Results for 'Evolutionary Biology'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  54
    Evolutionary Biology and Feminism.Patricia Adair Gowaty - 1992 - Human Nature 3 (3):217-249.
    Evolutionary biology and feminism share a variety of philosophical and practical concerns. I have tried to describe how a perspective from both evolutionary biology and feminism can accelerate the achievement of goals for both feminists and evolutionary biologists. In an early section of this paper I discuss the importance of variation to the disciplines of evolutionary biology and feminism. In the section entitled “Control of Female Reproduction” I demonstrate how insight provided by participation (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   43 citations  
  2.  51
    Does Evolutionary Biology Contribute to Ethics?Patrick Bateson - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (3):287-301.
    Human propensities that are the products of Darwinian evolution may combine to generate a form of social behavior that is not itself a direct result of such pressure. This possibility may provide a satisfying explanation for the origin of socially transmitted rules such as the incest taboo. Similarly, the regulatory processes of development that generated adaptations to the environment in the circumstances in which they evolved can produce surprising and sometimes maladaptive consequences for the individual in modern conditions. These combinatorial (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  3. Teleological Explanations in Evolutionary Biology.Francisco J. Ayala - 1970 - Philosophy of Science 37 (1):1-15.
    The ultimate source of explanation in biology is the principle of natural selection. Natural selection means differential reproduction of genes and gene combinations. It is a mechanistic process which accounts for the existence in living organisms of end-directed structures and processes. It is argued that teleological explanations in biology are not only acceptable but indeed indispensable. There are at least three categories of biological phenomena where teleological explanations are appropriate.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   136 citations  
  4. Why Evolutionary Biology is (so Far) Irrelevant to Legal Regulation.Brian Leiter & Michael Weisberg - 2010 - Law and Philosophy 29 (1):31-74.
    Evolutionary biology – or, more precisely, two (purported) applications of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, namely, evolutionary psychology and what has been called human behavioral biology – is on the cusp of becoming the new rage among legal scholars looking for interdisciplinary insights into the law. We argue that as the actual science stands today, evolutionary biology offers nothing to help with questions about legal regulation of behavior. Only systematic misrepresentations or lack (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  5.  47
    Evolutionary Biology and the Concept of Disease.Anne Gammelgaard - 2000 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (2):109-116.
    In recent years, an increasing number of medical books and papers attempting to analyse the concepts of health and disease from the perspective of evolutionary biology have been published.This paper introduces the evolutionary approach to health and disease in an attempt to illuminate the premisses and the framework of Darwinian medicine. My primary aim is to analyse to what extent evolutionary theory provides for a biological definition of the concept of disease. This analysis reveals some important (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  6.  76
    Can Evolutionary Biology Do Without Aristotelian Essentialism?Stephen J. Boulter - 2012 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 70:83-103.
    It is usually maintained by biologists and philosophers alike that essentialism is incompatible with evolutionary biology, and that abandoning essentialism was a precondition of progress being made in the biological sciences. These claims pose a problem for anyone familiar with both evolutionary biology and current metaphysics. Very few current scientific theories enjoy the prestige of evolutionary biology. But essentialism – long in the bad books amongst both biologists and philosophers – has been enjoying a (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  7. The Evolutionary Biological Implications of Human Genetic Engineering.Russell Powell - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (1):22.
    A common worry about the genetic engineering of human beings is that it will reduce human genetic diversity, creating a biological monoculture that could not only increase our susceptibility to disease but also hasten the extinction of our species. Thus far, however, the evolutionary implications of human genetic modification remain largely unexplored. In this paper, I consider whether the widespread use of genetic engineering technology is likely to narrow the present range of genetic variation, and if so, whether this (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  8. An Extended Synthesis for Evolutionary Biology.Massimo Pigliucci - 2009 - Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1168:218-228.
    Evolutionary theory is undergoing an intense period of discussion and reevaluation. This, contrary to the misleading claims of creationists and other pseudoscientists, is no harbinger of a crisis but rather the opposite: the field is expanding dramatically in terms of both empirical discoveries and new ideas. In this essay I briefly trace the conceptual history of evolutionary theory from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism, and from the Modern Synthesis to what I refer to as the Extended Synthesis, a more inclusive (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   38 citations  
  9.  37
    What’s Wrong with Evolutionary Biology?John Welch - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (2):263-279.
    There have been periodic claims that evolutionary biology needs urgent reform, and this article tries to account for the volume and persistence of this discontent. It is argued that a few inescapable properties of the field make it prone to criticisms of predictable kinds, whether or not the criticisms have any merit. For example, the variety of living things and the complexity of evolution make it easy to generate data that seem revolutionary, and lead to disappointment with existing (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  10. Explanatory Pluralism in Evolutionary Biology.Kim Sterelny - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):193-214.
    The ontological dependence of one domain on another is compatible with the explanatory autonomy of the less basic domain. That autonomy results from the fact that the relationship between two domains can be very complex. In this paper I distinguish two different types of complexity, two ways the relationship between domains can fail to be transparent, both of which are relevant to evolutionary biology. Sometimes high level explanations preserve a certain type of causal or counterfactual information which would (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   57 citations  
  11.  72
    How Evolutionary Biology Presently Pervades Cell and Molecular Biology.Michel Morange - 2010 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):113 - 120.
    The increasing place of evolutionary scenarios in functional biology is one of the major indicators of the present encounter between evolutionary biology and functional biology (such as physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology), the two branches of biology which remained separated throughout the twentieth century. Evolutionary scenarios were not absent from functional biology, but their places were limited, and they did not generate research programs. I compare two examples of these past scenarios (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  12.  75
    How Evolutionary Biology Challenges the Classical Theory of Rational Choice.W. S. Cooper - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (4):457-481.
    A fundamental philosophical question that arises in connection with evolutionary theory is whether the fittest patterns of behavior are always the most rational. Are fitness and rationality fully compatible? When behavioral rationality is characterized formally as in classical decision theory, the question becomes mathematically meaningful and can be explored systematically by investigating whether the optimally fit behavior predicted by evolutionary process models is decision-theoretically coherent. Upon investigation, it appears that in nontrivial evolutionary models the expected behavior is (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  13.  22
    The Evolutionary Biological Implications of Human Genetic Engineering.R. Powell - 2012 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 37 (3):204-225.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  14.  37
    The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology.G. P. Wagner (ed.) - 2000 - Academic Press.
    " Because characters and the conception of characters are central to all studies of evolution, and because evolution is the central organizing principle of biology, this book will appeal to a wide cross-section of biologists.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   32 citations  
  15.  29
    Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology.E. Sober (ed.) - 1994 - The Mit Press. Bradford Books.
    Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the-chapters are ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   82 citations  
  16. Popper, Falsifiability, and Evolutionary Biology.David N. Stamos - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (2):161-191.
    First, a brief history is provided of Popper's views on the status of evolutionary biology as a science. The views of some prominent biologists are then canvassed on the matter of falsifiability and its relation to evolutionary biology. Following that, I argue that Popper's programme of falsifiability does indeed exclude evolutionary biology from within the circumference of genuine science, that Popper's programme is fundamentally incoherent, and that the correction of this incoherence results in a (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  17.  20
    Evolutionary Biology and Teleological Thinking.Michael Ruse - 2002 - In Andre Ariew, Robert Cummins & Mark Perlman (eds.), Functions: New Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology and Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 33--60.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  18.  5
    Modern Evolutionary Biology and Brazilian Population Genetics: Theodosius Dobzhansky at the University of São Paulo.Tito Brige de Carvalho - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):223-243.
    On the one hand, much has been written on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s central role in the development of the field of population genetics and modern evolutionary theory, as well as on his sociopolitical worldview in the middle of the Twentieth Century. On the other hand, much has also been written on Dobzhansky’s role in the institutionalization of genetics in Brazil, where he spent a considerable amount of time. Unfortunately, these literatures developed without any points of intersection or cross-reference. This article (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  19.  23
    Husserlian Phenomenology and Darwinian Evolutionary Biology: Complementarities, Exemplifications, and Implications.Maxine Sheets-Johnstone - 2017 - Studia Phaenomenologica 17:19-40.
    Descriptive foundations and a concern with origins are integral to both Husserlian phenomenology and Darwinian evolutionary biology. These complementary aspects are rooted in the lifeworld as it is experienced. Detailed specifications of the complementary aspects testify to a mutual relevance of phenomenology to evolutionary biology and of evolutionary biology to phenomenology. Exemplifications of the mutual relevance are given in terms of both human and nonhuman agentive abilities. The experiential exemplifications show that agentive abilities are (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20. Integrating Neuroscience, Psychology, and Evolutionary Biology Through a Teleological Conception of Function.Jennifer Mundale & William P. Bechtel - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (4):481-505.
    The idea of integrating evolutionary biology and psychology has great promise, but one that will be compromised if psychological functions are conceived too abstractly and neuroscience is not allowed to play a contructive role. We argue that the proper integration of neuroscience, psychology, and evolutionary biology requires a telelogical as opposed to a merely componential analysis of function. A teleological analysis is required in neuroscience itself; we point to traditional and curent research methods in neuroscience, which (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  21.  1
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.Robert N. Brandon - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    Robert Brandon is one of the most important and influential of contemporary philosophers of biology. This collection of his recent essays covers all the traditional topics in the philosophy of evolutionary biology and as such could serve as an introduction to the field. There are essays on the nature of fitness, teleology, the structure of the theory of natural selection, and the levels of selection. The book also deals with newer topics that are less frequently discussed but (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  22. Evolutionary Biology and Classical Teleological Arguments for God's Existence.James Dominic Rooney - 2013 - Heythrop Journal 54 (4):617-630.
    Much has been made of how Darwinian thinking destroyed proofs for the existence of God from ‘design’ in the universe. I challenge that prevailing view by looking closely at classical ‘teleological’ arguments for the existence of God. One version championed by Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas stems from how chance is not a sufficient kind of ultimate explanation of the universe. In the course of constructing this argument, I argue that the classical understanding of teleology is no less necessary in modern (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  78
    Explanation in Evolutionary Biology: Comments on Fodor.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2008 - Mind and Language 23 (1):32–41.
  24. Are Ecology and Evolutionary Biology “Soft” Sciences?Massimo Pigliucci - 2002 - Annales Zoologici Finnici 39:87-98.
    Research in ecology and evolutionary biology (evo-eco) often tries to emulate the “hard” sciences such as physics and chemistry, but to many of its practitioners feels more like the “soft” sciences of psychology and sociology. I argue that this schizophrenic attitude is the result of lack of appreciation of the full consequences of the peculiarity of the evo-eco sciences as lying in between a-historical disciplines such as physics and completely historical ones as like paleontology. Furthermore, evo-eco researchers have (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  25. Finding Common Ground Between Evolutionary Biology and Continental Philosophy.Maxine Sheets-Johnstone - 2007 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (3):327-348.
    This article identifies already existing theoretical and methodological commonalities between evolutionary biology and phenomenology, concentrating specifically on their common pursuit of origins. It identifies in passing theoretical support from evolutionary biology for present-day concerns in philosophy, singling out Sartre’s conception of fraternity as an example. It anchors its analysis of the common pursuit of origins in Husserl’s consistent recognition of the grounding significance of Nature and in his consistent recognition of animate forms of life other than (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  26.  35
    Niche Construction and Conceptual Change in Evolutionary Biology.Tobias Uller & Heikki Helanterä - 2019 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 70 (2):351-375.
    The theoretical status of ‘niche construction’ in evolution is intensely debated. Here we substantiate the reasons for different interpretations. We consider two concepts of niche construction brought to bear on evolutionary theory; one that emphasizes how niche construction contributes to selection and another that emphasizes how it contributes to development and inheritance. We explain the rationale for claims that selective and developmental niche construction motivate conceptual change in evolutionary biology and the logic of those who reject these (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  27.  18
    Evolutionary Biology and the Question of Teleology.Michael Ruse - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 58:100-106.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28. Intentional Psychology and Evolutionary Biology, Part II: The Crucial Disanalogy.Alexander Rosenberg - 1986 - Behaviorism 14 (2):125-138.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  29.  79
    Chances and Causes in Evolutionary Biology: How Many Chances Become One Chance.Roberta L. Millstein - 2011 - In P. M. Illari, F. Russo & J. Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 2--425.
    As a number of biologists and philosophers have emphasized, ‘chance’ has multiple meanings in evolutionary biology. Seven have been identified. I will argue that there is a unified concept of chance underlying these seven, which I call the UCC (Unified Chance Concept). I will argue that each is characterized by which causes are consid- ered, ignored, or prohibited. Thus, chance in evolutionary biology can only be under- stood through understanding the causes at work. The UCC aids (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  30.  87
    Quantum Indeterminism and Evolutionary Biology.David N. Stamos - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (2):164-184.
    In "The Indeterministic Character of Evolutionary Theory: No 'Hidden Variables Proof' But No Room for Determinism Either," Brandon and Carson (1996) argue that evolutionary theory is statistical because the processes it describes are fundamentally statistical. In "Is Indeterminism the Source of the Statistical Character of Evolutionary Theory?" Graves, Horan, and Rosenberg (1999) argue in reply that the processes of evolutionary biology are fundamentally deterministic and that the statistical character of evolutionary theory is explained by (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
  31.  49
    Newtonian Forces and Evolutionary Biology: A Problem and Solution for Extending the Force Interpretation.Joshua Filler - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):774-783.
    There has recently been a renewed interest in the “force” interpretation of evolutionary biology. In this article, I present the general structure of the arguments for the force interpretation and identify a problem in its overly permissive conditions for being a Newtonian force. I then attempt a solution that (1) helps to illuminate the difference between forces and other types of causes and (2) makes room for random genetic drift as a force. In particular, I argue that forces (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  32.  49
    The Strategy of Endogenization in Evolutionary Biology.Samir Okasha - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 14):3413-3435.
    Evolutionary biology is striking for its ability to explain a large and diverse range of empirical phenomena on the basis of a few general theoretical principles. This article offers a philosophical perspective on the way that evolutionary biology has come to achieve such impressive generality, by focusing on “the strategy of endogenization”. This strategy involves devising evolutionary explanations for biological features that were originally part of the background conditions, or scaffolding, against which such explanations take (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33.  76
    San Marco and Evolutionary Biology.Alasdair I. Houston - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):215-230.
    Gould and Lewontin use San Marco, Venice, to criticise the adaptationist program in biology. Following their lead, the architectural term “spandrel” is now widely used in biology to denote a feature that is a necessary byproduct of other aspects of the organism. I review the debate over San Marco and argue that the spandrels are not necessary in the sense originally used by Gould and Lewontin. I conclude that almost all the claims that Gould makes about San Marco (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  34.  79
    Tools From Evolutionary Biology Shed New Light on the Diversification of Languages.Stephen C. Levinson & Russell D. Gray - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):167-173.
  35.  24
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.Barbara L. Horan - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):483.
    This collection of essays by Robert Brandon spans two decades and most of the important problems in the philosophy of biology. Four of his five most important contributions to the philosophy of biology can be found here: the concept of relative adaptedness and its role in the propensity interpretation of fitness; the principle of natural selection; the use of the screening-off relation in defense of organismic selection; and the distinction between units of selection and levels of selection. The (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  36. Morality and Evolutionary Biology.William Fitzpatrick - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  37. The Nature of Evolutionary Biology: At the Borderlands Between Historical and Experimental Science.Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    The scientific status of evolutionary theory seems to be more or less perennially under question. I am not referring here (just) to the silliness of young Earth creation- ism (Pigliucci 2002; Boudry and Braeckman 2010), or even of the barely more intel- lectually sophisticated so-called Intelligent Design theory (Recker 2010; Brigandt this volume), but rather to discussions among scientists and philosophers of science concerning the epistemic status of evolutionary theory (Sober 2010). As we shall see in what follows, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  38.  54
    Is Evolutionary Biology Infected With Invalid Teleological Reasoning?David J. Depew - 2010 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 2 (20130604).
    John Reiss is a practicing evolutionary biologist (herpetology) who by his own account happened to be in the right place (Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology) at the right time (the 1980s) to hear echoes of the debate about sociobiology that had been raging there between E. O. Wilson and, on the other side, Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin (xiv). Reiss is not concerned with sociobiology, at least in this book, but with the adaptationism that Gould and Lewontin saw (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  39. Collective Intentionality, Evolutionary Biology and Social Reality.Jack Vromen - 2003 - Philosophical Explorations 6 (3):251-265.
    The paper aims to clarify and scrutinize Searle"s somewhat puzzling statement that collective intentionality is a biologically primitive phenomenon. It is argued that the statement is not only meant to bring out that "collective intentionality" is not further analyzable in terms of individual intentionality. It also is meant to convey that we have a biologically evolved innate capacity for collective intentionality.The paper points out that Searle"s dedication to a strong notion of collective intentionality considerably delimits the scope of his endeavor. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40.  14
    Life's Splendid Drama: Evolutionary Biology and the Reconstruction of Life's Ancestry, 1860-1940.Peter J. Bowler - 1997 - Journal of the History of Biology 30 (2):303-306.
  41.  30
    Functional Morphology and Evolutionary Biology.P. Dullemeijer - 1980 - Acta Biotheoretica 29 (3-4):151-250.
    In this study the relationship between functional morpholoy and evolutionary biology is analysed by confronting the main concepts in both disciplines.Rather than only discussing this connection theoretically, the analysis is carried out by introducing important practical and experimental studies, which use aspects from both disciplines. The mentioned investigations are methodologically analysed and the consequences for extensions of the relationship are worked out. It can be shown that both disciplines have a large domain of their own and also share (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  42.  20
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.John Dupré - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):292-296.
    This book is a collection of essays by a leading philosopher of biology and spans his career over almost the last twenty years. Most of the topics that have been of concern to philosophers of biology in this period are touched on to some extent, and the collection of these essays in a convenient volume will certainly be welcomed by everyone working in this field. The essays are arranged chronologically, and divided into three sections. Although the chapters in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  43. The Phylogeography Debate and the Epistemology of Model-Based Evolutionary Biology.Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):833-850.
    Phylogeography, a relatively new subdicipline of evolutionary biology that attempts to unify the fields of phylogenetics and population biology in an explicit geographical context, has hosted in recent years a highly polarized debate related to the purported benefits and limitations that qualitative versus quantitative methods might contribute or impose on inferential processes in evolutionary biology. Here we present a friendly, non-technical introduction to the conflicting methods underlying the controversy, and exemplify it with a balanced selection (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  44.  31
    Readers of the Book of Life: Contextualizing Developmental Evolutionary Biology.Anton Markoš - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a wide ranging and deeply learned examination of evolutionary developmental biology, and the foundations of life from the perspective of information theory. Hermeneutics was a method developed in the humanities to achieve understanding, in a given context, of texts, history, and artwork. In Readers of the Book of Life, the author shows that living beings are also hermeneutical interpreters of genetics texts saved in DNA; an interpretation based on the past experience of the cell (cell lineage, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  45.  84
    Theory and Experiment in Evolutionary Biology.Robert N. Brandon - 1994 - Synthese 99 (1):59 - 73.
  46.  41
    The Evolutionary Biology of Evil.Paul Thompson - 2002 - The Monist 85 (2):239-259.
    This paper is intended to be exploratory, polemical, and, I hope, provocative. It attempts to provide an evolutionary and naturalistic account of a central ethical concept: evil. I attempt this with full knowledge of the widespread and longstanding aversion, by philosophers, to naturalism in ethics.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47.  15
    Contract Ethics: Evolutionary Biology and the Moral Sentiments.Howard Kahane - 1995 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Recent theorists have suggested that human altruism toward non-family members evolved because of the tremendous benefits of reciprocity. Developing further the notion that evolutionary theory can help to explain moral sentiments, Howard Kahane proposes that a sense of fair play is essential to ethics and argues that moral obligation, too narrowly construed, prevents us from living rationally. He brings his account of fair play to bear on the ethics of various domains of social life including friendship, taxes, civil rights, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  48.  31
    Generalization in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: From Hypothesis to Paradigm. [REVIEW]Kari Vepsäläinen & John R. Spence - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):211-238.
    We argue that broad, simplegeneralizations, not specifically linked tocontingencies, will rarely approach truth in ecologyand evolutionary biology. This is because mostinteresting phenomena have multiple, interactingcauses. Instead of looking for single universaltheories to explain the great diversity of naturalsystems, we suggest that it would be profitable todevelop general explanatory frameworks. A frameworkshould clearly specify focal levels. The process orpattern that we wish to study defines our level offocus. The set of potential and actual states at thefocal level interacts with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  49. Psychological Hedonism, Evolutionary Biology, and the Experience Machine.John Lemos - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (4):506-526.
    In the second half of their recent, critically acclaimed book Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior , Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson discuss psychological hedonism. This is the view that avoiding our own pain and increasing our own pleasure are the only ultimate motives people have. They argue that none of the traditional philosophical arguments against this view are good, and they go on to present theirownevolutionary biological argument against it. Interestingly, the first half of their (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  50.  9
    Methodological Problems in Evolutionary Biology VII. The Species Plague.Wim J. van der Steen & Bart Voorzanger - 1986 - Acta Biotheoretica 35 (3):205-221.
    Various philosophers and evolutionary biologists have recently defended the thesis that species are individuals rather than sets. A decade of debates, however, did not suffice to settle the matter. Conceptual analysis shows that many of the key terms involved are ambiguous. Current disagreements should dissolve once this is recognized. Explication of the concepts involved leads to new programs for philosophical research. It could also help biology by showing how extant controversies concerning evolution may have conceptual rather than factual (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000