Results for 'Economic Growth'

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  1.  79
    Cultural Values, Economic Growth and Development.Symphorien Ntibagirirwa - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):297 - 311.
    Neo-liberal economics is built upon the claim that the freedom to pursue one's self-interest and rational choice leads to economic growth and development. Against this background neo-liberal economists and policymakers endeavoured to universalise this claim, and insistently argue that appropriate economic policies produce the same results regardless of cultural values. Accordingly, developing countries are often advised to embrace the neo-liberal economic credo for them to escape from the trap of underdevelopment. However, the economic success of (...)
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  2.  3
    Revisiting the Relationship Between Economic Growth and Inclusive Development.Muk-Yan Wong - 2019 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 8 (1):55-68.
    In Hong Kong, which is one of the highest GDP per capita cities in the world, the problem of poverty, particularly the housing of the poor, has been exacerbated as economic development has progressed. The received neocapitalistic view is that such poverty is an inevitable price for the economic growth which will eventually benefit everyone. In this essay, I criticize such view by examining how non-inclusive economic development in the past created barriers to inclusive economic (...)
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  3.  1
    Nexus Between Gender Inequality in Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan.Arshad Ali & Imtiaz Ahmad - 2019 - Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 58 (2):49-70.
    Pakistan’s women educational attainment has been the lowest in the entire South Asia; with women and girls continuing to suffer discrimination in the field of education. This study is designed to examine the linkage between gender disparity in education and Pakistan economic success, using annual secondary data to date range 1980 to 2019. Also the study checked the variables integration order by using Dickey-Fuller and Philip-Peron tests apart from utilizing the ARDL bound test technique for long-run co-integration relationship while (...)
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  4.  3
    Growth and Well-Being, Economic and Human.Kenneth W. Stikkers - 2017 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 1 (2):54-67.
    The aim of this paper is to trace how a perverted understanding of the human – of human nature, growth, and well-being – came to form the foundation for classical liberal economic thought and to identify some of the negative consequences of this development. My suggestion is that, in response to the social upheaval of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries that would lead to the rise of capitalism and make possible the industrial revolution, moral philosophers applied to (...)
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  5.  12
    Economic Growth and Progress: A Paradigmatic Conflation.John Myburgh Morrison - 2017 - African Journal of Business Ethics 11 (2).
    This paper uses a paradigmatic lens to conceptually explore the global sustainability crisis. To anchor what would otherwise be an abstract thought experiment, the discussion focuses on GDP, economic growth and progress measurement. By reviewing the extensive debate around GDP through a paradigmatic lens, the paper explores why the prevailing growth-centric paradigm is “in crisis”. More importantly, it suggests that the crisis is unlikely be resolved by human agency, unless the requisite convincing forces for a paradigm shift (...)
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  6.  11
    On the Value of Economic Growth.Julie L. Rose - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy and Economics:1470594X1988912.
    Must a society aim indefinitely for continued economic growth? Proponents of economic growth advance three central challenges to the idea that a society, having attained high levels of income and wealth, may justly cease to pursue further economic growth: if environmentally sustainable and the gains fairly distributed, first, continued economic growth could make everyone within a society and globally, and especially the worst off, progressively better off; second, the pursuit of economic (...)
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  7. Startery podlaskiej gospodarki. Analiza gospodarczych obszarów wzrostu i innowacji województwa podlaskiego: sektor produkcji oprogramowania komputerowego (Podlasie economy starters. Analysis of economic growth and innovation areas of Podlaskie: software production sector).Bogusław Plawgo, Anna Grabska, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska, Andrzej Klimczuk, Jacek Kierklo & Justyna Żynel-Etel - 2011 - Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy W Białymstoku.
    More Info: B. Plawgo, A. Grabska, M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, J. Kierklo, J. Żynel-Etel, Startery podlaskiej gospodarki. Analiza gospodarczych obszarów wzrostu i innowacji województwa podlaskiego: sektor produkcji oprogramowania komputerowego (Podlasie economy starters. Analysis of economic growth and innovation areas of Podlaskie: software production sector), Wojewódzki Urząd Pracy w Białymstoku, Białystok 2011. -/- .
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  8. Economic Growth Given Machine Intelligence.Robin Hanson - unknown
    A simple exogenous growth model gives conservative estimates of the economic implications of machine intelligence. Machines complement human labor when they become more productive at the jobs they perform, but machines also substitute for human labor by taking over human jobs. At first, expensive hardware and software does only the few jobs where computers have the strongest advantage over humans. Eventually, computers do most jobs. At first, complementary effects dominate, and human wages rise with computer productivity. But eventually (...)
     
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  9.  3
    Intellectual Property and Industrialization: Legalizing Hope in Economic Growth.Laura Ford - 2017 - Theory and Society 46 (1):57-93.
    This article draws on theoretical resources from economic sociology and sociology of law to intervene in economic debates about the relationship between intellectual property and industrialization. Utilizing historical evidence from the earliest period of American intellectual property law and from a formative company in the New England textile industry, I propose a social process of influence that connects intellectual property law to industrialization. I argue that, consistent with the findings of New Economic Sociology, social relationship structures and (...)
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  10.  30
    When Economic Growth Rhymes with Social Development: The Malaysia Experience. [REVIEW]Rabia Naguib & Joseph Smucker - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (S2):99 - 113.
    This article examines the means by which Malaysian governments have been relatively successful in pursuing both economic development and social equity. These advances have been remarkable, given Malaysia's history of colonial servitude and racial and ethnic tensions. The authors' examination of government economic and social policies notes the importance of strong political leadership that is committed to creating a national identity through consensus building. In pursuing these social objectives, successive governments have also played an active and transparent role (...)
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  11.  5
    Green Republicanism and a ‘Just Transition’ From the Tyranny of Economic Growth.John Barry - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-18.
    The conjoining of civic republicanism and green politics is a new but timely response to understanding and navigating a path through and beyond our turbulent times. A green republican analysis our contemporary condition–climate breakdown, rising inequality, the crisis of representative democracy–sees the structural and ideological imperative of endless economic growth as one root cause. From a green republican perspective economic growth has now passed a threshold where it has become a threat, both to the sustainability/longevity of (...)
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  12. Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies and Long Term Economic Growth.Richard G. Lipsey, Kenneth I. Carlaw & Clifford T. Bekar - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book examines the long term economic growth that has raised the West's material living standards to levels undreamed of by counterparts in any previous time or place. The authors argue this growth has been driven by periodic technological revolutions that have transformed the West's economic, social and political landscape over time and allowed the West to become, until recently, the world's only dominant technological force. A must read for anyone interested in economic growth.
     
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  13.  66
    On the Compatibility of Sustainability and Economic Growth.Vincent Wiegel - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (3):247-265.
    It is generally assumed that sustainable development and economic growth are compatible objectives. Because this assumption has been left unspecified, the debate on sustainability and growth has remained vague and confusing. Attempts at specification not only involve clarification of the interrelation of the two concepts, but also, we argue, require a philosophical approach in which the concepts of sustainability and economic growth are analyzed in the context of our frame of reference. We suggest that if (...)
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  14.  59
    Financial Stability, Economic Growth, and the Role of Law.Douglas W. Arner - unknown
    Financial crises have become an all-too-common occurrence over the past twenty years, largely as a result of changes in finance brought about by increasing internationalization and integration. As domestic financial systems and economies become more interlinked, weaknesses can significantly impact not only individual economies but also markets, financial intermediaries and economies around the world. This volume addresses the twin objectives of financial development in the context of financial stability and the role of law in supporting both. Financial stability (frequently seen (...)
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  15. Theorists of Economic Growth From David Hume to the Present: With a Perspective on the Next Century.W. W. Rostow - 1992 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This history of theories and theorists of economic growth elucidates the economic theory, economic history, and public policy observations of the renowned scholar W. W. Rostow. Looking at the economic growth theories of the classic economists up to 1870, Rostow compares Hume and Adam Smith, Malthus and Ricardo, and J.S. Mill and Karl Marx. He then examines the period 1870-1939 and its economic theorists, including Schumpeter, Colin Clark, Kuznets, and Harrod, and surveys the (...)
     
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  16.  93
    The Impact of Tax Policy on Economic Growth, Income Distribution, and Allocation of Taxes.James D. Gwartney & Robert A. Lawson - 2006 - Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (2):28-52.
    Using a sample of seventy-seven countries, this paper focuses on marginal tax rates and the income thresholds at which they apply to examine how the tax changes of the 1980s and 1990s have influenced economic growth, the distribution of income, and the share of taxes paid by various income groups. Many countries substantially reduced their highest marginal rates during the 1985-1995 period. The findings indicate that countries that reduced their highest marginal rates grew more rapidly than those that (...)
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  17. Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies and Long Term Economic Growth.Richard G. Lipsey, Kenneth I. Carlaw & Clifford T. Bekar - 2005 - Oxford University Press UK.
    This book examines the long term economic growth that has raised the West's material living standards to levels undreamed of by counterparts in any previous time or place. The authors argue that this growth has been driven by technological revolutions that have periodically transformed the West's economic, social and political landscape over the last 10,000 years and allowed the West to become, until recently, the world's only dominant technological force. Unique in the diversity of the analytical (...)
     
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  18.  26
    Supply‐Side Vs. Demand‐Side Tax Cuts and U.S. Economic Growth, 1951–2004.Norton Garfinkle - 2005 - Critical Review 17 (3-4):427-448.
    Abstract Supply?side economists claim that a low top marginal income?tax rate accelerates investment, employment, and economic growth. But the economic literature cited to support the supply?side hypothesis provides little to no empirical support for it. And a more comprehensive empirical examination of key parameters of U.S. economic performance in the postwar period, undertaken here, shows no association between low top marginal income?tax rates and high real growth in investment, employment, or GDP. By contrast, the analysis (...)
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  19.  62
    Is a Singularity Just Around the Corner? What It Takes to Get Explosive Economic Growth.Robin Hanson - 1998 - Journal of Evolution and Technology 2 (1).
    Economic growth is determined by the supply and demand of investment capital; technology determines the demand for capital; while human nature determines the supply. The supply curve has two distinct parts; giving the world economy two distinct modes. In the familiar slow growth mode; rates of return are limited by human discount rates. In the fast growth mode; investment is limited by the world's wealth. Historical trends suggest that we may transition to the fast mode in (...)
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  20.  46
    The Diminishing Utility of Economic Growth: From Maximizing Security Toward Maximizing Subjective Well‐Being.Ronald Inglehart - 1996 - Critical Review 10 (4):509-531.
    Abstract Twenty years ago, Tibor Scitovsky questioned the assumption, embedded in neoclassical economics, that human happiness will be augmented if the level of consumption either rises or becomes more uniform over time. Evidence from the 1990?1993 World Values Survey suggests that his doubts were well?founded: although economic gains apparently make a major contribution to subjective well?being as one moves from societies at the subsistence level to those with moderate levels of economic development, further economic growth seems (...)
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  21.  46
    Letter to Liberals: Liberalism, Environmentalism, and Economic Growth.James Gustave Speth - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):43-54.
    Many American progressives consider themselves both liberals and environmentalists, and, though the organisations representing these two causes should be working together, they rarely do. Moreover, the emerging split over the role of economic growth could push liberal and environmentalist leaders further apart. This lecture discusses how to bridge the gap between liberals and environmentalists by fusing progressive causes into a common agenda. The two causes are not, as many believe, mutually exclusive, but are instead mutually supportive: liberals need (...)
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  22.  23
    Analysis Over Factors of Innovation in China’s Fast Economic Growth Since its Beginning of Reform and Opening Up.Chun Ding & Junyang Li - 2014 - AI and Society 29 (3):377-386.
    The technological progress makes great contribution to the rapid economic growth of China during its past three decades of reform and opening up. An empirical analysis conducted over China’s total factor productivity certifies this conclusion but it also reveals that China’s TFP growth rate is not very high. We further explore the various stages of change of China’s total factor productivity and the causes of these changes and finally take an analytical calculation over the present flaws of (...)
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  23. Structural Change and Economic Growth: A Theoretical Essay on the Dynamics of the Wealth of Nations.Luigi L. Pasinetti - 1983 - Cambridge University Press.
    First published in 1981 this book presents an original theoretical treatment of the problems of maintaining full employment in a multisector economic system with a growing population and different rates of technical progress in different sectors. The conditions for full employment and full capacity utilisation are examined when prices are stable and when there is inflation. This approach is carried out, not in terms of input-output relations, as has become customary in multisector models, but rather in terms of vertically (...)
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  24.  12
    Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence From England.Ricardo Sabates - 2010 - Educational Studies 36 (2):165-173.
    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post‐compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this hypothesis empirically using three unique sources of area‐level data over time in England. Results show that expansion of post‐compulsory education is important for reductions in antisocial behaviour regardless (...)
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  25.  11
    A Critical Realist Perspective on Decoupling Negative Environmental Impacts From Housing Sector Growth and Economic Growth.Jin Xue - 2012 - Journal of Critical Realism 11 (4):438-461.
    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled (...)
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  26.  1
    A Defense of Unbounded (but Not Unlimited) Economic Growth.Joe Pettit - 2010 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 30 (1):183-204.
    THIS ESSAY MAKES AN ETHICAL CASE FOR UNBOUNDED BUT NOT UNLIMited economic growth. The preliminary case for such growth is its correlation with significant reductions in global poverty and the wealth that is created by economic growth. The essay then seeks to show that opposition to growth often rests on controversial assumptions about the nature of markets and productivity. I challenge these assumptions by presenting two important developments in economic theory: new growth (...)
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  27. Multifunctional Agriculture and Regional Economic Growth.Alan Randall - unknown
    It might be conjectured that new models of regional economic development, combined with the emerging understanding of multifunctional agriculture, would suggest a new and perhaps more optimistic perspective on the potential of agriculture as an engine of regional economic growth. My purpose here is begin the process of surveying the relevant literature, unraveling the arguments and gleaning evidence from the published empirical record, and drawing-out some implications that may help focus our deliberations over the next few days.
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  28. Entrepreneurship, Geography, and American Economic Growth.Zoltan J. Acs & Catherine Armington - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The spillovers in knowledge among largely college-educated workers were among the key reasons for the impressive degree of economic growth and spread of entrepreneurship in the United States during the 1990s. Prior 'industrial policies' in the 1970s and 1980s did not advance growth because these were based on outmoded large manufacturing models. Zoltan Acs and Catherine Armington use a knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship to explain new firm formation rates in regional economies during the 1990s period and (...)
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  29. Structural Dynamics and Economic Growth.Richard Arena & Pier Luigi Porta (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Ever since Adam Smith, economists have been preoccupied with the puzzle of economic growth. The standard mainstream models of economic growth were and often still are based either on assumptions of diminishing returns on capital with technological innovation or on endogenous dynamics combined with a corresponding technological and institutional setting. An alternative model of economic growth emerged from the Cambridge School of Keynesian economists in the 1950s and 1960s. This model - developed mainly by (...)
     
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  30. Economic Growth and Distribution in China.Nicholas R. Lardy - 1978 - Cambridge University Press.
    This study maintains that China's system of economic planning tends to mitigate the trade-off between economic growth and equity that has been found to prevail in the early stages of development in most less developed countries. The analysis focuses on the Chinese leadership's attempt to improve economic efficiency by decentralizing economic management without encouraging, as a consequence, increased economic inequality among different regions. By examining the budgetary and planning process, focusing in particular on the (...)
     
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  31. Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth.David C. Mowery & Nathan Rosenberg - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    Technology's contribution to economic growth and competitiveness has been the subject of vigorous debate in recent years. This book demonstrates the importance of a historical perspective in understanding the role of technological innovation in the economy. The authors examine key episodes and institutions in the development of the U.S. research system and in the development of the research systems of other industrial economies. They argue that the large potential contributions of economics to the understanding of technology and (...) growth have been constrained by the narrow theoretical framework employed within neoclassical economies. A richer framework, they believe, will support a more fruitful dialogue among economists, policymakers, and managers on the organization of public and private institutions for innovation. David Mowery is Associate Professor of Business and Public Policy at the School of Business Administration, University of California, Berkeley. Nathan S. Rosenberg is Fairleigh Dickinson Professor of Economics at Stanford University. He is the author of Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. (shrink)
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  32. Conflict and Effective Demand in Economic Growth.Peter Skott - 1989 - Cambridge University Press.
    All capitalist economies experience fluctuations in employment and economic activity around a long-term growth rate. How is this cyclical pattern of growth to be explained? Are the causes of fluctuations in output and employment to be found outside the system or are they intrinsic to the system? Will the long-term growth rate correspond to the growth of the labour force? It is the search for answers to these questions which motivates Peter Skott's analysis. The book (...)
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  33.  35
    Homage to Malthus, Ricardo, and Boserup: Toward a General Theory of Population, Economic Growth, Environmental Deterioration, Wealth, and Poverty.Peter Richerson - manuscript
    The debates over the future of human population and the earth’s environment, and similar large issues, usually take place without reference to explicit models. Debate would be clarified if such models were employed. We propose that the logistic equation and its extensions like the generalized logistic and the Lotka-Volterra equations, so familiar to ecologists, can easily be modified to model the important "macro" questions that motivated the three thinkers of our title. The long term rate of population growth must (...)
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  34.  20
    Classical Vs. Neoclassical Economic Thought in Historical Perspective: The Interpretation of Processes of Economic Growth and Development.L. Lefeber - 2000 - History of Political Thought 21 (3):525-542.
    Classical economics was oriented towards the advancement of the common interest as defined by the political institutions of the state, whereas neoclassicism is defined in a social and political vacuum. Furthermore, the former related realistically to an excess supply of labour, while the latter assumes full employment. These differences have significant implications for income distribution, accumulation, growth and development. Classical economists advocated free trade to increase domestic productivity and employment at stable or growing real wages. Contemporary globalization recreates the (...)
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  35.  17
    Preserving the Neapolitan State: Antonio Genovesi and Ferdinando Galiani on Commercial Society and Planning Economic Growth.Koen Stapelbroek - 2006 - History of European Ideas 32 (4):406-429.
    Both Antonio Genovesi and Ferdinando Galiani devised strategies for Neapolitan economic development, which they realised was essential for preserving its recently acquired independent statehood. In order to avoid any socially disruptive effects they considered how economic processes changed the human mind. Both thinkers grounded their political visions on foreign trade on highly sophisticated ideas of the nature of self-interest. In spite of the similar characters of their projects, the political thought of Genovesi and Galiani has never been subject (...)
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  36.  14
    Institutional Evolution of Enviromental Management Under Global Economic Growth.Barkley Rosser - manuscript
    This paper examines how institutions for managing environmental resources change over time with economic development and the seriousness of various environmental problems. Different problems tend to be more serious at different levels of development requiring different approaches. Traditional systems of management in poorer countries were often effective at managing common good resources, and institutions that replicate their advantages may work at higher levels of economic development as well. Problems of inter-level relations are also be considered.
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  37. Population and Economy: From Hunger to Modern Economic Growth.Tommy Bengtsson (ed.) - 2000 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population has for the past two centuries been a constant source of inspiration and debate for scholars working on relationships between population and economy in a historical perspective. This book sets a new standard in this active and influential field of research. The contributors go beyond the conventional European and North American geographical boundaries, bringing out new empirical findings and developing new arguments. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part takes up (...)
     
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  38. Population and Economy: From Hunger to Modern Economic Growth.Tommy Bengtsson (ed.) - 2000 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population has for the past two centuries been a constant source of inspiration and debate for scholars working on relationships between population and economy in a historical perspective. This book sets a new standard in this active and influential field of research. The contributors go beyond the conventional European and North American geographical boundaries, bringing out new empirical findings and developing new arguments. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part takes up (...)
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  39. Economic Growth and Macroeconomic Dynamics: Recent Developments in Economic Theory.Steve Dowrick, Rohan Pitchford & Stephen J. Turnovsky (eds.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    The development of the endogenous growth model rekindled interest in growth theory. In contrast to the neo-classical model, long-run endogenous growth emerged as an equilibrium outcome, reflecting the behaviour of optimizing agents in the economy. This book brings together a number of contributions in growth theory and macroeconomic dynamics, reflecting these developments and the ongoing debate over the relative merits of neo-classical and endogenous growth models. It focuses on the emergence of three important aspects: First, (...)
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  40. Labour Unions, Public Policy and Economic Growth.Tapio Palokangas - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    Collective bargaining is the main vehicle for labour worldwide to negotiate wages, benefits, retirement policies, training and other terms of working with management in both the public and private sectors. Labour economists have long been active in modelling the relations between collective bargaining agreements, labour markets and social welfare conditions. This book presents a theoretical model of unions which offers a unified treatment of the centralisation of bargaining, the credibility of labour contracts, the unionisation of labour markets and the relative (...)
     
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  41. Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development.Vernon W. Ruttan - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Military and defense-related procurement has been an important source of technology development across a broad spectrum of industries that account for an important share of United States industrial production. In this book, the author focuses on six general-purpose technologies: interchangeable parts and mass production; military and commercial aircraft; nuclear energy and electric power; computers and semiconductors; the INTERNET; and the space industries. In each of these industries, technology development would have occurred more slowly, and in some case much more slowly (...)
     
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  42.  29
    The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. Mancur Olson.Michael Wallerstein - 1984 - Ethics 94 (2):348-350.
  43.  90
    Corporate Governance in China—is Economic Growth Potential Hindered by Guanxi?Udo C. Braendle, Tanja Gasser & Juergen Noll - 2005 - Business and Society Review 110 (4):389-405.
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  44. Startery Podlaskiej Gospodarki. Analiza Gospodarczych Obszarów Wzrostu I Innowacji Województwa Podlaskiego: Sektor Rehabilitacji Geriatrycznej (Podlasie Economy Starters. Analysis of Economic Growth and Innovation Areas of Podlaskie: Geriatric Rehabilitat.Bogusław Plawgo, Magdalena Klimczuk, Mariusz Citkowski, Marta Juchnicka & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2009 - Wojewódzki Urz¸Ad Pracy W Białymstoku.
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  45. Economic Disequilibrium--The Generator of Economic Growth.J. Bancal & S. J. Greenleaves - 1967 - Diogenes 15 (59):80-113.
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  46. Reviews : The Limits to Economic Growth: Politicizing Advanced Industrialized Society.J. Kassiola - 1981 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 8 (1):86-113.
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  47. Integration of the Social System: An Approach To the Study of Economic Growth.J. Friedmann - 1961 - Diogenes 9 (33):75-97.
  48.  14
    National Environmental Policy Development for Sustainable Economic Growth in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan.Syed Shahbaz Hussain & Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri - 2014 - International Journal of Social Quality 4 (1):78-94.
    This article analyzes and explores what policies Pakistan adopted to tackle its environmental challenges, effects and outcomes. The research consists of an overview of Pakistan's national environmental policy development and explains the motives and reasons to understand in what context the state formulates these policies. It also makes assessments and evaluations about to what extent policies are successful in achieving their objectives. The study suggests some implications of the Pakistan experience to cope with the global challenges of environmental protection.
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  49.  72
    Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?Jeffrey M. Perl - 2006 - Common Knowledge 12 (3):527-527.
  50. Startery Podlaskiej Gospodarki. Analiza Gospodarczych Obszarów Wzrostu I Innowacji Województwa Podlaskiego: Sektor Produkcji Oprogramowania Komputerowego (Podlasie Economy Starters. Analysis of Economic Growth and Innovation Areas of Podlaskie: Software P.Bogusław Plawgo, Anna Grabska, Magdalena Klimczuk-Kochańska, Andrzej Klimczuk, Jacek Kierklo & Justyna Żynel-Etel - 2011 - Wojewódzki Urz¸Ad Pracy W Białymstoku.
    B. Plawgo, A. Grabska, M. Klimczuk-Kochańska, A. Klimczuk, J. Kierklo, J. Żynel-Etel, Startery podlaskiej gospodarki. Analiza gospodarczych obszarów wzrostu i innowacji województwa podlaskiego: sektor produkcji oprogramowania komputerowego, Wojewódzki Urz¸ad Pracy w Białymstoku, Białystok 2011.
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