenets. The first, raised at numerous conferences held in the past underthe auspices of the “Poland 2000 Plus” Committee, is the conviction that economicgrowth does not transpose automatically into societal advancement. Indeed, the preliminary analysis has indicated that the two processes are,in fact, divergent. While there (...)
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  17.  7
    Poland and the World in the 2050 Perspective.Future Studies Committee - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (1):15-31.
    “Poland 2050” Report is a publication of a distinctive sort. While the idea of producingthis report has a long history, it began to take shape about two years ago. It isbased on the two tenets. The first, raised at numerous conferences held in the past underthe auspices of the “Poland 2000 Plus” Committee, is the conviction that economicgrowth does not transpose automatically into societal advancement. Indeed, the preliminary analysis has indicated that the two processes are,in fact, divergent. While there (...)
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  18.  5
    Introduction.Future Studies Committee - 2012 - Dialogue and Universalism 22 (1):9-14.
    “Poland 2050” Report is a publication of a distinctive sort. While the idea of producingthis report has a long history, it began to take shape about two years ago. It isbased on the two tenets. The first, raised at numerous conferences held in the past underthe auspices of the “Poland 2000 Plus” Committee, is the conviction that economicgrowth does not transpose automatically into societal (or more broadly “civilizational”)advancement. Indeed, the preliminary analysis has indicated that the two processes are,in fact, (...)
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  19. Surrogacy (No. 1).National Bioethics Consultative Committee - forthcoming - Canberra: National Bioethics Consultative Committee.
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  20.  11
    Patient Involvement in Clinical Ethics Services: From Access to Participation and Membership.G. Neitzke - 2009 - Clinical Ethics 4 (3):146-151.
    Ethics consultation is a novel paradigm in European health-care institutions. In this paper, patient involvement in all clinical ethics activities is scrutinized. It is argued that patients should have access to case consultation services via clearly defined access paths. However, the right of both health-care professionals and patients indicates that patients should not always be notified of a consultation. Ethics education, another well-established function of an ethics committee, should equally be available for patients, lay people and hospital staff. Beyond (...)
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  21.  5
    Education of Ethics Committee Members: Experiences From Croatia.A. Borovecki - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (3):138-142.
    Objectives: To study knowledge and attitudes of hospital ethics committee members at the first workshop for ethics committees in Croatia.Design: Before/after cross-sectional study using a self administered questionnaire.Setting: Educational workshop for members of hospital ethics committees, Zagreb, 2003.Main outcome measurements: Knowledge and attitudes of participants before and after the workshop; everyday functioning of hospital ethics committees.Results: The majority of the respondents came from committees with at least five members. The majority of ethics committees were appointed by the governing bodies (...)
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  22.  29
    Determinants of Hospital Ethics Committee Success.Linda S. Scheirton - 1992 - HEC Forum 4 (6):342-359.
    In December 1990, an empirical study assessing hospital ethics committee (HEC) success was completed. Success was measured in terms of the number of interventions undertaken by the committees in four functional areas: education, guidelines development, prospective and retrospective case review. Some commonly quoted success determinants, such as multidisciplinarity, physician chairpersons, and a high institutional status of the chairperson were found not to foster success; the latter two, actually decreased committee success.
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  23.  8
    Виховання "радянської людини" в україні: Кдб проти школярів.Kahanov Yurii - 2017 - Схід 4 (150):57-63.
    Examples of "anti-Soviet" behavior of schoolchildren in Ukraine during the 1960-1970s are analyzed in the article based on the materials of the State Archives Department of the Security Service of Ukraine and interviews conducted by the author. The ambivalence of family and school education as factors of upbringing of "Homo Sovieticus" is characterized. Communist education set an ambitious goal to form a generalized canonical image of the "respectable person". Standing out was not only condemned, but also attracted attention of the (...)
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  24.  8
    Lay Members of New Zealand Research Ethics Committees: Who and What Do They Represent?Helen Gremillion, Martin Tolich & Ralph Bathurst - 2015 - Research Ethics 11 (2):82-97.
    Since the 1988 Cartwright Inquiry, lay members of ethics committees have been tasked with ensuring that ordinary New Zealanders are not forgotten in ethical deliberations. Unlike Institutional Review Boards in North America, where lay members constitute a fraction of ethics committee membership, 50% of most New Zealand ethics committees are comprised of lay members. Lay roles are usually defined in very broad terms, which can vary considerably from committee to committee. This research queries who lay representatives (...)
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  25.  4
    Late Disclosure of Insider Trades: Who Does It and Why?Millicent Chang & Yilin Lim - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (3):519-531.
    We attempt to understand the personal incentives that motivate corporate insiders to engage in unethical behavior such as delayed trade disclosure. Delayed disclosure affects corporate transparency and other shareholders in the firm potentially suffer investment losses because they are unaware of insiders’ activities. Using archival data from the 300 largest Australian firms between 2007 and 2011, the results show that risk factors such as insider age and tenure and wealth effects in the form of insider shareholdings affect the likelihood of (...)
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  26.  24
    Measuring Graded Membership: The Case of Color.Igor Douven, Sylvia Wenmackers, Yasmina Jraissati & Lieven Decock - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (3):686-722.
    This paper considers Kamp and Partee's account of graded membership within a conceptual spaces framework and puts the account to the test in the domain of colors. Three experiments are reported that are meant to determine, on the one hand, the regions in color space where the typical instances of blue and green are located and, on the other hand, the degrees of blueness/greenness of various shades in the blue–green region as judged by human observers. From the locations of (...)
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  27. Evolution of Hospital Clinical Ethics Committees in Canada.A. Gaudine, L. Thorne, S. M. LeFort & M. Lamb - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (3):132-137.
    To investigate the current status of hospital clinical ethics committees (CEC) and how they have evolved in Canada over the past 20 years, this paper presents an overview of the findings from a 2008 survey and compares these findings with two previous Canadian surveys conducted in 1989 and 1984. All Canadian hospitals over 100 beds, of which at least some were acute care, were surveyed to determine the structure of CEC, how they function, the perceived achievements of these committees and (...)
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  28.  32
    Knowledge and Attitude of Ethics Committee (EC) Members on Bioethics and Structure & Function of EC in Bangladesh: A Pilot Study.Shamima Parvin Lasker, Arif Hossain & M. A. Shakoor - 2019 - In Policy Brief. Dhaka: Directorate General of Health Services. pp. 1-8.
    Having scandalous unethical research practices in the mid and late 20th century, study protocols of biomedical research reviewed by the Ethics Committee (EC) has become the accepted international standard. The Declaration of Helsinki uniformly requires that all biomedical research involving human participants, including research on identifiable human material or data, should be approved by the EC. Today, concerns over the quality of the EC functions worldwide. There are research globally in this regard but no data are available from Bangladesh. (...)
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  29.  31
    Corporate Governance Reforms: Redefined Expectations of Audit Committee Responsibilities and Effectiveness.Sandra C. Vera-Muñoz - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (2):115-127.
    Comprehensive regulatory changes brought on by recent corporate governance reforms have broadly redefined and re-emphasized the roles and responsibilities of all the participants in a public company’s financial reporting process. Most notably, these reforms have intensified scrutiny of corporate audit committees, whose role as protectors of investors’ interests now attracts substantially higher visibility and expectations. As a result, audit committees face the formidable challenge of effectively overseeing the company’s financial reporting process in a dramatically changed – and highly charged – (...)
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  30.  33
    Functions and Outcomes of a Clinical Medical Ethics Committee: A Review of 100 Consults. [REVIEW]Jessica Richmond Moeller, Teresa H. Albanese, Kimberly Garchar, Julie M. Aultman, Steven Radwany & Dean Frate - 2012 - HEC Forum 24 (2):99-114.
    Abstract Context: Established in 1997, Summa Health System’s Medical Ethics Committee (EC) serves as an educational, supportive, and consultative resource to patients/families and providers, and serves to analyze, clarify, and ameliorate dilemmas in clinical care. In 2009 the EC conducted its 100th consult. In 2002 a Palliative Care Consult Service (PCCS) was established to provide supportive services for patients/families facing advanced illness; enhance clinical decision-making during crisis; and improve pain/symptom management. How these services affect one another has thus far (...)
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  31.  76
    Bounded Mirroring. Joint Action and Group Membership in Political Theory and Cognitive Neuroscience.Machiel Keestra - 2012 - In Frank Vandervalk (ed.), Thinking About the Body Politic: Essays on Neuroscience and Political Theory. Routledge. pp. 222--249.
    A crucial socio-political challenge for our age is how to rede!ne or extend group membership in such a way that it adequately responds to phenomena related to globalization like the prevalence of migration, the transformation of family and social networks, and changes in the position of the nation state. Two centuries ago Immanuel Kant assumed that international connectedness between humans would inevitably lead to the realization of world citizen rights. Nonetheless, globalization does not just foster cosmopolitanism but simultaneously yields (...)
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  32.  12
    Readiness of Ethics Review Systems for a Changing Public Health Landscape in the WHO African Region.Marion Motari, Martin Okechukwu Ota & Joses Muthuri Kirigia - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundThe increasing emphasis on research, development and innovation for health in providing solutions to the high burden of diseases in the African Region has warranted a proliferation of studies including clinical trials. This changing public health landscape requires that countries develop adequate ethics review capacities to protect and minimize risks to study participants. Therefore, this study assessed the readiness of national ethics committees to respond to challenges posed by a globalized biomedical research system which is constantly challenged by new public (...)
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  33.  22
    Discussing End-of-Life Decisions in a Clinical Ethics Committee: An Interview Study of Norwegian Doctors’ Experience.Marianne K. Bahus & Reidun Førde - 2016 - HEC Forum 28 (3):261-272.
    With disagreement, doubts, or ambiguous grounds in end–of-life decisions, doctors are advised to involve a clinical ethics committee. However, little has been published on doctors’ experiences with discussing an end-of-life decision in a CEC. As part of the quality assurance of this work, we wanted to find out if clinicians have benefited from discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs and why. We will disseminate some Norwegian doctors’ experiences when discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs, based on semi-structured interviews with fifteen Norwegian (...)
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  34.  11
    Extensional and Intensional Collectives and the de Re/ de Dicto Distinction.Antony Galton & Zena Wood - 2016 - Applied Ontology 11 (3):205-226.
    Expressions designating collectives, such as “the committee” or “the ships in the port”, may be interpreted de re or de dicto, depending on context, according as they pick out collectives defined by their members or collectives defined by some criterion for membership. We call these E-collectives and I-collectives respectively, and in this paper we explore in depth the relationship between these two categories. In particular, we identify important respects in which they differ, regarding the nature of the dependence (...)
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  35.  29
    Reassessing the Role of the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee.Merryn Ekberg - 2012 - Journal of Academic Ethics 10 (4):335-352.
    The role of the Research Ethics Committee (REC) in the design, conduct and dissemination of scientific research is still evolving and many important questions remain unanswered. Hence, the aim of this paper is to address some of the uncertainty that exists around the role and responsibilities of RECs and to discuss some of the controversy that exists over the criteria that RECs should follow when evaluating a research proposal. The discussion is organised around five of the major roles currently (...)
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  36.  47
    Enriching Our Views on Clinical Ethics: Results of a Qualitative Study of the Moral Psychology of Healthcare Ethics Committee Members. [REVIEW]Eric Racine - 2008 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):57-67.
    The contribution of healthcare ethics committee (HEC) members to HECs is fundamental. However, little is known about how HEC members view clinical ethics. We report results from a qualitative study of the moral psychology of HEC members. We found that contrary to the existing Kohlberg-based studies, HEC members hold a pragmatic non-expert view of clinical ethics based mainly on respect for persons and a commitment to the patient’s good. In general, HEC members hold deflationary views regarding moral theory. Ethical (...)
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  37.  20
    Group Terms in English: Representing Groups as Atoms.Barker Chris - 1992 - Journal of Semantics 9 (1):69-93.
    What do terms such as the committee, the league, and the group of women denote? Pre-theoretically, group terms have a dual personality. On the one hand, the committee corresponds to an entity as ideosyncratic in its properties as any other object; for instance, two otherwise identical committees can vary with respect to the purpose for which they were formed. Call this aspect the group-as-individual. On the other hand, the identity of a group is at least partially determined by (...)
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  38.  83
    Is Specialization Desirable in Committee Decision Making?Ruth Ben-Yashar, Winston T. H. Koh & Shmuel Nitzan - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (3):341-357.
    Committee decision making is examined in this study focusing on the role assigned to the committee members. In particular, we are concerned about the comparison between committee performance under specialization and non-specialization of the decision makers. Specialization (in the context of project or public policy selection) means that the decision of each committee member is based on a narrow area, which typically results in the acquirement and use of relatively high expertise in that area. When the (...)
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  39. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes From a Fledgling Ethics Committee.David Koepsell, Willem-Paul Brinkman & Sylvia Pont - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (4):1033-1048.
    For the past half-century, issues relating to the ethical conduct of human research have focused largely on the domain of medical, and more recently social–psychological research. The modern regime of applied ethics, emerging as it has from the Nuremberg trials and certain other historical antecedents, applies the key principles of: autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to human beings who enter trials of experimental drugs and devices :168–175, 2001). Institutions such as Institutional Review Boards and Ethics Committees oversee (...)
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  40.  42
    Enrolling the Citizen in Sustainability: Membership Categorization, Morality and Civic Participation.Jennifer Summerville & Barbara Adkins - 2007 - Human Studies 30 (4):429-446.
    This article examines the common-sense and methodical ways in which “the citizen” is produced and enrolled as an active participant in “sustainable” regional planning. Using Membership Categorization Analysis, we explicate how the categorization procedures in the Foreword of a draft regional planning policy interactionally produce the identity of “the citizen” and “civic values and obligations” in relation to geographic place and institutional categories. Furthermore, we show how positioning practices establish a relationship between authors (government) and readers (citizens) where both (...)
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  41.  8
    Europeanization of Turkey and the Long Way to EU Membership.Doina Gavrilov - 2019 - International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 86:1-9.
    Publication date: 21 March 2019 Source: Author: Doina Gavrilov For a few decades, Europe watches Turkey evolution in a matter of politics, policy, policies, human rights and so on. Everything begins in 1959 when Turkey applies to associate membership to the European Economic Community. But unfortunately for Turkey, the accession to the Community was not to accomplish. In time, the European Economic Community became the European Union. The organization pass through the enlargement process multiple times that today it is (...)
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  42.  18
    Ethical Aspects in Tissue Research: Thematic Analysis of Ethical Statements to the Research Ethics Committee.Arja Halkoaho, Anna-Maija Pietilä, Mari Vesalainen & Kirsi Vähäkangas - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):20.
    Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies.
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  43.  49
    Research Ethics in a Business School Context: The Establishment of a Review Committee and the Primary Issues of Concern. [REVIEW]Michelle Cunningham - 2010 - Journal of Academic Ethics 8 (1):43-66.
    This paper describes the establishment of and the issues experienced by the Research Ethics Committee (REC) of a Business School within a University in Ireland. It identifies the issue of voluntarily given informed consent as a key challenge for RECs operating in a Business School context. The paper argues that whilst the typology of ethical issues in business research are similar to the wider social sciences, the fact that much research is carried out in the workplace adds to the (...)
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  44.  24
    Research Ethics Committees: The Ineligibles.Stephen Humphreys - 2015 - Research Ethics 11 (3):142-150.
    Some anomalies in the legislation governing National Research Ethics Service Research Ethics Committee (REC) member categories are discussed. It is suggested that not only may some members be in the wrong category, but that the legislation identifies individuals who are simply ineligible for any form of REC membership.
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  45.  30
    Religious Liberty and the Secular State: The Constitutional Context. [REVIEW]Loyd D. Easton - 1990 - Idealistic Studies 20 (2):180-181.
    This is a timely book in its central theme, appearing as it does in the midst of the bicentennial celebration of the U. S. Constitution and also a time of spirited controversy over the substance of the Constitution in relation to the Supreme Court and the Executive. It is also a philosophical book of more permanent interest in its careful elucidation of meanings as it closely documents supporting grounds and arguments in a clear, pointed style without the preachy rhetoric of (...)
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    An Ethics Consult Team in Geriatric Long-Term Care.Eileen R. Chichin & Ellen Olson - 1995 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 4 (2):178.
    The increasing incidence of ethical dilemmas in long-term care settings, in concert with recommendations from the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, has prompted long-term care institutions to develop mechanisms to address these concerns. Some facilities have chosen to set up an ethics committee, although estimates obtained in the past few years indicate that only between 2 and 27% of institutional long-term care settings have such committees. Ethics committees are responsible (...)
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  47.  18
    The Educational Needs of Ethics Committees.Glenn G. Griener & Janet L. Storch - 1994 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 3 (3):467.
    Hospital ethics committees must be knowledgeable if they are to perform consultations, advise administrators on policy, or offer educational programs. Because the membership of the committee is interdisciplinary, with most drawn from the healthcare professions, the individuals who join cannot be expected to bring knowledge of bioethies with them. Therefore, a new committee must spend time developing expertise before it can appropriately serve the hospital community. Although the need for committee self-education is generally recognized, it is (...)
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  48.  80
    Committee Decisions with Partisans and Side-Transfers.Mehmet Bac & Parimal Kanti Bag - 2002 - Theory and Decision 52 (3):267-286.
    A dichotomous decision-making context in committees is considered where potential partisan members with predetermined votes can generate inefficient decisions and buy neutral votes. The optimal voting rule minimizing the expected costs of inefficient decisions for the case of a three-member committee is analyzed. It is shown that the optimal voting rule can be non-monotonic with respect to side-transfers: in the symmetric case, majority voting is optimal under either zero, mild or full side-transfer possibilities, whereas unanimity voting may be optimal (...)
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  49.  55
    Instability and Convergence Under Simple-Majority Rule: Results From Simulation of Committee Choice in Two-Dimensional Space. [REVIEW]David H. Koehler - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (4):305-332.
    Nondeterministic models of collective choice posit convergence among the outcomes of simple-majority decisions. The object of this research is to estimate the extent of convergence of majority choice under different procedural conditions. The paper reports results from a computer simulation of simple-majority decision making by committees. Simulation experiments generate distributions of majority-adopted proposals in two-dimensional space. These represent nondeterministic outcomes of majority choice by committees. The proposal distributions provide data for a quantitative evaluation of committee-choice procedures in respect to (...)
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  50.  11
    Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees: A Flawed Paradigm or Work in Progress?John P. Gluck & F. Barbara Orlans - 1997 - Ethics and Behavior 7 (4):329 – 336.
    In his challenging article, Steneck (1997) criticized the creation of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) system established by the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act. He saw the IACUC review and approval of biomedical and behavioral research with animals as an unnecessary "reassignment" of duties from existing animal care programs to IACUC committees. He argued that the committees are unable to do the work expected of them for basically three reasons: (a) the membership lacks (...)
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