Results for 'Empiricism'

993 found
Order:
  1. Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind.Wilfrid S. Sellars - 1956 - Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1:253-329.
  2. Constructive Empiricism Now.Bas C. van Fraassen - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 106 (1):151-170.
    Constructive empiricism, the view introduced in The Scientific Image, is a view of science, an answer to the question "what is science?" Arthur Fine's and Paul Teller's contributions to this symposium challenge especially two key ideas required to formulate that view, namely the observable/unobservable and acceptance/belief distinctions. I wish to thank them not only for their insightful critique but also for the support they include. For they illuminate and counter some misunderstandings of Constructive Empiricism along the way. That (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   80 citations  
  3. Empiricism and Rationalism in Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy.Alberto Vanzo - 2016 - Journal of the History of Ideas 77 (2):253-282.
    This paper traces the ancestry of a familiar historiographical narrative, according to which early modern philosophy was marked by the development of empiricism, rationalism, and their synthesis by Immanuel Kant. It is often claimed that this narrative became standard in the nineteenth century, due to the influence of Thomas Reid, Kant and his disciples, or German Hegelians and British Idealists. The paper argues that the narrative became standard only at the turn of the twentieth century. This was not due (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  4. Indeterminacy, Empiricism, and the First Person.John R. Searle - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (March):123-146.
  5. Constructive Empiricism and the Argument From Underdetermination.Maarten Van Dyck - 2007 - In Bradley John Monton (ed.), Images of Empiricism: Essays on Science and Stances, with a Reply From Bas C. Van Fraassen. Oxford University Press.
    It is argued that, contrary to prevailing opinion, Bas van Fraassen nowhere uses the argument from underdetermination in his argument for constructive empiricism. It is explained that van Fraassen’s use of the notion of empirical equivalence in The Scientific Image has been widely misunderstood. A reconstruction of the main arguments for constructive empiricism is offered, showing how the passages that have been taken to be part of an appeal to the argument from underdetermination should actually be interpreted.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  6. Two Dogmas of Empiricism.Willard V. O. Quine - 1951 - Philosophical Review 60 (1):20–43.
    Modern empiricism has been conditioned in large part by two dogmas. One is a belief in some fundamental cleavage between truths which are analytic, or grounded in meanings independently of matters of fact, and truth which are synthetic, or grounded in fact. The other dogma is reductionism: the belief that each meaningful statement is equivalent to some logical construct upon terms which refer to immediate experience. Both dogmas, I shall argue, are ill founded. One effect of abandoning them is, (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1013 citations  
  7. Empiricism Without Magic: Transformational Abstraction in Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.Cameron Buckner - 2018 - Synthese (12):1-34.
    In artificial intelligence, recent research has demonstrated the remarkable potential of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs), which seem to exceed state-of-the-art performance in new domains weekly, especially on the sorts of very difficult perceptual discrimination tasks that skeptics thought would remain beyond the reach of artificial intelligence. However, it has proven difficult to explain why DCNNs perform so well. In philosophy of mind, empiricists have long suggested that complex cognition is based on information derived from sensory experience, often appealing to (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   14 citations  
  8.  42
    Contrastive Empiricism.Elliott Sober - 1990 - In C. Wade Savage (ed.), Scientific Theories. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 392--410.
    Realism and empiricism have always been contradictory tendencies in the philosophy of science. The view I will sketch is a synthesis, which I call Contrastive Empiricism. Realism and empiricism are incompatible, so a synthesis that merely conjoined them would be a contradiction. Rather, I propose to isolate important elements in each and show that they combine harmoniously. I will leave behind what I regard as confusions and excesses. The result, I hope, will be neither contradiction nor mishmash.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  9. Empiricism Contra Experiment: Harvey, Locke and the Revisionist View of Experimental Philosophy”.Alan Salter & Charles T. Wolfe - 2009 - Bulletin d'histoire et d'épistémologie des sciences de la vie 16 (2):113-140.
    In this paper we suggest a revisionist perspective on two significant figures in early modern life science and philosophy: William Harvey and John Locke. Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, is often named as one of the rare representatives of the ‘life sciences’ who was a major figure in the Scientific Revolution. While this status itself is problematic, we would like to call attention to a different kind of problem: Harvey dislikes abstraction and controlled experiments (aside from (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  10. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 1994 - Noûs 28 (3):325-343.
    A new, social epistemology of science that addresses practical as well as theoretical concerns.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   105 citations  
  11. Concept Empiricism, Content, and Compositionality.Collin Rice - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (3):567-583.
    Concepts are the constituents of thoughts. Therefore, concepts are vital to any theory of cognition. However, despite their widely accepted importance, there is little consensus about the nature and origin of concepts. Thanks to the work of Lawrence Barsalou, Jesse Prinz and others concept empiricism has been gaining momentum within the philosophy and psychology literature. Concept empiricism maintains that all concepts are copies, or combinations of copies, of perceptual representations—that is, all concepts are couched in the codes of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  12. Concept Empiricism and the Vehicles of Thought.Daniel A. Weiskopf - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (9-10):156-183.
    Concept empiricists are committed to the claim that the vehicles of thought are re-activated perceptual representations. Evidence for empiricism comes from a range of neuroscientific studies showing that perceptual regions of the brain are employed during cognitive tasks such as categorization and inference. I examine the extant neuroscientific evidence and argue that it falls short of establishing this core empiricist claim. During conceptual tasks, the causal structure of the brain produces widespread activity in both perceptual and non-perceptual systems. I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  13. Empiricism and Experience.Anil Gupta - 2006 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book offers a novel account of the relationship of experience to knowledge. The account builds on the intuitive idea that our ordinary perceptual judgments are not autonomous, that an interdependence obtains between our view of the world and our perceptual judgments. Anil Gupta shows in this important study that this interdependence is the key to a satisfactory account of experience. He uses tools from logic and the philosophy of language to argue that his account of experience makes available an (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  14. Constructive Empiricism: Normative or Descriptive?Moti Mizrahi - 2014 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 22 (4):604-616.
    In this paper, I argue that Constructive Empiricism (CE) is ambiguous between two interpretations: CE as a normative epistemology of science and CE as a descriptive philosophy of science. When they present CE, constructive empiricists write as if CE is supposed to be more than a normative epistemology of science and that it is meant to be responsible to actual scientific practices. However, when they respond to objections, constructive empiricists fall back on a strictly normative interpretation of CE. This (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15. Social Empiricism.Miriam Solomon - 2003 - Philosophy 78 (303):132-136.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   64 citations  
  16. Empiricism for Cyborgs.Adam Toon - 2014 - Philosophical Issues 24 (1):409-425.
    One important debate between scientific realists and constructive empiricists concerns whether we observe things using instruments. This paper offers a new perspective on the debate over instruments by looking to recent discussion in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Realists often speak of instruments as ‘extensions’ to our senses. I ask whether the realist may strengthen her view by drawing on the extended mind thesis. Proponents of the extended mind thesis claim that cognitive processes can sometimes extend beyond our brains (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17.  12
    Empiricist Heresies in Early Modern Medical Thought.Charles T. Wolfe - 2010 - In Charles T. Wolfe & Ofer Gal (eds.), The Body as Object and Instrument of Knowledge. Embodied Empiricism in Early Modern Science. Springer. pp. 333--344.
    Vitalism, from its early modern to its Enlightenment forms (from Glisson and Willis to La Caze and Barthez), is notoriously opposed to intervention into the living sphere. Experiment, quantification, measurement are all ‘vivisectionist’, morally suspect and worse, they alter and warp the ‘life’ of the subject. They are good for studying corpses, not living individuals. This much is well known, and it has disqualified vitalist medicine from having a place in standard histories of medicine, until recent, post-Foucauldian maneuvers have sought (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  18.  90
    Logical Empiricism and the Sociology of Knowledge: The Case of Neurath and Frank.Thomas E. Uebel - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):150.
    Logical Empiricism is commonly regarded as uninterested in, if not hostile to sociological investigations of science. This paper reconstructs the views of Otto Neurath and Philipp Frank on the legitimacy and relevance of sociological investigations of theory choice. It is argued that while there obtains a surprising degree of convergence between their programmatic pronouncements and the Strong Programme, the two types of project nevertheless remain distinct. The key to this differences lies in the different assessment of a supposed dilemma (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  19. Two Dogmas of Empiricism.W. Quine - 1951 - [Longmans, Green].
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   620 citations  
  20.  49
    Empiricism Expanded. Short - 2015 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 51 (1):1.
    Two aspects of Peirce’s mature philosophy seem to me not to have been sufficiently appreciated. They are its empiricist method and its continuity with his scientific research. The research led to and justified the method.1Ground must be cleared before we can proceed. Simplistic ideas of the empirical must be swept aside and Peirce’s empiricism accurately identified. We must also distinguish two theories of meaning that have been associated with empiricist philosophies and show that Peirce combined them ; this will (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  21. "Empiricism All the Way Down": A Defense of the Value-Neutrality of Science in Response to Helen Longino's Contextual Empiricism.Stéphanie Ruphy - 2006 - Perspectives on Science 14 (2):189-214.
    : A central claim of Longino's contextual empiricism is that scientific inquiry, even when "properly conducted", lacks the capacity to screen out the influence of contextual values on its results. I'll show first that Longino's attack against the epistemic integrity of science suffers from fatal empirical weaknesses. Second I'll explain why Longino's practical proposition for suppressing biases in science, drawn from her contextual empiricism, is too demanding and, therefore, unable to serve its purpose. Finally, drawing on Bourdieu's sociological (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  22.  35
    Empiricism in Business Ethics: Suggested Research Directions. [REVIEW]Diana C. Robertson - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (8):585 - 599.
    This paper considers future directions of empirical research in business ethics and presents a series of recommendations. Greater emphasis should be placed on the normative basis of empirical studies, behavior (rather than attitudes) should be established as the key dependent variable, theoretical models of ethical decision making should be tested, and empirical studies need to focus on theory-building. Extensions of methodology and the unit of analysis are proposed together with recommendations concerning the need for replication and validity, and building links (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  23. Empiricism and Relationism Intertwined: Hume and Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity.Matias Slavov - 2016 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 31 (2):247-263.
    Einstein acknowledged that his reading of Hume influenced the development of his special theory of relativity. In this article, I juxtapose Hume’s philosophy with Einstein’s philosophical analysis related to his special relativity. I argue that there are two common points to be found in their writings, namely an empiricist theory of ideas and concepts, and a relationist ontology regarding space and time. The main thesis of this article is that these two points are intertwined in Hume and Einstein.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24. Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology.Rudolf Carnap - 1950 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4 (11):20-40.
  25. Indeterminacy, Empiricism, and the First Person.John R. Searle - 1987 - Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):123-146.
  26. Kant on Empiricism and Rationalism.Alberto Vanzo - 2013 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (1):53-74.
    Several scholars have criticized the histories of early modern philosophy based on the dichotomy of empiricism and rationalism. They view them as overestimating the importance of epistemological issues for early modern philosophers (epistemological bias), portraying Kant's Critical philosophy as a superior alternative to empiricism and rationalism (Kantian bias), and forcing most or all early modern thinkers prior to Kant into the empiricist or rationalist camps (classificatory bias). Kant is often said to be the source of the three biases. (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  27.  16
    Stance Empiricism and Epistemic Reason.Jonathan Surovell - 2019 - Synthese 196 (2):709-733.
    Some versions of empiricism have been accused of being neither empirically confirmable nor analytically true and therefore meaningless or unknowable by their own lights. Carnap, and more recently van Fraassen, have responded to this objection by construing empiricism as a stance containing non-cognitive attitudes. The resulting stance empiricism is not subject to the norms of knowledge, and so does not self-defeat as per the objection. In response to this proposal, several philosophers have argued that if empiricism (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28.  5
    Social Empiricism.R. N. Giere - 2003 - Mind 112 (448):799-802.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  29.  22
    Hume, Empiricism and the Generality of Thought.Kenneth R. Westphal - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (2):233-270.
    Hume sought to analyse our propositionally-structured thought in terms of our ultimate awareness of nothing but objects, sensory impressions or their imagistic copies, The ideas of space and time are often regarded as exceptions to his Copy Theory of impressions and ideas. On grounds strictly internal to Humes account of the generality of thought. This ultimately reveals the limits of the Copy Theory and of Concept Empiricism. The key is to recognise how very capacious is our (Humean) imaginative capacity (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  30.  67
    Quantum Mechanics: An Empiricist View.Bas C. Van Fraassen - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    After introducing the empiricist point of view in philosophy of science, and the concepts and methods of the semantic approach to scientific theories, van Fraassen discusses quantum theory in three stages. He first examines the question of whether and how empirical phenomena require a non-classical theory, and what sort of theory they require. He then discusses the mathematical foundations of quantum theory with special reference to developments in the modelling of interaction, composite systems, and measurement. Finally, the author broaches the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  31.  75
    Constructive Empiricism and the Problem of Aboutness.Elliott Sober - 1985 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (1):11-18.
    constructive empiricism asserts that it is not for science to reach a verdict on whether a theory is true or false, if the theory is about unobservable entities; science's only interest here, says Van Fraassen, is to discover whether the theory is ‘empirically adequate’. However, if a theory is soley about observables, empirical adequacy and truth are said to ‘coincide’, here discovering the theory's truth value is an appropriate scientific goal. Constructive empiricism thus rests an epistemological thesis on (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  32. Rethinking Empiricism and Materialism: The Revisionist View.Charles T. Wolfe - 2010 - Annales Philosophici 1:101-113.
    There is an enduring story about empiricism, which runs as follows: from Locke onwards to Carnap, empiricism is the doctrine in which raw sense-data are received through the passive mechanism of perception; experience is the effect produced by external reality on the mind or ‘receptors’. Empiricism on this view is the ‘handmaiden’ of experimental natural science, seeking to redefine philosophy and its methods in conformity with the results of modern science. Secondly, there is a story about materialism, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  33. From Empiricism to Expressivism.Robert B. Brandom - 2015 - Harvard University Press.
  34. Empiricism, Metaphysics, and Voluntarism.Matthias Steup - 2011 - Synthese 178 (1):19-26.
    This paper makes three points: First, empiricism as a stance is problematic unless criteria for evaluating the stance are provided. Second, Van Fraassen conceives of the empiricist stance as receiving its content, at least in part, from the rejection of metaphysics. But the rejection of metaphysics seems to presuppose for its justification the very empiricist doctrine Van Fraassen intends to replace with the empiricist stance. Third, while I agree with Van Fraassen’s endorsement of voluntarism, I raise doubts about the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  35. Empiricism at the Crossroads: The Vienna Circle’s Protocol-Sentence Debate.Thomas Uebel - 2007 - Open Court: La Salle.
  36.  51
    Empiricism, Innateness, and Linguistic Universals.Stephen P. Stich - 1978 - Philosophical Studies 33 (3):273 - 286.
  37. Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology. --.Rudolf Carnap - 1950 - Bobbs-Merrill.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   101 citations  
  38.  61
    Logistic Empiricism in Germany and the Present State of its Problems.Hans Reichenbach - 1936 - Journal of Philosophy 33 (6):141-160.
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  39. What is Constructive Empiricism?Gideon Rosen - 1994 - Philosophical Studies 74 (2):143 - 178.
    Van Fraassen defines constructive empiricism as the view that science aims to produce empirically adequate theories. But this account has been misunderstood. Constructive empiricism in not, as it seems, a description of the intentional features of scientific practice, nor is it a normative prescription for their revision. It is rather a fiction about the practice of science that van Fraassen displays in the interests of a broader empiricism. The paper concludes with a series of arguments designed to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   58 citations  
  40. Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology.Rudolf Carnap - 1950 - Revue International de Philosophie 4.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   230 citations  
  41. Empiricism and Subjectivity: An Essay on Hume's Theory of Human Nature.Gilles Deleuze - 1991 - Columbia University Press.
  42.  8
    Representation, Empiricism and Triangulation Commentary on conocer sin representar. El realismo epistemológico de Donald Davidson by William Duica.Ignacio Ávila Cañamares - 2016 - Ideas Y Valores 65 (161):315-329.
    En este breve comentario discuto algunos aspectos de la interpretación de la epistemología de Davidson que sugiere Willian Duica en su reciente libro. Luego de una presentación somera del libro me centro en tres asuntos centrales de la interpretación de Duica. En primer lugar, argumento que su lectura de la crítica de Davidson al dualismo esquema/contenido es muy restrictiva y deja abierta la posibilidad de un realismo directo empirista. En segundo lugar, argumento que en su lectura el propio Duica se (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  43.  22
    Empiricist Pragmatism.José L. Zalabardo - 2016 - Philosophical Issues 26 (1):441-461.
  44.  60
    Enlightened Empiricism: An Examination of W. V. Quine's Theory of Knowledge.Miriam Solomon - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (3):484-487.
  45. Logical Empiricism, American Pragmatism, and the Fate of Scientific Philosophy in North America.Alan W. Richardson - forthcoming - Logical Empiricism in North America:1.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  46.  15
    Modal Empiricism: Objection, Reply, Proposal.Bob Fischer - 2017 - In Bob Fischer & Felipe Leon (eds.), Modal Epistemology After Rationalism. Cham: Springer. pp. 263-280.
    According to modal empiricism, our justification for believing possibility and necessity claims is a posteriori. That is, experience does not merely play an enabling role in modal justification; it isn’t simply that experience explains how, say, we acquire the relevant concepts. Rather, the view is that modal claims answer to the tribunal of experience in roughly the way that claims about quarks and quails answer to it. One serious objection to modal empiricism is the problem of empirical conservativeness: (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  47. Empiricism, Perceptual Knowledge, Normativity, and Realism: Essays on Wilfrid Sellars.Willem A. deVries (ed.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Leading philosophers from both sides of the Atlantic present essays on Wilfrid Sellars's Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind, one of the crowning achievements of 20th-century analytic philosophy. They discuss empiricism, perception, epistemology, realism, and normativity, showing how vibrant Sellarsian philosophy remains in the 21st century.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  48.  38
    Pragmatics and Empiricism.Ellery Eells - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (1):118-121.
  49.  5
    Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology.Rudolf Carnap - 2011 - In Robert B. Talisse & Scott F. Aikin (eds.), The Pragmatism Reader: From Peirce Through the Present. Princeton University Press. pp. 249-264.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   76 citations  
  50.  99
    Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath.Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.) - 1996 - Garland.
    A new direction in philosophy Between 1920 and 1940 logical empiricism reset the direction of philosophy of science and much of the rest of Anglo-American philosophy. It began as a relatively organized movement centered on the Vienna Circle, and like-minded philosophers elsewhere, especially in Berlin. As Europe drifted into the Nazi era, several important figures, especially Carnap and Neurath, also found common ground in their liberal politics and radical social agenda. Together, the logical empiricists set out to reform traditional (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
1 — 50 / 993