This forthcoming edited volume is written by expert women in philosophy for younger women and girls ages 16-20. It features a range of ethical, metaphysical, social and political, and other philosophical chapters divided into four main sections. Each chapter features an opening anecdote involving women and/or girls from historical, literary, artistic, scientific, mythic, and other sources to lead into the main topic of the chapter.
The gendered marketing of children’s toys is under considerable scrutiny, as reflected by numerous consumer-led campaigns and vigorous media debates. This article seeks to assist stakeholders to better understand the ethical and scientific assumptions that underlie the two opposing positions in this debate, and assess their relative strength. There is apparent consensus in the underlying ethical foundations of the debate, with all commentators seeming to endorse the values of corporate social responsibility and gender equality. However, the debate splits over three (...) critical points of empirical disagreement: whether gendered toy marketing influences children’s toy preferences or simply reflects boys’ and girls’ fundamentally different interests; whether the effects of gendered toy marketing are negative, neutral or beneficial; and whether a shift to gender-neutral marketing would be economically viable. We assess the three points of disagreement against the available evidence and shared ethical principles underlying the debate, and conclude that current defences of gendered toy marketing fail. (shrink)
_A thoroughly revised edition of the classic resource for understanding gender differences in the classroom_ In this profoundly significant book, author Michael Gurian has revised and updated his groundbreaking book that clearly demonstrated how the distinction in hard-wiring and socialized gender differences affects how boys and girls learn. Gurian presents a proven method to educate our children based on brain science, neurological development, and chemical and hormonal disparities. The innovations presented in this book were applied in the classroom and (...) proven successful, with dramatic improvements in test scores, during a two-year study that Gurian and his colleagues conducted in six Missouri school districts. Explores the inherent differences between the developmental neuroscience of boys and girls Reveals how the brain learns Explains when same sex classrooms are appropriate, and when they’re not This edition includes new information on a wealth of topics including how to design the ultimate classroom for kids in elementary, secondary, middle, and high school. (shrink)
Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation associated with psychopathology. Research with adults suggests that rumination covaries with diurnal cortisol rhythms, yet this has not been examined among adolescents. Here, we examine the day-to-day covariation between rumination and cortisol, and explore whether trait rumination is associated with alterations in diurnal cortisol rhythms among adolescent girls. Participants provided saliva samples 3 times per day over 3 days, along with daily reports of stress and rumination, questionnaires assessing trait rumination related (...) to peer stress, and diagnostic interviews assessing depression and anxiety. Greater rumination than usual during the day was associated with lower cortisol awakening responses the following morning, but this effect was not significant after accounting for wake time and an objective measure of adherence to the saliva sampling protocol. Trait rumination was associated with lower average cortisol levels at waking and flatter diurnal slopes, accounting for wake time, protocol compliance, and other factors. These patterns may help to explain why rumination is related to the development of psychopathology. (shrink)
SummaryThe aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16–18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, (...) 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence. (shrink)
The Declaration of Helsinki and the Council of the International Organization of Medical Sciences provide guidance on standards of care and prevention in clinical trials. In the current and increasingly challenging research environment, the ethical status of a trial design depends not only on protection of participants, but also on social value, feasibility, and scientific validity. Using the example of a study assessing efficacy of a vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus in HIV-1 infected adolescent girls in low resource (...) countries without access to the vaccine, we compare several trial designs which rank lower on some criteria and higher on others, giving rise to difficult trade-offs. This case demonstrates the need for developing more nuanced guidance documents to help researchers balance these often conflicting criteria. (shrink)
Recently, research into gender differences in achievement has mainly concentrated on the underperformance of boys in comparison with girls. Qualitative research in particular points to the importance of the gender-specific cultures adolescents experience. The purpose of this article is to test quantitatively the explanatory value of academic culture with respect to the stated gender differences in achievement. Use is made of data of 3760 pupils in the third and the fourth year of secondary education in a sample of 34 (...) schools in Flanders (Belgium). A distinction is made between general schools preparing students for higher education and schools offering technical and vocational education. It is demonstrated that boys' culture is less study oriented than girls' culture and that this difference can be held responsible for the gender differences in achievement, at least in general schools. In technical/vocational schools, boys seem to oppose the study culture. (shrink)
Oestrogen treatment for girls, to prevent psychosocial problems due to extreme tallness, has been available for almost 50 years but uncertainty about its position prevails. The ethical problems of this treatment are focused on in this paper. After a brief overview on historical and medical aspects, ethical issues such as the general justification of oestrogen treatment, evaluation of its success and ethical concerns related to research in this subject are dealt with in detail.
India is home to 243 million adolescents. Two million of them belong to Scheduled Tribes living in underserved, rural areas. Few studies have examined the health of tribal adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the health, nutrition and wellbeing of adolescent girls in rural Jharkhand, eastern India, a state where 26% of the population is from Scheduled Tribes. We aimed to identify priorities for community interventions to serve adolescents and their families. Between June 2016 and January 2017, (...) interviewers visited all households in 50 purposively sampled villages of West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand. They aimed to interview all girls aged 10–19. Interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews with girls to administer a survey about physical and mental health, disability, nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, gender norms, decision-making, education and violence. Interviewers also measured girls’ height, weight, and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference. Interviewers collected data from 3324 of an estimated 4068 girls residing in the study area. Their mean age was 14.3. 82% were from Scheduled Tribes. 89% of younger girls aged 10–14 and 46% of older girls aged 15–19 were in school or college. Girls dropped out of school because they were required for household work or work on the family farm or business. Over a third reported symptoms of anaemia in the past month, but less than a fifth had a blood test. The prevalence of thinness was 14% for younger girls and 6% for older girls. 45% of girls were stunted. 40% reported emotional violence in the past year, 14% physical violence, and 0.7% sexual violence. 12% had problems associated with depression or anxiety. 30% aged 15–19 had heard of contraception. Among married girls and their husbands, only 10% had ever used methods to prevent or delay pregnancy. Our study identified several priorities to improve adolescent girls’ health, nutrition and wellbeing in largely tribal areas of Jharkhand: reducing violence, early marriage and undernutrition, as well as improving mental health, knowledge about contraception and school retention. (shrink)
This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys' achievement. The research is based on data of 877 boys and 714 girls, attending the fifth year of a sample of 15 (...) general secondary schools. It is shown that the gender context of the school does not affect the boys' study culture, but the presence of girls positively influences the general pupils' study culture. By means of multilevel analyses , it is demonstrated that the larger the proportion of girls at school, the higher the boys achieve, and this finding can be ascribed to the general pupils' study culture. (shrink)
Growing evidence suggests mothers invest more in girls than boys and fathers more in boys than girls. We develop a hypothesis that predicts preference for girls by the parent facing more resource constraints and preference for boys by the parent facing less constraint. We test the hypothesis with panel data from the Tsimane’, a foraging-farming society in the Bolivian Amazon. Tsimane’ mothers face more resource constraints than fathers. As predicted, mother’s wealth protected girl’s BMI, but father’s wealth (...) had weak effects on boy’s BMI. Numerous tests yielded robust results, including those that controlled for fixed effects of child and household. (shrink)
ABSTRACTMoral pride has been found to be a positive component of moral life. Nevertheless, this emotion has been the object of little attention and hardly any studies focus on gender differences in this regard. Is this emotion more intense in girls than in boys? Five studies on authentic moral pride, with sample groups in different age ranges and using different measures, were carried out to answer this question. When significant or marginally significant differences were observed, they were always in (...) favor of girls, but were fairly small. In the discussion, these results are interpreted in light of the feeling rules about pride in general and a series of guidelines are suggested for children’s education. (shrink)
Girls are now out-performing boys at GCSE level, giving rise to a debate in the media on boys' underachievement. However, often such work has been a 'knee-jerk' response, led by media, not based on solid research. _Boys, Girls and Achievement - Addressing the Classroom Issues_ fills that gap and: *provides a critical overview of the current debate on achievement; *Focuses on interviews with young people and classroom observations to examine how boys and girls see themselves as learners; (...) *analyses the strategies teachers can use to improve the educational achievements of both boys and girls. Becky Francis provides teachers with a thorough analysis of the various ways in which secondary school pupils construct their gender identities in the classroom. The book also discusses methods teachers might use challenge these gender constructions in the classroom and thereby address the 'gender-gap' in achievement. (shrink)
Worldwide data indicate a growing number of energy homeostasis disorders, which are especially dangerous in childhood. The distribution and growing trends of overweight and obesity in children have been widely investigated, unlike the prevalence of too-low body weight and its determinants. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of body mass deficiency in Polish rural girls and differences among four Polish regions – Choszczno and Leszno in the north-west, and Ostrów Mazowiecka and Suwałki in the north-east. Data were taken (...) from 7764 rural girls aged 9–18 years examined in 1987, when the country was in economic crisis, and 9431 such girls examined in 2001, when the country was undergoing political transformation. The frequency of weight deficiency was estimated based on BMI by applying the international standards of Cole. An Extent of Overweight index was used to create an Extent of Thinness index. A significant increase in weight deficiency was found in the rural girls – from 7.5% in 1987 to 8.9% in 2001 – and an increase in the EOT index from 0.37 in 1987 to 0.43 in 2001. Analysis by area of residence demonstrated significant differentiation. In the regions in north-west Poland, mainly inhabited by non-farming families, the prevalence of weight deficiency in girls almost doubled from 1987 to 2001, probably because of the mass and long-term unemployment that resulted from the closure of state farms in 1992. In contrast, in the north-east regions, the prevalence of weight deficiency remained almost unchanged over this period, with only a slight decrease, probably because the inhabitants were mainly farm and farm/working families with better living conditions. Despite the overall increase in thinness prevalence in rural girls in Poland, different living conditions have had different biological effects. (shrink)
This study examines how the use of self‐ and peer‐assessment within a girls‐only biology class can support students’ motivation. The study took place over 22 weeks in a rural comprehensive school, and the participants were girls between 15 and 16 years of age. Data included questionnaires, semi‐structured interviews, notes from lesson observations and video‐transcripts of peer‐assessment episodes. Data analysis suggests that girls’ motivation may be supported, both by being taught in a single‐sex group and by employing assessment (...) for learning techniques. However, such benefits were not ubiquitous and may have been negated by examination anxiety, inadequate time to adapt to assessment for learning strategies, limited negative effects of single‐sex teaching on learning, the way in which the single‐sex class was created and some girls’ resilient conceptions of science being a masculine subject. (shrink)
Autism, typically described as a spectrum neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in verbal ability and social reciprocity as well as obsessive or repetitious behaviours, is currently thought to markedly affect more males than females. Not surprisingly, this encourages a gendered understanding of the Autism Spectrum. Simon Baron-Cohen, a prominent authority in the field of autism research, characterizes the male brain type as biased toward systemizing. In contrast, the female brain type is understood to be biased toward empathizing. Since persons with (...) autism are characterized as hyper-systemizers and hypo-empathizers, Baron-Cohen suggests that, whether they are male or female, most possess an “extreme male brain profile.” We argue that Baron-Cohen is misled by an unpersuasive gendering of certain capacities or aptitudes in the human population. Moreover, we suggest that this may inadvertently favour boys in diagnosing children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. If this is correct, it could also have rather serious consequences for treatment and services for girls (and women) on the Autism Spectrum. (shrink)
There have been a number of investigations into the extent to which teachers in the primary school interact within their classrooms with boys and girls and the results of these investigations have differed considerably, some showing boys receiving more interaction than girls and others showing no differences. The aim of this investigation was to try and clarify matters by examining specific categories of teacher verbal behaviour and by including a measure of the quantity and pattern of the off?task (...) behaviour of the boys and girls. Data were collected from 18 teachers and their pupils in junior school classrooms. The results showed that the boys received more overall verbal communication than the girls in those categories concerned with approbation and disapprobation and that the boys were also less on?task overall than the girls. There were also marked differences between the boys and the girls in their patterns of off?task behaviour. (shrink)
“Girls in the Museum” is a project aimed at school students to encourage them to explore scientific careers and engage with science. To achieve its goals, the project uses a variety of methodologies during the training sessions, always emphasizing the contributions of women to science and society throughout history. In one activity, the participants had to select 14 scientists and philosophers and compile their contributions in a talk that they presented in various Museum events. 1,5 years after the first (...) presentation, we have interviewed and analysed the impressions and memories of the girls on this activity. The results show that the participants could still remember the history of the selected scientists and understand their scientific work because they felt represented. We argue that the historiography of women in sciences is a valuable resource that can be used in all educational levels as well as museums. (shrink)
Labioplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alter the size and shape of the labia minora. The reasons for women requesting this procedure remain largely unknown and recently girls and young women under the age of 18 years have been requesting this type of surgery. This paper examines the ethical acceptability of performing this procedure on under 18s. We will first discuss whether labioplasty can be considered to be a therapeutic technique. We will claim that, while it is difficult (...) to offer a definitive definition of what constitutes a therapeutic technique, in our view labioplasty cannot be considered as such. This conclusion has relevance for the ethical acceptability of the procedure, its legal status in regard to the Female Genital Mutilation Act and the debates over who can give consent for it. It will be concluded that in our current state of knowledge, the benefits of labioplasty are far from clear, whereas the harms are demonstrable and therefore this procedure should not be offered to those aged under 18 years. (shrink)
The ‘Marwa’ elementary school (pseudonym) – an Israeli public school on the border between Israel and the Palestinian Authority – is a unique educational institution in that, despite being not religious, it only accepts from Grade 1 through to Grade 6 girls. Several years ago, the principal decided to implement a Philosophy with Children (PwC) programme as an alternative pedagogy. This paper surveys how the educational faculty regarded the introduction of this curriculum and how it contributed towards the development (...) of philosophical discursive skills, a classroom atmosphere of friendship and caring, and critical and creative thinking competence amongst the students. (shrink)
One facet of Vigil's socio-relational framework of expressive behaviors (SRFB) suggests that females are more sensitive to facial expressions than are males, and should detect facial expressions more quickly. A re-examination of recent research with children demonstrates that girls do detect various facial expressions more quickly than do boys. Although this provides support for SRFB, further examination of SRFB in children would lend important support this evolutionary-based theory.
In this article I present a discussion about the purpose of education of, for and with black, working class, young women within an inner-London, twenty-first century college, and explore the complex and imperfect ways that educational purpose translates into educational practice. I discuss the respective value of two contrasting discourses of education that operate in this college: firstly, a neoliberal discourse of education and educational success; secondly, a critical tradition of education, as traced through the work of Paulo Freire, feminist (...) critics of his work and, ultimately, the work of bell hooks. I argue that a neoliberal rhetoric surrounding education, and the ways it translates into the practice of educating, plays a particular role in Black British, working class girls’ continuing educational marginalization. I thus articulate a more liberatory approach to teaching and learning with young, black women, drawing specifically on a hooksian vision of education as it emerges primarily through the work of, Ruth Nicole Brown and Stephanie D. Sears. Within these discussions, I explore dance as a potentially liberatory pedagogic practice, and articulate a possible approach here as an, always imperfect, embodied pedagogy of hope. (shrink)
In recent years educational policy on gender and achievement has concentrated on boys' underachievement, frequently comparing it with the academic success of girls. This has encouraged a perception of girls as the ?winners? of the educational stakes and assumes that they no longer experience the kinds of gender inequalities identified in earlier studies. However, trying to balance academic achievement with being seen as a ?proper girl? presents girls with difficult challenges, particularly in terms of being accepted and (...) approved of by classmates and securing the attention of teachers. This paper explores the views of a group of high achieving 12? to 13?year?old girls who indicate that being regarded as ?clever? continues to be negotiated within acceptable frameworks of femininity. (shrink)
From 1848 to 1850, 4175 female orphans from Irish workhouses were sent to the Australian colonies to escape from the Irish famine and to address the gender imbalance in the colonies. Anglo-centric colonial newspapers condemned the girls for their supposedly inferior demographics – Catholic, illiterate, Irish and female – and raised the spectre of Catholic predominance, leading to the cancellation of the immigration scheme at a time of great humanitarian need. Using the original shipping lists of the girls (...) who landed in New South Wales and the colony’s census data, this paper uses a quantitative analysis to argue that while newspapers were relatively correct in characterizing the girls’ demographics, they were incorrect in their claims about how the girls’ arrival would influence the colony’s demographic development. (shrink)
Summary The study used group discussions and a documentary method to investigate which micro-processes at the nexus of family, peer group, and school encouraged and discouraged seventh-grade girls' involvement in club sports, and what collective orientations accompanied these processes. Based on reconstructed micro-processes and orientations, two selected groups of girls in intermediate and upper secondary school were compared to determine how involvement in club sports differed by school type. One result was that the upper secondary school students were (...) part of several social reference groups with a sports orientation simultaneously, whereas the intermediate secondary school students were part of fewer social reference groups overall, and the groups they were part of tended to have other orientations than sports. The upper secondary students benefited during their childhood and preteen years from interactions among social reference groups that were conducive to club sports involvement, whereas intermediate secondary students were exposed to interactions that inhibited their involvement in sports. This inhibiting effect results from a lack of family influences, negative sports experiences in school, and in particular the high significance of peer groups that pursue other interests having little to do with club sports. (shrink)
This paper describes some of the experiences of working with teenage girls' friendship groups at 'Hilltop', a large urban comprehensive school in the north of England. Working between and within multiple friendship groups in a variety of spaces and places raises ethical and moral responsibilities for the feminist researcher. This paper explores the ethical dilemmas raised when confronted with oppressive behaviour when 'hanging out' with groups of teenage girls, as well as the implications this has for the researcher's (...) feminist 'politics of intervention'. Finally, I call for a politicisation of the geographies of children and youth. (shrink)
This study examines the socio-cultural significance of dolls as Roman girls' toys. It focuses on a sample of ivory, bone, and cloth dolls, many of which have ornate hairstyles, molded breasts and, in some cases, delineated genitalia. As the only explicitly gendered toys from the Roman world, these constitute unique bodies of evidence for exploring questions of socialization and identity formation, and assessing ancient ideals. Often treated as relatively straightforward objects that prepared girls for futures as wives and (...) mothers, this study argues instead that they were more complex and conveyed mixed messages to their young owners. By isolating three specific features of the dolls , situating these in their historical and ideological milieux, and linking them with expectations for girls known from literary sources, the dolls' multivalence as artifacts of gender and status is revealed. (shrink)
This paper describes some of the experiences of working with teenage girls' friendship groups at 'Hilltop', a large urban comprehensive school in the north of England. Working between and within multiple friendship groups in a variety of spaces and places raises ethical and moral responsibilities for the feminist researcher. This paper explores the ethical dilemmas raised when confronted with oppressive behaviour when 'hanging out' with groups of teenage girls, as well as the implications this has for the researcher's (...) feminist 'politics of intervention'. Finally, I call for a (re)politicisation of the geographies of children and youth. (shrink)
The models girls like to make are often assumed to be different from boys’. A comparison of children's own descriptions of their models shows that there is little difference between boys’ and girls’ choices. The suggestion is made that effort should be directed toward developing enabling strategies rather than different contexts for girls’ model making.
The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single‐sex and coeducational school environments on girls’ motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls from eight coeducational and two single‐sex schools were followed during a period of three academic years in a longitudinal research scheme. Data were collected with a self‐reported questionnaire including several scales: parental and teachers’ support, competence beliefs, utility‐value and achievement goals. In general, mixed‐design repeated measures (...) analyses of variance indicated no effect of the environment or of the interaction between environment and time of measurement. Significant time effects on several variables indicated a general decline of achievement motivation over time. Consequently, the multiplication of non‐mixed high schools, as proposed by some, would constitute an expensive and inefficient social policy, as far as girls’ motivation is concerned. (shrink)
This is a study of the development of student agency from a gender perspective in a Finnish classroom. The data originates from an ethnographic research project in an elementary school classroom engaging in a play pedagogy project called a “playworld.” The article has two purposes. The first is to examine the potential of imagination and improvised fantasy play in the development of agency. The second is to investigate the role of gender as a social category in shaping the students’ possibilities (...) for agency in the play pedagogical setting. The creative use of imagination is at the center of the playworld pedagogy. However, it has rarely been studied in relation to the potentially uneven or stereotypic consequences of cultural tools, symbols, and categories. The analytical focus is on the gender-related categorization of a ‘horse girl’ and the role it played in the development of the agency of two seven-year-old girls as they participated in the playworld. I have used a multidisciplinary analytical framework to sensitize myself to the data. In the article I combine Vygotsky’s ideas of double stimulation, Sacks’ categorization analysis and, Holzkamp’s concept of action potence . The results show that the playworld pedagogy that explicitly aimed at developing children’s agency and collaboration was strongly gender categorized and thus was constraining for the girls in this study. On the other hand, the girls’ unplanned fantasy play, which took place on the sidelines of the classroom activity, contained important agentive elements. It gave the girls a sense of agency crucial to their enactment of agency in the wider playworld setting. It is argued that the girls were able to become agentive players in the activity through questioning the gendered categories openly in the classroom. (shrink)
The present study focuses on meeting online strangers face-to-face. This activity represents one of the least prevalent but also most feared online risks for youth. Due to the low number of youth experiencing upsetting meetings and the dominance of quantitative research designs in the area, the current state of knowledge does not provide a clear view of what happens at meetings that youths find upsetting. The aim of the present study is to enrich knowledge in this area by exploring such (...) upsetting experiences in more depth by using qualitative methodology. Based on 14 interviews with Czech girls aged 15 to 18, who reported upsetting meetings with online strangers, the study identifies the discrepancy between expectations and reality as the core reason for these negative feelings. There were several reasons for this discrepancy: different developmental phases, related different experiences with romantic relationships, and exaggeration of impressions formed online. (shrink)
There have been a number of earlier investigations, using differing methodologies, into the extent to which teachers in the secondary school interact with boys and girls and the results have suggested an imbalance in the teachers? verbal behaviour towards the genders that is quite similar to the imbalance found in teachers? behaviour in the primary school. The main aim of this study was to devise an investigation using the same methodology as that used in a recent primary school investigation (...) in order to be able to make a fair comparison between the two levels. The results showed considerable differences in the teachers? verbal behaviour towards the genders in the secondary school from that of teachers in the primary school. Where the primary school data showed teachers interacting more with the boys than the girls and the boys being less on?task than the girls, the secondary school data showed no such differences. (shrink)
This paper proposes a causal model of sexual activity among a randomly selected sample of 305 Junior secondary school girls in Zambia. The results indicate that liberal sexual attitudes influence romantic involvement with boys. Emotional involvement is likely to result in sexual activity. Traditional courtship forms are slowly being replaced by modern patterns of courtship behaviour. Policy and programme implications are discussed.
This article discusses the findings of a research project concerning gender differences in computing in secondary schools, funded by the Equal Opportunities Commission. The research examined the organisation and teaching of computing in secondary schools, assessing the extent and nature of gender differences in participation in computing activities and examined teacher attitudes to girls and computing. The article outlines the main findings of the research and includes a series of recommendations for action by schools.
This study explores girls? aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls? achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their transition to post-compulsory school life. Perspectives of their staff were also sought, focusing on the impact of school (...) and its community on girls? aspirations. Findings indicated that while the aspirations of the primary school girls were similar, those of the secondary girls differed significantly. Staff viewed this as reflective of the local context and school ethos. These responses offer a basis on which schools could build strategies to increase aspirations and provide support towards their achievement. (shrink)
New empirical evidence on the long-term effects of oestrogen treatment for tall adolescent girls has shown that the intended psychosocial benefit of the treatment may not have been realised. This paper describes recent trends in the prevalence of the treatment and the results of a large Australian cohort study evaluating girls assessed between 1959 and 1993 for excessive growth. The paper concludes that oestrogen treatment to prevent extreme tallness should belong to the past, not to the future.
Summary A number of elite boys? schools in England have admitted girls for over 30 years, some thereby becoming mixed schools. In other schools, girls remain a very small minority. This paper focuses upon prospectuses from the latter type of school, arguing that prospectuses are particularly valuable as a basis for judging schools? policies and practices in their own terms. The researchers ask questions about the nature of this form of ?co-education?, particularly as it affects girls? educational (...) and social opportunities. On balance, the prospectuses paint a picture of boys? schools which happen to have girls in them rather than of schools whose policies and practices have become genuinely co-educational. (shrink)
Young women’s identities are an issue of public and academic interest across a number of western nations at the present time. This book explores how young women attending an elite school for girls understand and construct ‘empowerment’. It investigates the extent to which, and the ways in which, their constructions of empowerment and identity work to overturn, or resist, key regulations and normative expectations for girls in post-feminist, hyper-sexualised cultural contexts. The book provides a succinct overview of feminist (...) theorisations of normative femininities in young women’s lives in western cultural contexts. It includes familiar sexist discourses such as sexual double standards, as well as more recent commentary about the regulation of young women’s subjectivities in neoliberal, post-feminist, hyper-sexualised cultures. Drawing on ethnographic research in the context of an elite girls’ secondary school, the author explores how empowerment for young women is constructed and understood across a range of textual practices. From visual representations of young women in school promotional material, to students’ constructions of popular celebrities, the question of how girls’ resistance to normative femininities begins to develop is examined. This rich empirical work makes a unique contribution to the study of elite schooling within the sociology of education, drawing on important insights from the field of critical girlhood studies, and posing a challenge to popular feminist notions about media literacy, young women and empowerment. It will be of interest to scholars and postgraduates in the areas of gender studies, sociology, education, youth studies and cultural studies. (shrink)
The landmark book Boys and Girls Learn Differently! outlines the brain-based educational theories and techniques that can be used to transform classrooms and help children learn better. Now The Boys and Girls Learn Differently Action Guide for Teachers presents experiential learning techniques that teachers can use to create an environment and enriched curriculum that take into account the needs of the developing child's brain and allows both boys and girls to gain maximum learning opportunities. This important and (...) easy-to-use guide is based on the latest scientific scholarship on the differences between boy's and girl's brains, neurological development, hormonal effects, behavior, and learning needs and offers information on what all children need to be able to learn effectively. Michael Gurian and his colleagues applied these recent discoveries in the field during a two-year Gurian Institute pilot program in Missouri that led to measurably better academic performance and improved behavior. (shrink)
This book focuses on social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image, community violence, pregnancy, and education. The authors also emphasize the incredible resiliency that young women possess in countering many of the social barriers confronting them.