Results for 'Evolution'

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  1.  50
    Evolution, Rationality and Cognition: A Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century.António Zilhão (ed.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    Evolutionary thinking has expanded in the last decades, spreading from its traditional stronghold - the explanation of speciation and adaptation in Biology - to new domains including the human sciences. The essays in this collection attest to the illuminating power of evolutionary thinking when applied to the understanding of the human mind. The contributors to Cognition, Evolution and Rationality use an evolutionary standpoint to approach the nature of the human mind, including both cognitive and behavioral functions. Cognitive science is (...)
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  2.  42
    Evolution: The Triumph of an Idea.Carl Zimmer - 2001 - Harperperennial.
    This remarkable book presents a rich and up-to-date view of evolution that explores the far-reaching implications of Darwin's theory and emphasizes the power, significance, and relevance of evolution to our lives today. After all, we ourselves are the product of evolution, and we can tackle many of our gravest challenges -- from lethal resurgence of antiobiotic-resistant diseases to the wave of extinctions that looms before us -- with a sound understanding of the science.
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  3.  12
    The Evolution of (Proto-)Language: Focus on Mechanisms.Przemyslaw Zywickzinski, Nathalie Gontier & Slawomir Wacewicz - 2017 - Language Science 63 (63):1-11.
    This article introduces a special issue on mechanisms in language evolution research. It describes processes relevant for the emergence of protolanguage and the transition thereof to modern language. Protolanguage is one of the key terms in the field of language evolution, used to designate a hypothesised intermediate stage in the emergence of language present in extinct hominins: qualitatively different from non-human primate communication in possessing some, but not all, of the features that characterise modern language. Much debate in (...)
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  4.  4
    Evolution Versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy.J. Peter Zetterberg (ed.) - 1983 - Oryx Press.
    The University of Minnesota organized a conference ("Evolution and Public Education," December 5, 1981) to help clarify issues in the creation/evolution controversy and to examine arguments of the proponents of scientific creationism. This six-part book, a revised version of a resource manual compiled for the conference: (1) discusses the theory of evolution and its place in science education; (2) examines the creationist movement; (3) states the position of scientific creationists; (4) responds to creationists' arguments against evolution; (...)
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  5.  3
    The Evolution of Spina Bifida Treatment Through a Biomedical Ethics Lens.Tal Levin-Decanini, Amy Houtrow & Aviva Katz - 2017 - HEC Forum 29 (3):197-211.
    Spina bifida is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results in a broad range of disability. Over the last few decades, there have been significant advances in diagnosis and treatment of this condition, which have raised concerns regarding how clinicians prognosticate the extent of disability, determine quality of life, and use that information to make treatment recommendations. From the selective treatment of neonates in the 1970s, to the advent of maternal–fetal surgery today, the issues that have been raised surrounding spina bifida intervention (...)
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  6.  3
    Evolution From the Molecular Prespective. Molecular Evolution: An Annotated Reader. By E. A. Terzaghi, A. S. Wilkins and D. Penny. Jones and Bartlett, Portola Valley, CA. 1984. Pp. 409. $ 37.50. [REVIEW]Arthur M. Lesk - 1986 - Bioessays 4 (3):138-139.
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  7.  2
    Evolution and the Machinery of Chance: Philosophy, Probability, and Scientific Practice in Biology.Marshall Abrams - 2023
    Background on probability and evolution -- Laying the foundation. Population-environment systems ; Causal probability and empirical practice ; Irrelevance of fitness as a causal property of token organisms ; Roles of environmental variation in selection -- Reconstructing evolution and chance. Populations in biological practice: Pragmatic yet real ; Real causation in pragmatic population-environment systems ; Fitness concepts in measurement and modeling ; Chance in population-environment systems ; The input measure problem for MM-CCS chance -- Conclusion.
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  8.  1
    Evolution, Order and Complexity.Kenneth Boulding & Elias Khalil - 1996 - Routledge.
    Evolution, Order and Complexity reflects topical interest in the relationship between the social and natural worlds. It represents the cutting edge of current thinking which challenges the natural/social dichotomy thesis by showing how the application of ideas which derive from biology can be applied and offer insight into the social realm. This is done by introducing the general system theory to the methodological debate on the relation of human and natural sciences.
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  9.  12
    Evolution: The History of Life on Earth.Russ Hodge - 2009 - Facts on File.
    Describes evolution, including the history of the theory, biological classification, societal and legal ramifications, and the connection between evolution and ...
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  10.  50
    Evolution.Roberta L. Millstein - 2017 - Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy.
    Evolution in its contemporary meaning in biology typically refers to the changes in the proportions of biological types in a population over time (see the entry on the concept of evolution to 1872 for earlier meanings). As evolution is too large of a topic to address thoroughly in one entry, the primary goal of this entry is to serve as a broad overview of contemporary issues in evolution with links to other entries where more in-depth discussion (...)
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  11.  83
    Emergent Evolution.C. Lloyd Morgan - 1923 - Williams & Norgate.
    EMERGENT EVOLUTION- THE GIFFORD LECTURES DELIVERED IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ST.
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  12. Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective.Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci - 1998 - Sinauer.
    Phenotypic Evolution explicitly recognizes organisms as complex genetic-epigenetic systems developing in response to changing internal and external environments. As a key to a better understanding of how phenotypes evolve, the authors have developed a framework that centers on the concept of the Developmental Reaction Norm. This encompasses their views: (1) that organisms are better considered as integrated units than as disconnected parts (allometry and phenotypic integration); (2) that an understanding of ontogeny is vital for evaluating evolution of adult (...)
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  13.  1
    The Evolution of Culture.Stefan Paul Linquist (ed.) - 2010 - Ashgate.
    Recent years have seen a transformation in thinking about the nature of culture. Rather than viewing culture in opposition to biology, a growing number of researchers now regard culture as subject to evolutionary processes. Recent developments in this field have shifted some of the traditional academic fault lines. Alliances are forming between researchers trained in anthropology, evolutionary biology, psychology and philosophy. Meanwhile, several distinct schools of thought have appeared which differ in their vision of what an evolutionary approach to culture (...)
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  14. Evolution, Old & New.Samuel Butler - 1924 - New York: American Mathematical Society.
    Of all the questions now engaging the attention of those whose destiny has commanded them to take more or less exercise of mind, I know of none more interesting than that which deals with what is called teleology-that is to say, with design or purpose, as evidenced by the different parts of animals and plants. The question may be briefly stated thus: - Can we or can we not see signs in the structure of animals and plants, of something which (...)
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  15.  1
    Evolution Und Naturphilosophie.Walter Zimmermann - 1918 - Duncker Und Humblot.
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  16. The Machines of Evolution and the Scope of Meaning.Gary Tomlinson - 2023 - New York: Zone Books.
    Merging recent evolutionary thought, theories of information and signs, and new findings in animal studies, Gary Tomlinson's The Machines of Evolution and the Scope of Meaning offers a groundbreaking account of meaning in our world.
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  17. Cultural Evolution in Vietnam’s Early 20th Century: A Bayesian Networks Analysis of Hanoi Franco-Chinese House Designs.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Quang-Khiem Bui, Viet-Phuong La, Thu-Trang Vuong, Manh-Toan Ho, Hong-Kong T. Nguyen, Hong-Ngoc Nguyen, Kien-Cuong P. Nghiem & Manh-Tung Ho - 2019 - Social Sciences and Humanities Open 1 (1):100001.
    The study of cultural evolution has taken on an increasingly interdisciplinary and diverse approach in explicating phenomena of cultural transmission and adoptions. Inspired by this computational movement, this study uses Bayesian networks analysis, combining both the frequentist and the Hamiltonian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, to investigate the highly representative elements in the cultural evolution of a Vietnamese city’s architecture in the early 20th century. With a focus on the façade design of 68 old houses in Hanoi’s (...)
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  18. The Evolution-Creation Wars: Why Teaching More Science Just is Not Enough.Massimo Pigliucci - 2007 - McGill Journal of Education 42 (2):285-306.
    The creation-evolution “controversy” has been with us for more than a century. Here I argue that merely teaching more science will probably not improve the situation; we need to understand the controversy as part of a broader problem with public acceptance of pseudoscience, and respond by teaching how science works as a method. Critical thinking is difficult to teach, but educators can rely on increasing evidence from neurobiology about how the brain learns, or fails to.
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  19.  17
    Theistic Evolution: The Teilhardian Heresy.Wolfgang Smith - 2012 - Angelico Press-Sopha Perennis.
    Evolution: a closer look -- Forgotten truths -- Complexity-consciousness: law or myth? -- In search of creative union -- Omega hypothesis -- God of evolution -- Biblical fall and evolutionist ascent -- New Eschaton in historical perspective -- Socialization and super-organism -- New religion -- Teilhard de Chardin: biographical facts -- Riddle of Genesis 2.4-5.
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  20. The Evolution Concept: The Concept Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):354-378.
    This is an epistemologically-driven history of the concept of evolution. Starting from its inception, this work will follow the development of this pregnant concept. However, in contradistinction to previous attempts, the objective will not be the identification of the different meanings it adopted through history, but conversely, it will let the concept to be unfolded, to be explicated and to express its own inner potentialities. The underlying thesis of the present work is, therefore, that the path that leads to (...)
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  21.  30
    Evolution for Everyone: How Darwin’s Theory Can Change the Way We Think About Our Lives.David Sloan Wilson - 2007 - Delacorte Press.
    What is the biological reason for gossip? For laughter? For the creation of art? Why do dogs have curly tails? What can microbes tell us about morality? These and many other questions are tackled by renowned evolutionist David Sloan Wilson in this witty and groundbreaking new book. With stories that entertain as much as they inform, Wilson outlines the basic principles of evolution and shows how, properly understood, they can illuminate the length and breadth of creation, from the origin (...)
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  22.  2
    Evolution by the Numbers: The Origins of Mathematical Argument in Biology.James Wynn - 2011 - Parlor Press.
    Wynn examines the confluence of science, mathematics, and rhetoric in the development of theories of evolution and heredity in the 19th century. He shows how mathematical warrants become accepted sources for argument in the biological sciences and explores the importance of rhetorical strategies in persuading biologists to accept mathematical arguments.
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  23. Évolution Créatrice.Henri Bergson - 1945 - Skirka.
    Si la vie est une évolution, alors elle doit expliquer jusqu'à la connaissance, l'intelligence, la science et la technique de l'homme, l'homo faber ; si il y a en elle de la création, alors ce n'est pas un postulat extérieur, mais dans son histoire et dans notre vie même qu'on doit l'expérimenter. dans L'évolution créatrice, Bergson pousse ainsi la théorie de l'évolution et l'expérience de la " durée " jusqu'au bout, sans admettre ni une création transcendante ni une vie sans (...)
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  24.  21
    Evolution: Society, Science and the Universe.A. C. Fabian (ed.) - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Cutting across boundaries of art and science, evolution is a fundamental process that has beguiled thinkers through the ages. This collection draws together world renowned thinkers and communicators with their own intriguing insights. In these essays they offer a feast of dazzling thoughts and ideas to challenge and enthrall the reader. Why and how do civilisations and societies change over time? Why do our cells develop the way they do? Why are some villages still villages while others have grown (...)
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  25. Ethics, Evolution and the a Priori: Ross on Spencer and the French Sociologists.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2017 - In Robert Richards Michael Ruse (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics.
    In this chapter I critically discuss the dismissal of the philosophical significance of facts about human evolution and historical development in the work of W. D Ross. I address Ross’s views about the philosophical significance of the emerging human sciences of his time in two of his main works, namely The Right and the Good and The Foundations of Ethics. I argue that the debate between Ross and his chosen interlocutors (Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim and Lucien Levy-Bruhl) shows striking (...)
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  26.  7
    The Evolution of Consciousness.Max Velmans - 2009 - In Michel Weber & Anderson Weekes (eds.), Process Approaches to Consciousness in Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 261-272.
    There have been various attempts to apply Darwinian evolutionary theory to an understanding of the human condition within psychology and the social sciences. This paper evaluates whether Darwinian Theory can explain human consciousness. Starting with a brief definition of phenomenal consciousness and the central features of evolutionary theory, the paper examines whether random variations in the genome that confer a selective, reproductive advantage can explain both the emergence of consciousness and its varied forms. To inform the discussion, the paper reviews (...)
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  27.  19
    Evolution as a Religion: Strange Hopes and Stranger Fears.Mary Midgley - 1985 - Routledge.
    According to a profile in The Guardian , Mary Midgley is 'the foremost scourge of scientific pretensions in this country; someone whose wit is admired even by those who feel she sometimes oversteps the mark'. Considered one of Britain's finest philosophers, Midgley exposes the illogical logic of poor doctrines that shelter themselves behind the prestige of science. Always at home when taking on the high priests of evolutionary theory - Dawkins, Wilson and their acolytes - she has famously described (...) as 'the creation-myth of our age'. In Evolution as a Religion , she examines how science comes to be used as a substitute for religion and points out how badly that role distorts it. As ever, her argument is flawlessly insightful: a punchy, compelling, lively indictment of these misuses of science. Both the book and its author are true classics of our time. (shrink)
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  28. Evolution of Sentience, Consciousness and Language Viewed From a Darwinian and Purposive Perspective.Nicholas Maxwell - 2001 - In From The Human World in the Physical Universe: Consciousness, Free Will and Evolution, ch. 7. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 162-201.
    In this article I give a Darwinian account of how sentience, consciousness and language may have evolved. It is argued that sentience and consciousness emerge as brains control purposive actions in new ways. A key feature of this account is that Darwinian theory is interpreted so as to do justice to the purposive character of living things. According to this interpretation, as evolution proceeds, purposive actions play an increasingly important role in the mechanisms of evolution until, with (...) by cultural means, Darwinian evolution takes on a Lamarckian character. According to this view, as evolution proceeds, the mechanisms of Darwinian evolution themselves evolve. (shrink)
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  29.  12
    What Evolution Is.Ernst Mayr - 2001 - Phoenix.
    Provides a thorough overview of historical and contemporary theories of evolution, discusses key concepts and terms, and argues that our understanding of evolution has changed the beliefs and values of modern humankind. Reprint. 30,000 first printing.
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  30. The Evolution of Imagination.Stephen T. Asma - 2017 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Guided by neuroscience, animal behavior, evolution, philosophy, and psychology, Asma burrows deep into the human psyche to look right at the enigmatic but powerful engine that is our improvisational creativity—the source, he argues, of our remarkable imaginational capacity. How is it, he asks, that a story can evoke a whole world inside of us? How are we able to rehearse a skill, a speech, or even an entire scenario simply by thinking about it? How does creativity go beyond experience (...)
  31.  33
    Evolution Without Change in Gene Frequencies.David Magnus - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):255-261.
    Biologists often define evolution as a change in allele frequencies. Consideration of the evolution of the pocket mouse will show that it is possible to have evolution without any change in the allele frequencies in a population (through change in the genotype frequencies). The implications of this for genic selectionism are then discussed. Sober and Lewontin (1982) have constructed an example to demonstrate the blindness of genic selectionism in certain cases. Sterelny and Kitcher (1988) offer a defense (...)
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  32.  49
    Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory.Edward J. Larson - 2004 - Modern Library.
    “I often said before starting, that I had no doubt I should frequently repent of the whole undertaking.” So wrote Charles Darwin aboard The Beagle , bound for the Galapagos Islands and what would arguably become the greatest and most controversial discovery in scientific history. But the theory of evolution did not spring full-blown from the head of Darwin. Since the dawn of humanity, priests, philosophers, and scientists have debated the origin and development of life on earth, and with (...)
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  33.  1
    Evolution: The First Four Billion Years.Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press.
    The history of evolutionary thought / Michael Ruse -- The origin of life / Jeffrey L. Bada and Antonio Lazcano -- Paleontology and the history of life / Michael Benton -- Adaptation / Joseph Travis and David N. Reznick -- Molecular evolution / Francisco J. Ayala -- Evolution of the genome / Brian Charlesworth and Deborah Charlesworth -- The pattern and process of speciation / Margaret B. Ptacek and Shala J. Hankison -- Evolution and development / Gregory (...)
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  34.  38
    The Evolution Wars: A Guide to the Debates.Michael Ruse - 2000 - Santa Barbara, USA: ABC-CLIO.
    This new series presents innovative titles pertaining to human origins, evolution, and behavior from a multi-disciplinary perspective.
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  35.  24
    Evolution and Culture.Marshall David Sahlins - 1960 - Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    A unified interpretation of the evolution of species, humanity, and society.
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  36. The Pope, Evolution, and the Soul.Mario Bunge - 1996 - Free Inquiry 17.
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  37. Evolution, Rationality and Cognition: A Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century.António Zilhão (ed.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    Evolutionary thinking has expanded in the last decades, spreading from its traditional stronghold – the explanation of speciation and adaptation in biology - to new domains. Fascinating pieces of work, the essays in this collection attest to the illuminating power of evolutionary thinking when applied to the understanding of the human mind. The contributors to_ Cognition, Evolution and Rationality_ use an evolutionary standpoint to approach the nature of the human mind, including both cognitive and behavioural functions. Cognitive science is (...)
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  38. Evolution, Rationality and Cognition: A Cognitive Science for the Twenty-First Century.António Zilhão (ed.) - 2005 - Routledge.
    Evolutionary thinking has expanded in the last decades, spreading from its traditional stronghold – the explanation of speciation and adaptation in biology - to new domains. Fascinating pieces of work, the essays in this collection attest to the illuminating power of evolutionary thinking when applied to the understanding of the human mind. The contributors to_ Cognition, Evolution and Rationality_ use an evolutionary standpoint to approach the nature of the human mind, including both cognitive and behavioural functions. Cognitive science is (...)
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  39. The Evolution of Moral Intuitions and Their Feeling of Rightness.Christine Clavien & Chloë FitzGerald - forthcoming - In Joyce R. (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy.
    Despite the widespread use of the notion of moral intuition, its psychological features remain a matter of debate and it is unclear why the capacity to experience moral intuitions evolved in humans. We first survey standard accounts of moral intuition, pointing out their interesting and problematic aspects. Drawing lessons from this analysis, we propose a novel account of moral intuitions which captures their phenomenological, mechanistic, and evolutionary features. Moral intuitions are composed of two elements: an evaluative mental state and a (...)
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  40. Evolution, Genesis and Revelations with Readings From Empedocles to Wilson.C. Leon Harris - 1981 - Suny Press.
    In this comprehensive history of evolutionism, C. Leon Harris has combined primary source readings with clear, pertinent background information, to provide a solid basic understanding of the ways scientists have arrived at today's views of evolution. Harris describes the major contributors to the theory of evolutionism, placing each in the context of the general cultural influences to which he was exposed. Each chapter also contains an explanation of the philosophical basis of the scientific approach of the period in question. (...)
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  41.  60
    The Evolution of Sex: Domains and Explanatory Pluralism.Carla Fehr - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (2):145-170.
    The evolution of sexual reproduction is a striking case of explanatory pluralism, meaning that one needs to refer to more than one explanation in order to adequately account for it. I develop the concept a domain of phenomena in order to analysis this pluralism. Pluralism exists when a phenomenon can be included in more that one homogeneous domain or in a heterogeneous domain. I argue that in some cases domain partitioning can be used to decrease pluralism, but that in (...)
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  42.  4
    Integrating Evolution and Development: From Theory to Practice.Roger Sansom & Robert N. Brandon (eds.) - 2007 - MIT Press.
    Embryos, cells, genes, and organisms : reflections on the history of evolutionary developmental biology / Manfred D. Laubichler and Jane Maienschein The organismic systems approach : streamlining the naturalistic agenda / Werner Callebaut, Gerd B. Müller, and Stuart A. Newman Complex traits : genetics, development, and evolution / H. Frederik Nijhout Functional and developmental constraints on life-cycle evolution : an attempt on the architecture of constraints / Gerhard Schlosser Legacies of adaptive development / Roger Sansom Evo-devo meets the (...)
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  43. Evolution Und Naturfinalität: Traditionelle Naturphilosophie Gegenüber Moderner Evolutionstheorie.Horst Seidl - 2008 - Georg Olms Verlag.
    There is a broad public interest in the current discussion about evolution and creation, a discussion led mainly by scientists on the one hand and theologians on the other. The scientists argue for the evolution of the cosmos and nature without a creator, while the theologians defend the idea of creation. However, the perspective of natural philosophy is largely missing from the debate. Since this is no longer represented in contemporary philosophical trends, this study revives it from the (...)
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  44. Kosmologie, Evolution und die Raetsel der Großen Zahlen.Alfred Gierer - manuscript
    Die Beziehung der Entwicklung des Lebens im Weltall - von den einfachsten Formen bis zu Leben mit Geist und Bewusstsein – zu der Physik, wie wir sie aus der unbelebten Natur kennen, ist Thema dieses Essays. Ist die Entstehung des Lebens Zufall, ist es Folge einer physikalischen Logik, die noch zu entdecken ist, oder ist „Lebensfreundlichkeit“ ein eigenes Prinzip des Naturgeschehens, das zum Beispiel offene Naturkonstanten der physikalischen Gesetze festlegt, zu denen die geheimnisvollen Grossen Zahlen der Kosmologie gehören – „The (...)
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  45.  33
    Reticulate Evolution Underlies Synergistic Trait Formation in Human Communities.Nathalie Gontier & Anton Sukhoverkhov - forthcoming - Evolutionary Anthropology.
    This paper investigates how reticulate evolution contributes to a better understanding of human sociocultural evolution in general, and community formation in particular. Reticulate evolution is evolution as it occurs by means of symbiosis, symbiogenesis, lateral gene transfer, infective heredity, and hybridization. From these mechanisms and processes, we mainly zoom in on symbiosis and we investigate how it underlies the rise of (1) human, plant, animal, and machine interactions typical of agriculture, animal husbandry, farming, and industrialization; (2) (...)
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  46.  46
    Evolution by Natural Selection: Confidence, Evidence and The Gap.Michaelis Michael - 2015 - CRC Press.
    Is the theory of evolution by means of natural selection a tautology? This book explores the explanatory structure of Darwin’s theory at a time when selectionist explanations are being brought forward to explain a wider and wider range of phenomena.
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  47.  9
    Conscious Evolution of Humanity.Global Village - 2002 - World Futures 58 (4):335-338.
    (2002). Conscious Evolution of Humanity: Using Systems Thinking to Construct Agoras of the Global Village. Announcing the 47th Annual Conference 2003 of the International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISS) www.isss.org. World Futures: Vol. 58, No. 4, pp. 335-338.
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  48.  41
    The Evolution of the State in Conditions of Globalization.Vadim Zagladin - 1999 - World Futures 53 (2):101-114.
    (1999). The evolution of the state in conditions of globalization. World Futures: Vol. 53, Globalization and the Future of the Nation-State, pp. 101-114.
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  49.  31
    Improving Evolution Advocacy: Translating Vaccine Interventions to the Evolution Wars.Thomas Aechtner - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):27-51.
    When considering the persuasive characteristics and prospective influences of Darwin‐skeptic mass media, uncertainties remain about how to reciprocally promote evolutionary theory to skeptical audiences. This study aims to improve evolution advocacy by translating some of the most successful methods of science endorsement to Evolution Wars contexts. In particular, strategies used to address vaccine hesitancies and enhance immunization uptake policies are reinterpreted for those seeking to improve pro‐evolution communications to religious publics. What results are three recommendation categories described (...)
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  50. The Evolution of Imagination.Asma Stephen - 2017 - University of Chicago Press.
    This book develops a theory of how the imagination functions, and how it evolved. The imagination is characterized as an embodied cognitive system. The system draws upon sensory-motor, visual, and linguistic capacities, but it is a flexible, developmental ability, typified by creative improvisation. The imagination is a voluntary simulation system that draws on perceptual, emotional, and conceptual elements, for the purpose of creating works that adaptively investigate external (environmental) and internal (psychological) resources. Beyond the adaptive useful values of this system, (...)
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