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Robert F. Hadley [24]John Hadley [23]Jack Hadley [10]Arthur Twining Hadley [7]
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John Hadley
University of Sydney (PhD)
Douglas Hadley
Boston University
John Hadley
Bilkent University
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  1. The Costs and Benefits of Kin.Craig Hadley - 2004 - Human Nature 15 (4):377-395.
    In this paper data from a Tanzanian horticultural population are used to assess whether mother’s kin network size predicts several measures of children’s health and well-being, and whether any kin effects are modified by household socioeconomic status. This hypothesis is further tested with a questionnaire on maternal attitudes towards kin. Results show small associations between measures of maternal kin network size and child mortality and children’s growth performance. Together these results suggest that kin positively influence child health, but the effects (...)
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  2.  12
    Confining 'Disenhanced'Animals.John Hadley - 2012 - NanoEthics 6 (1):41-46.
    Abstract Drawing upon evolutionary theory and the work of Daniel Dennett and Nicholas Agar, I offer an argument for broadening discussion of the ethics of disenhancement beyond animal welfare concerns to a consideration of animal “biopreferences”. Short of rendering animals completely unconscious or decerebrate, it is reasonable to suggest that disenhanced animals will continue to have some preferences. To the extent that these preferences can be understood as what Agar refers to as “plausible naturalizations” for familiar moral concepts like beliefs (...)
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  3.  29
    Systematicity in Connectionist Language Learning.Robert F. Hadley - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (3):247-72.
  4. Nonhuman Animal Property: Reconciling Environmentalism and Animal Rights.John Hadley - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (3):305–315.
    In this paper I extend liberal property rights theory to nonhuman animals.I sketch an outline of a nonhuman animal property rights regime and argue that both proponents of animal rights and ecological holism ought to accept nonhuman animal property rights. To conclude I address a series of objections.
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  5. Animal Rights Extremism and the Terrorism Question.John Hadley - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (3):363-378.
    In this paper I extend orthodox just-war terrorism theory to the phenomenon of extremist violence on behalf of nonhuman animals.I argue that most documented cases of so-called animal rights extremism do not quality as terrorism.
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  6. The 'Explicit-Implicit' Distinction.Robert F. Hadley - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (2):219-42.
    Much of traditional AI exemplifies the explicit representation paradigm, and during the late 1980''s a heated debate arose between the classical and connectionist camps as to whether beliefs and rules receive an explicit or implicit representation in human cognition. In a recent paper, Kirsh (1990) questions the coherence of the fundamental distinction underlying this debate. He argues that our basic intuitions concerning explicit and implicit representations are not only confused but inconsistent. Ultimately, Kirsh proposes a new formulation of the distinction, (...)
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  7.  5
    Is Health Care Spending Higher Under Medicaid or Private Insurance?Jack Hadley & John Holahan - 2003 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 40 (4):323-342.
    This paper addresses the question of whether Medicaid is in fact a high-cost program after adjusting for the health of the people it covers. We compare and simulate annual per capita medical spending for lower-income people (families with incomes under 200% of poverty) covered for a full year by either Medicaid or private insurance. We first show that low-income privately insured enrollees and Medicaid enrollees have very different socioeconomic and health characteristics. We then present simulated comparisons based on multivariate statistical (...)
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  8.  2
    Effects of Public Premiums on Children's Health Insurance Coverage: Evidence From 1999 to 2003.Genevieve Kenney, Jack Hadley & Fredric Blavin - 2006 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 43 (4):345-361.
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  9.  23
    Systematicity Revisited.Robert F. Hadley - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (4):431-44.
  10.  47
    The Duty to Aid Nonhuman Animals in Dire Need.John Hadley - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (4):445–451.
    abstract Most moral philosophers accept that we have obligations to provide at least some aid and assistance to distant strangers in dire need. Philosophers who extend rights and obligations to nonhuman animals, however, have been less than explicit about whether we have any positive duties to free‐roaming or ‘wild’ animals. I argue our obligations to free‐roaming nonhuman animals in dire need are essentially no different to those we have to severely cognitively impaired distant strangers. I address three objections to the (...)
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  11. Animal Rights and Self-Defense Theory.John Hadley - 2009 - Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (2):165-177.
    In this paper I bring together self-defense theory and animal rights theory. The extension of self-defense theory to animals poses a serious problem for proponents of animal rights. If, in line with orthodox self-defense theory, a person is a legitimate target for third-party self-defensive violence if they are responsible for a morally unjustified harm without an acceptable excuse; and if, in line with animal rights theory, people that consume animal products are responsible for unjustified harm to animals, then many millions, (...)
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  12.  8
    A Default‐Oriented Theory of Procedural Semantics.Robert F. Hadley - 1989 - Cognitive Science 13 (1):107-137.
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  13.  21
    How Far Did We Get? How Far to Go? A European Survey on Postgraduate Courses in Evidence‐Based Medicine.Regina Kunz, Eva Nagy, Sjors F. P. J. Coppus, Jose I. Emparanza, Julie Hadley, Regina Kulier, Susanne Weinbrenner, Theodoros N. Arvanitis, Amanda Burls, Juan B. Cabello, Tamas Decsi, Andrea R. Horvath, Jacek Walzak, Marcin P. Kaczor, Gianni Zanrei, Karin Pierer, Roland Schaffler, Katja Suter, Ben W. J. Mol & Khalid S. Khan - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (6):1196-1204.
  14.  1
    Health and the Cost of Nongroup Insurance.Jack Hadley & James D. Reschovsky - 2003 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 40 (3):235-253.
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  15. Health and the Cost of Nongroup Insurance.Jack Hadley & James D. Reschovsky - 2003 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 40 (3):235-253.
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  16.  9
    From Welfare to Rights Without Changing the Subject.John Hadley - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (5):993-1004.
    In this paper I introduce the ‘changing the subject’ problem. When proponents of animal protection use terms such as dignity and respect they can be fairly accused of shifting debate from welfare to rights because the terms purportedly refer to properties and values that are logically distinct from the capacity to suffer and the moral significance of causing animals pain. To avoid this problem and ensure that debate proceeds in the familiar terms of the established welfare paradigm, I present an (...)
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  17.  49
    Strong Semantic Systematicity From Hebbian Connectionist Learning.Robert F. Hadley & M. B. Hayward - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (1):1-55.
    Fodor's and Pylyshyn's stand on systematicity in thought and language has been debated and criticized. Van Gelder and Niklasson, among others, have argued that Fodor and Pylyshyn offer no precise definition of systematicity. However, our concern here is with a learning based formulation of that concept. In particular, Hadley has proposed that a network exhibits strong semantic systematicity when, as a result of training, it can assign appropriate meaning representations to novel sentences (both simple and embedded) which contain words in (...)
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  18.  3
    Small Firms' Demand for Health Insurance: The Decision to Offer Insurance.Jack Hadley & James D. Reschovsky - 2002 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 39 (2):118-137.
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  19. Insurance Premiums and Insurance Coverage of Near-Poor Children.Jack Hadley, James D. Reschovsky, Peter Cunningham, Genevieve Kenney & Lisa Dubay - 2006 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 43 (4):362-377.
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  20.  69
    On the Proper Treatment of Semantic Systematicity.Robert F. Hadley - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (2):145-172.
    The past decade has witnessed the emergence of a novel stance on semantic representation, and its relationship to context sensitivity. Connectionist-minded philosophers, including Clark and van Gelder, have espoused the merits of viewing hidden-layer, context-sensitive representations as possessing semantic content, where this content is partially revealed via the representations'' position in vector space. In recent work, Bodén and Niklasson have incorporated a variant of this view of semantics within their conception of semantic systematicity. Moreover, Bodén and Niklasson contend that they (...)
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  21.  34
    Cognition, Systematicity, and Nomic Necessity.Robert F. Hadley - 1997 - Mind and Language 12 (2):137-53.
  22.  5
    Telling It Like It Is: A Proposal to Improve Transparency in Biomedical Research.John Hadley - 2012 - Between the Species 15 (1):7.
    Recent proposals to improve public communication about animal-based biomedical research have been narrowly focused on reforming biomedical journal submission guidelines. My suggestion for communication reform is broader in scope reaching beyond the research community to healthcare communicators and ultimately the general public. The suggestion is for researchers to provide journalists and public relations practitioners with concise summaries of their ‘animal use data’. Animal use data is collected by researchers and intended for the public record but is rarely, if ever, given (...)
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  23.  43
    Connectionism, Explicit Rules, and Symbolic Manipulation.Robert F. Hadley - 1993 - Minds and Machines 3 (2):183-200.
    At present, the prevailing Connectionist methodology forrepresenting rules is toimplicitly embody rules in neurally-wired networks. That is, the methodology adopts the stance that rules must either be hard-wired or trained into neural structures, rather than represented via explicit symbolic structures. Even recent attempts to implementproduction systems within connectionist networks have assumed that condition-action rules (or rule schema) are to be embodied in thestructure of individual networks. Such networks must be grown or trained over a significant span of time. However, arguments (...)
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  24. Paying Their Way: Dissident Opinion, Advertising and Access to the Public Sphere.John Hadley - 2010 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 10 (1/2).
    In this paper I suggest practical measures that can address some familiar, and some not so familiar, commercial obstacles to increasing media coverage of dissident opinion.The kernel of my proposal is for media codes of practice and workplace norms to reflect an ethical distinction between different kinds of commercial speech.
     
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  25.  10
    Television News Ethics: A Survey of Television News Directors.Roger Hadley - 1989 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (2):249 – 264.
    This study reports the findings of a survey of television news directors drawn from a Radio?Television News Directors Association (RTNDA) sample. Rationale for the study centers around an apparent trend in television news to extend its ethical boundaries to include high proportions of sensationalism, privacy invasion, deception, unfair reporting, and the like. Five principles of journalism ethics? truth, justice, freedom, humaneness, and stewardship?are used as the framework for discussing results of 34 ethical questions. Results show most news directors clearly favor (...)
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  26.  6
    World Poverty, Animal Minds and the Ethics of Veterinary Expenditure.John Hadley & Siobhan O'Sullivan - 2009 - Environmental Values 18 (3):361-378.
    In this paper we make an argument for limiting veterinary expenditure on companion animals. The argument combines two principles: the obligation to give and the self-consciousness requirement. In line with the former, we ought to give money to organisations helping to alleviate preventable suffering and death in developing countries; the latter states that it is only intrinsically wrong to painlessly kill an individual that is self-conscious. Combined, the two principles inform an argument along the following lines: rather than spending inordinate (...)
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  27.  26
    Two Apparent 'Counterexamples' to Marcus: A Closer Look. [REVIEW]Marius Vilcu & Robert F. Hadley - 2005 - Minds and Machines 15 (3-4):359-382.
    Marcus et al.’s experiment (1999) concerning infant ability to distinguish between differing syntactic structures has prompted connectionists to strive to show that certain types of neural networks can mimic the infants’ results. In this paper we take a closer look at two such attempts: Shultz and Bale [Shultz, T.R. and Bale, A.C. (2001), Infancy 2, pp. 501–536] Altmann and Dienes [Altmann, G.T.M. and Dienes, Z. (1999) Science 248, p. 875a]. We were not only interested in how well these two models (...)
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  28.  88
    Consistency, Turing Computability and Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem.Robert F. Hadley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):1-15.
    It is well understood and appreciated that Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems apply to sufficiently strong, formal deductive systems. In particular, the theorems apply to systems which are adequate for conventional number theory. Less well known is that there exist algorithms which can be applied to such a system to generate a gödel-sentence for that system. Although the generation of a sentence is not equivalent to proving its truth, the present paper argues that the existence of these algorithms, when conjoined with Gödel’s (...)
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  29.  61
    Quine and Strawson on Logical Theory.Robert F. Hadley - 1974 - Analysis 34 (6):207 - 208.
  30.  51
    The Many Uses of 'Belief' in AI.Robert F. Hadley - 1991 - Minds and Machines 1 (1):55-74.
    Within AI and the cognitively related disciplines, there exist a multiplicity of uses of belief. On the face of it, these differing uses reflect differing views about the nature of an objective phenomenon called belief. In this paper I distinguish six distinct ways in which belief is used in AI. I shall argue that not all these uses reflect a difference of opinion about an objective feature of reality. Rather, in some cases, the differing uses reflect differing concerns with special (...)
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  31.  7
    Non-Autonomous Sentient Beings and Original Acquisition.John Hadley - 2017 - Analysis 77 (2):292-299.
    Libertarians concede that non-autonomous sentient beings pose a problem for their theory. But, while they acknowledge that libertarianism denies non-autonomous sentient beings basic moral rights, libertarians have overlooked how their theory also denies non-autonomous sentient beings basic moral powers. In this article, I show how the libertarian entitlement theory of justice, specifically, the theory for the original acquisition of holdings, denies non-autonomous sentient beings the moral power to originally acquire or make property. Attempts to avoid this problem by appealing to (...)
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  32.  14
    Excluding Destruction.John Hadley - 2005 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 12 (2):22-29.
    In this paper I argue that the potentially environmentally destructive scope of a libertarian property rights regime can be narrowed by applying reasonable limits to those rights. I will claim that excluding the right to destroy from the libertarian property rights bundle is consistent with self-ownership and Robert Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso.
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  33.  41
    Liberty and Valuing Sentient Life. Hadley - 2013 - Ethics and the Environment 18 (1):87-103.
    In “Do Animals have an Interest in Liberty?” Alasdair Cochrane brings some much needed attention to the ethics of animal confinement (2009a). Of particular significance is the question of whether confinement in itself is bad for nonhuman animal (hereafter, animal) well-being. If confinement conditions cause animals to suffer or frustrate their preferences it is safe to assume that liberty or freedom (following Cochrane, I use the terms interchangeably) would be instrumentally good for them. But, what about seemingly benign conditions of (...)
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  34.  54
    Possibility, Necessity, and Logical Truth.Robert F. Hadley - 1978 - Analysis 38 (4):182 - 186.
    An earlier article by the author, "quine and strawson on logical theory" ("analysis" volume 34, pages 207-208), is expanded and defended against criticisms made by charles sayward in "the province of logic" ("analysis" volume 36, pages 47-48). it is shown that quine's definition of logical truth presupposes an understanding of "possibility," even if the term 'sentence' is used set-theoretically, and that if quine is allowed the concept of "possibility," then strawson must be allowed modal concepts for his purposes. the traditional (...)
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  35.  1
    Why Do Hispanics Have so Little Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance?James D. Reschovsky, Jack Hadley & Len Nichols - 2007 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 44 (3):257-279.
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  36.  26
    Connectionism and Novel Combinations of Skills: Implications for Cognitive Architecture. [REVIEW]Robert F. Hadley - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (2):197-221.
    In the late 1980s, there were many who heralded the emergence of connectionism as a new paradigm – one which would eventually displace the classically symbolic methods then dominant in AI and Cognitive Science. At present, there remain influential connectionists who continue to defend connectionism as a more realistic paradigm for modeling cognition, at all levels of abstraction, than the classical methods of AI. Not infrequently, one encounters arguments along these lines: given what we know about neurophysiology, it is just (...)
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  37.  45
    Explaining Systematicity: A Reply to Kenneth Aizawa. [REVIEW]Robert F. Hadley - 1997 - Minds and Machines 12 (4):571-79.
    In his discussion of results which I (with Michael Hayward) recently reported in this journal, Kenneth Aizawa takes issue with two of our conclusions, which are: (a) that our connectionist model provides a basis for explaining systematicity within the realm of sentence comprehension, and subject to a limited range of syntax (b) that the model does not employ structure-sensitive processing, and that this is clearly true in the early stages of the network''s training. Ultimately, Aizawa rejects both (a) and (b) (...)
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  38.  16
    A Sense-Based, Process Model of Belief.Robert F. Hadley - 1991 - Minds and Machines 1 (3):279-320.
    A process-oriented model of belief is presented which permits the representation of nested propositional attitudes within first-order logic. The model (NIM, for nested intensional model) is axiomatized, sense-based (via intensions), and sanctions inferences involving nested epistemic attitudes, with different agents and different times. Because NIM is grounded upon senses, it provides a framework in which agents may reason about the beliefs of another agent while remaining neutral with respect to the syntactic forms used to express the latter agent's beliefs. Moreover, (...)
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  39.  3
    Cognition, Systematicity and Nomic Necessity.Robert F. Hadley - 1997 - Mind and Language 12 (2):137-153.
  40.  19
    Godel, Lucas, and Mechanical Models of Mind.Robert F. Hadley - 1987 - Computational Intelligence 3:57-63.
  41.  2
    Plotinus's Defense of the Sensible: The Metaphysics of Image and Dance in Ennead II. 9 (33).Douglas Hadley - 1997 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 71 (3):453-468.
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  42.  4
    Religiosity and Public Reason: The Case of Direct Action Animal Rights Advocacy.J. Hadley - 2017 - Res Publica 23 (3):299-312.
    Recent social science research indicates that animal rights philosophy plays the functional role of a religion in the lives of the most committed animal rights advocates. In this paper, I apply the functional religion thesis to the recent debate over the place of direct action animal rights advocacy in democratic theory. I outline the usefulness of the functional religion thesis and explain its implications for theorists that call for deliberative theories to be more inclusive of coercive forms of activism.
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  43.  1
    Systematicity Revisited: Reply to Christiansen and Chater and Niklasson and van Gelder.Robert F. Hadley - 1994 - Mind and Language 9 (4):431-444.
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  44.  15
    Medicare Fees and the Volume of Physicians' Services.Jack Hadley, James Reschovsky, Catherine Corey & Stephen Zuckerman - 2009 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 46 (4):372.
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  45.  13
    Three Dramas of Euripides, by W. C. Lawton. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin &. Co.W. S. Hadley - 1892 - The Classical Review 6 (1-2):65-66.
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  46.  22
    Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy - by Julian H. Franklin.John Hadley - 2007 - Philosophical Books 48 (2):187-188.
    Review of Julian H. Franklin, Animal Rights and Moral Philosophy (Columbia, 2005).
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  47.  26
    Critique of Callicott's Biosocial Moral Theory.John Hadley - 2007 - Ethics and the Environment 12 (1):67-78.
    : J. Baird Callicott's claim to have unified environmentalism and animal liberation should be rejected by holists and liberationists. By making relations of intimacy necessary for moral considerability, Callicott excludes from the moral community nonhuman animals unable to engage in intimate relations due to the circumstances of their confinement. By failing to afford moral protection to animals in factory farms and research laboratories, Callicott's biosocial moral theory falls short of meeting a basic moral demand of liberationists. Moreover, were Callicott to (...)
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  48.  10
    The Essential Role of Consciousness in Mathematical Cognition.Robert Hadley - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (1-2):1-2.
    In his most comprehensive book on the subject , Roger Penrose provides arguments to demonstrate that there are aspects of human understanding which could not, in principle, be attained by any purely computational system. His central argument relies crucially on oft-cited theorems proven by Gödel and Turing. However, that key argument has been the subject of numerous trenchant critiques, which is unfortunate if one believes Penrose's conclusions to be plausible. In the present article, alternative arguments are offered in support of (...)
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  49.  4
    Moral Responsibility for Harming Animals: Hadley Moral Responsibility for Harming Animals.John Hadley - 2009 - Think 8 (22):51-55.
    Third-party intervention has been the focus of recent debate in self-defense theory. When is it permissible for third-parties to intervene on behalf of an innocent victim facing an unjustified attack or threat? In line with recent self-defense theory, if an attacker is morally responsible for their actions and does not have an acceptable excuse then it is permissible for third-parties to use proportionate violence against them.
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  50.  11
    On the Text of the Papyrus Fragment of the Phaedo The Alcestis of Euripides, by M. A. Bayfield. Macmillan & Co. (Elementary Classics.) 1s. 6d. [REVIEW]W. S. Hadley - 1891 - The Classical Review 5 (08):387-388.
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