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Profile: William M. Goodman
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  1. Fact, Fiction, and Forecast.Nelson Goodman - 1955 - Harvard University Press.
    In his new foreword to this edition, Hilary Putnam forcefully rejects these nativist claims.
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  2. Languages of Art.Nelson Goodman - 1968 - Bobbs-Merrill.
    . . . Unlike Dewey, he has provided detailed incisive argumentation, and has shown just where the dogmas and dualisms break down." -- Richard Rorty, The Yale Review.
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  3.  75
    Ways of Worldmaking.Nelson Goodman - 1978 - Harvester Press.
    Required reading at more than 100 colleges and universities throughout North America.
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  4. Problems and Projects.Nelson Goodman - 1972 - Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
  5.  60
    Of Mind and Other Matters.Nelson Goodman - 1984 - Harvard University Press.
    Essays discuss cognition, perception, art, science, truth, metaphor, education, philosophy, and cognitive psychology.
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  6.  22
    One and Done? Optimal Decisions From Very Few Samples.Edward Vul, Noah Goodman, Thomas L. Griffiths & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (4):599-637.
    In many learning or inference tasks human behavior approximates that of a Bayesian ideal observer, suggesting that, at some level, cognition can be described as Bayesian inference. However, a number of findings have highlighted an intriguing mismatch between human behavior and standard assumptions about optimality: People often appear to make decisions based on just one or a few samples from the appropriate posterior probability distribution, rather than using the full distribution. Although sampling-based approximations are a common way to implement Bayesian (...)
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  7.  84
    The Structure of Appearance.Nelson Goodman - 1951 - Harvard University Press.
  8.  83
    Knowledge and Implicature: Modeling Language Understanding as Social Cognition.Noah D. Goodman & Andreas Stuhlmüller - 2013 - Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):173-184.
    Is language understanding a special case of social cognition? To help evaluate this view, we can formalize it as the rational speech-act theory: Listeners assume that speakers choose their utterances approximately optimally, and listeners interpret an utterance by using Bayesian inference to “invert” this model of the speaker. We apply this framework to model scalar implicature (“some” implies “not all,” and “N” implies “not more than N”). This model predicts an interaction between the speaker's knowledge state and the listener's interpretation. (...)
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  9. About.N. Goodman - 1961 - Mind 70:1.
  10.  9
    An Ethics Framework for a Learning Health Care System: A Departure From Traditional Research Ethics and Clinical Ethics.Ruth R. Faden, Nancy E. Kass, Steven N. Goodman, Peter Pronovost, Sean Tunis & Tom L. Beauchamp - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (s1):16-27.
  11.  14
    A Rational Analysis of Rule‐Based Concept Learning.Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Jacob Feldman & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):108-154.
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  12.  21
    The Research‐Treatment Distinction: A Problematic Approach for Determining Which Activities Should Have Ethical Oversight.Nancy E. Kass, Ruth R. Faden, Steven N. Goodman, Peter Pronovost, Sean Tunis & Tom L. Beauchamp - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (s1):4-15.
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  13.  57
    An Argument For Necessitism.Jeremy Goodman - 2016 - Philosophical Perspectives 30 (1):160-182.
    This paper presents a new argument for necessitism, the claim that necessarily everything is necessarily something. The argument appeals to principles about the metaphysics of quantification and predication which are best seen as constraints on reality’s fineness of grain. I give this argument in section 4; the impatient reader may skip directly there. Sections 1-3 set the stage by surveying three other arguments for necessitism. I argue that none of them are persuasive, but I think it is illuminating to consider (...)
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  14. Cognitive Enhancement, Cheating, and Accomplishment.Rob Goodman - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):pp. 145-160.
    In an essay on performance-enhancing drugs, author Chuck Klosterman (2007) argues that the category of enhancers extends from hallucinogens used to inspire music to steroids used to strengthen athletes—and he criticizes those who would excuse one means of enhancement while railing against the other as a form of cheating: After the summer of 1964, the Beatles started taking serious drugs, and those drugs altered their musical performance. Though it may not have been their overt intent, the Beatles took performance-enhancing drugs. (...)
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  15.  13
    The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery.Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  16. Knowing Against the Odds.Cian Dorr, Jeremy Goodman & John Hawthorne - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 170 (2):277-287.
    We present and discuss a counterexample to the following plausible principle: if you know that a coin is fair, and for all you know it is going to be flipped, then for all you know it will land tails.
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  17. Selective Confirmation and the Ravens: A Reply to Foster.Israel Scheffler & Nelson Goodman - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (3):78.
  18. The Structure and Dynamics of Scientific Theories: A Hierarchical Bayesian Perspective.Henderson Leah, D. Goodman Noah, B. Tenenbaum Joshua & F. Woodward James - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (2):172-200.
    Hierarchical Bayesian models (HBMs) provide an account of Bayesian inference in a hierarchically structured hypothesis space. Scientific theories are plausibly regarded as organized into hierarchies in many cases, with higher levels sometimes called ‘paradigms’ and lower levels encoding more specific or concrete hypotheses. Therefore, HBMs provide a useful model for scientific theory change, showing how higher‐level theory change may be driven by the impact of evidence on lower levels. HBMs capture features described in the Kuhnian tradition, particularly the idea that (...)
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  19.  86
    Reality is Not Structured.Jeremy Goodman - 2017 - Analysis 77 (1):43–53.
    The identity predicate can be defined using second-order quantification: a=b =df ∀F(Fa↔Fb). Less familiarly, a dyadic sentential operator analogous to the identity predicate can be defined using third-order quantification: ϕ≡ψ =df ∀X(Xϕ↔Xψ), where X is a variable of the same syntactic type as a monadic sentential operator. With this notion in view, it is natural to ask after general principles governing its application. More grandiosely, how fine-grained is reality? -/- I will argue that reality is not structured in anything like (...)
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  20.  7
    Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data.Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins - 2008 - Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
  21.  24
    Adjectival Vagueness in a Bayesian Model of Interpretation.Daniel Lassiter & Noah D. Goodman - forthcoming - Synthese:1-36.
    We derive a probabilistic account of the vagueness and context-sensitivity of scalar adjectives from a Bayesian approach to communication and interpretation. We describe an iterated-reasoning architecture for pragmatic interpretation and illustrate it with a simple scalar implicature example. We then show how to enrich the apparatus to handle pragmatic reasoning about the values of free variables, explore its predictions about the interpretation of scalar adjectives, and show how this model implements Edgington’s Vagueness: a reader, 1997) account of the sorites paradox, (...)
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  22. Against the Mental Files Conception of Singular Thought.Rachel Goodman - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology (2):1-25.
    It has become popular of late to identify the phenomenon of thinking a singular thought with that of thinking with a mental file. Proponents of the mental files conception of singular thought claim that one thinks a singular thought about an object o iff one employs a mental file to think about o. I argue that this is false by arguing that there are what I call descriptive mental files, so some file-based thought is not singular thought. Descriptive mental files (...)
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  23.  29
    Rational Use of Cognitive Resources: Levels of Analysis Between the Computational and the Algorithmic.Thomas L. Griffiths, Falk Lieder & Noah D. Goodman - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (2):217-229.
    Marr's levels of analysis—computational, algorithmic, and implementation—have served cognitive science well over the last 30 years. But the recent increase in the popularity of the computational level raises a new challenge: How do we begin to relate models at different levels of analysis? We propose that it is possible to define levels of analysis that lie between the computational and the algorithmic, providing a way to build a bridge between computational- and algorithmic-level models. The key idea is to push the (...)
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  24. An Extended Lewis-Stalnaker Semantics and The New Problem of Counterpossibles.Jeffrey Goodman - 2004 - Philosophical Papers 33 (1):35-66.
    Closest-possible-world analyses of counterfactuals suffer from what has been called the ‘problem of counterpossibles’: some counterfactuals with metaphysically impossible antecedents seem plainly false, but the proposed analyses imply that they are all (vacuously) true. One alleged solution to this problem is the addition of impossible worlds. In this paper, I argue that the closest possible or impossible world analyses that have recently been suggested suffer from the ‘new problem of counterpossibles’: the proposed analyses imply that some plainly true counterpossibles (viz., (...)
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  25. Higher-Order Contingentism, Part 1: Closure and Generation.Peter Fritz & Jeremy Goodman - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (6):645-695.
    This paper is a study of higher-order contingentism – the view, roughly, that it is contingent what properties and propositions there are. We explore the motivations for this view and various ways in which it might be developed, synthesizing and expanding on work by Kit Fine, Robert Stalnaker, and Timothy Williamson. Special attention is paid to the question of whether the view makes sense by its own lights, or whether articulating the view requires drawing distinctions among possibilities that, according to (...)
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  26.  39
    Learning to Learn Causal Models.Charles Kemp, Noah D. Goodman & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (7):1185-1243.
    Learning to understand a single causal system can be an achievement, but humans must learn about multiple causal systems over the course of a lifetime. We present a hierarchical Bayesian framework that helps to explain how learning about several causal systems can accelerate learning about systems that are subsequently encountered. Given experience with a set of objects, our framework learns a causal model for each object and a causal schema that captures commonalities among these causal models. The schema organizes the (...)
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  27.  32
    Reconceptions in Philosophy and Other Arts and Sciences.Nelson Goodman - 1988 - Routledge.
    Knowing and Making 1. Obstacles to Knowing The theory of knowledge to be sketched here rejects both absolutism and nihilism, both unique truth and the ...
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  28.  43
    Cognitivism, Significance and Singular Thought.Rachel Goodman - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly:pqv074.
    This paper has a narrow and a broader target. The narrow target is a particular version of what I call the mental-files conception of singular thought, proposed by Robin Jeshion, and known as cognitivism. The broader target is the MFC in general. I give an argument against Jeshion's view, which gives us preliminary reason to reject the MFC more broadly. I argue Jeshion's theory of singular thought should be rejected because the central connection she makes between significance and singularity does (...)
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  29.  81
    Consequences of Compassion: An Interpretation and Defense of Buddhist Ethics.Charles Goodman - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Fundamental Buddhist teachings -- Main features of some western ethical theories -- Teravāda ethics as rule-consequentialism -- Mahāyāna ethics before Śāntideva and after -- Transcending ethics -- Buddhist ethics and the demands of consequentialism -- Buddhism on moral responsibility -- Punishment -- Objections and replies -- A Buddhist response to Kant.
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  30. Steps Toward a Constructive Nominalism.Nelson Goodman & W. V. Quine - 1947 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 12 (4):105-122.
  31.  45
    Buddhism, Naturalism, and the Pursuit of Happiness.Charles Goodman - 2014 - Zygon 49 (1):220-230.
    Owen Flanagan's important book The Bodhisattva's Brain presents a naturalized interpretation of Buddhist philosophy. Although the overall approach of the book is very promising, certain aspects of its presentation could benefit from further reflection. Traditional teachings about reincarnation do not contradict the doctrine of no self, as Flanagan seems to suggest; however, they are empirically rather implausible. Flanagan's proposed “tame” interpretation of karma is too thin; we can do better at fitting karma into a scientific worldview. The relationship between eudaimonist (...)
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  32.  20
    Humility Pills: Building an Ethics of Cognitive Enhancement.Rob Goodman - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (3):258-278.
    The use of cognition-enhancing drugs (CEDs) appears to be increasingly common in both academic and workplace settings. But many universities and businesses have not yet engaged with the ethical challenges raised by CED use. This paper considers criticisms of CED use with a particular focus on the Accomplishment Argument: an influential set of claims holding that enhanced work is less dignified, valuable, or authentic, and that cognitive enhancement damages our characters. While the Accomplishment Argument assumes a view of authorship based (...)
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  33.  12
    Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols.B. C. O'Neill & Nelson Goodman - 1971 - Philosophical Quarterly 21 (85):361.
  34. The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals.Nelson Goodman - 1947 - Journal of Philosophy 44 (5):113-128.
  35.  65
    Williamson on Necessitism.Jeremy Goodman - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):613-639.
    I critically discuss some of the main arguments of Modal Logic as Metaphysics, present a different way of thinking about the issues raised by those arguments, and briefly discuss some broader issues about the role of higher-order logic in metaphysics.
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  36. The Calculus of Individuals and its Uses.Henry S. Leonard & Nelson Goodman - 1940 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):45-55.
  37. Seven Strictures on Similarity.Nelson Goodman - 1972 - In Problems and Projects. Bobs-Merril.
     
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  38.  26
    Bootstrapping in a Language of Thought: A Formal Model of Numerical Concept Learning.Steven T. Piantadosi, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Noah D. Goodman - 2012 - Cognition 123 (2):199-217.
  39.  3
    What Patients Say About Medical Research.Jeremy Sugarman, Nancy E. Kass, Steven N. Goodman, Patricia Perentesis, Praveen Fernandes & Ruth R. Faden - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  40.  13
    The Imaginary Fundamentalists: The Unshocking Truth About Bayesian Cognitive Science.Nick Chater, Noah Goodman, Thomas L. Griffiths, Charles Kemp, Mike Oaksford & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):194-196.
    If Bayesian Fundamentalism existed, Jones & Love's (J&L's) arguments would provide a necessary corrective. But it does not. Bayesian cognitive science is deeply concerned with characterizing algorithms and representations, and, ultimately, implementations in neural circuits; it pays close attention to environmental structure and the constraints of behavioral data, when available; and it rigorously compares multiple models, both within and across papers. J&L's recommendation of Bayesian Enlightenment corresponds to past, present, and, we hope, future practice in Bayesian cognitive science.
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  41.  5
    What Is Public Health Legal Preparedness?Anthony D. Moulton, Richard N. Gottfried, Richard A. Goodman, Anne M. Murphy & Raymond D. Rawson - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 31 (4):672-683.
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  42. What Collins's The Sociology of Philosophies Says About Sociological Theory.Douglas Goodman - 2001 - Sociological Theory 19 (1):92-101.
    In Collins's latest book, we see an attempt to apply his sociological theories to the history of philosophy. While Collins's macrosociology of knowledge provides important insights into the role of conflict in an intellectual field, his microsociology is more problematic. In particular, Collins's micro theory ignores the fundamental importance of social interpretations. This leads him to use a vague and unproductive notion of emotions. Nevertheless, we can usefully apply Collins's findings to sociological theory itself. As in philosophy, we see the (...)
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  43.  60
    Creatures of Fiction, Objects of Myth.Jeffrey Goodman - 2014 - Analysis 74 (1):ant090.
    Many who think that some abstracta are artefacts are fictional creationists, asserting that fictional characters are brought about by our activities. Kripke (1973), Salmon (1998, 2002), and Braun (2005) further embrace mythical creationism, claiming that certain entities that figure in false theories, such as phlogiston or Vulcan, are likewise abstracta produced by our intentional activities. I here argue that one may not reasonably take the metaphysical route travelled by the mythical creationist. Even if one holds that fictional characters are artefact (...)
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  44.  16
    Do Acquaintance Theorists Have an Attitude Problem?Rachel Goodman - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-20.
    This paper is about the relevance of attitude-ascriptions to debates about singular thought. It examines a methodology reject this methodology, the literature lacks a detailed examination of its implications and the challenges faced by proponents and critics. I isolate an assumption of the methodology, which I call the tracking assumption: that an attitude-ascription which states that s Φ's that P is true iff s has an attitude, of Φ-ing, which is an entertaining of the content P. I argue that the (...)
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  45. A Rational Analysis of Rule-Based Concept Learning.Noah Goodman, Joshua Tenenbaum, Jacob Feldman & Thomas Griffiths - 2008 - Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal 32 (1):108-154.
  46.  5
    Social Shareholder Engagement: The Dynamics of Voice and Exit. [REVIEW]Jennifer Goodman, Céline Louche, Katinka C. Van Cranenburgh & Daniel Arenas - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (2):1-18.
    Investors concerned about the social and environmental impact of the companies they invest in are increasingly choosing to use voice over exit as a strategy. This article addresses the question of how and why the voice and exit options (Hirschman 1970) are used in social shareholder engagement (SSE) by religious organisations. Using an inductive case study approach, we examine seven engagements by three religious organisations considered to be at the forefront of SSE. We analyse the full engagement process rather than (...)
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  47.  96
    On 'Deduction' and the Inductive/Deductive Distinction.Jeffrey Goodman & Daniel Flage - 2012 - Studies in Logic 5 (3).
    The definitions of ‘deduction’ found in virtually every introductory logic textbook would encourage us to believe that the inductive/deductive distinction is a distinction among kinds of arguments and that the extension of ‘deduction’ is a determinate class of arguments. In this paper, we argue that that this approach is mistaken. Specifically, we defend the claim that typical definitions of ‘deduction’ operative in attempts to get at the induction/deduction distinction are either too narrow or insufficiently precise. We conclude by presenting a (...)
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  48.  69
    Inexact Knowledge Without Improbable Knowing.Jeremy Goodman - 2013 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 56 (1):30-53.
    In a series of recent papers, Timothy Williamson has argued for the surprising conclusion that there are cases in which you know a proposition in spite of its being overwhelmingly improbable given what you know that you know it. His argument relies on certain formal models of our imprecise knowledge of the values of perceptible and measurable magnitudes. This paper suggests an alternative class of models that do not predict this sort of improbable knowing. I show that such models are (...)
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  49.  30
    Why and How Not to Be a Sortalist About Thought.Rachel Goodman - 2012 - Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):77-112.
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  50. Defending Author-Essentialism.Jeffrey Goodman - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (1):200-208.
    Creationism is the view that fictional individuals such as Sherlock Holmes are contingently existing abstracta that come about due to the intentional activities of authors. Author-essentialism is the stronger thesis that the author responsible for bringing a fictional individual into existence at a time is essential to the existence of that individual. Takashi Yagisawa has recently attacked this view on the following grounds: author-essentialists rely on an ontological parallelism between fictional individuals and whole works of fiction, but this parallelism fails (...)
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