Results for 'Individual differences in children'

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  1.  92
    Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development.B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.) - 2003 - Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press.
    This volume represents the first collection of work to address, empirically and conceptually, the topic of individual differences in theory of mind.
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  2.  14
    Individual Differences in Children’s Mathematical Competence Are Related to the Intentional but Not Automatic Processing of Arabic Numerals.Stephanie Bugden & Daniel Ansari - 2011 - Cognition 118 (1):32-44.
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  3.  11
    Longitudinal Change and Longitudinal Stability of Individual Differences in Children's Emotion Understanding.Francisco Pons & Paul Harris - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (8):1158-1174.
  4. Are Individual Differences in Arithmetic Fact Retrieval in Children Related to Inhibition?Elien Bellon, Wim Fias & Bert De Smedt - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  5.  4
    Measurement of Individual Differences in Children's Suggestibility Across Situations.Matthew H. Scullin, Tomoe Kanaya & Stephen J. Ceci - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 8 (4):233-246.
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  6.  3
    Proprioceptive Indicators of Personality and Individual Differences in Behavior in Children With ADHD.Liudmila Liutsko, Tania Iglesias, Josep Maria Tous Ral & Alexander Veraksa - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  7.  23
    The Complexities of Complex Span: Explaining Individual Differences in Working Memory in Children and Adults.Donna M. Bayliss, Christopher Jarrold, Deborah M. Gunn & Alan D. Baddeley - 2003 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (1):71.
  8.  11
    Antecedents of Emotion Knowledge: Predictors of Individual Differences in Young Children.David S. Bennett, Margaret Bendersky & Michael Lewis - 2005 - Cognition and Emotion 19 (3):375-396.
  9.  15
    Children as Psychologists: The Later Correlates of Individual Differences in Understanding of Emotions and Other Minds.Judy Dunn - 1995 - Cognition and Emotion 9 (2-3):187-201.
  10.  14
    Is a Pink Cow Still a Cow? Individual Differences in Toddlers' Vocabulary Knowledge and Lexical Representations.K. Perry Lynn & R. Saffran Jenny - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (4):1090-1105.
    When a toddler knows a word, what does she actually know? Many categories have multiple relevant properties; for example, shape and color are relevant to membership in the category banana. How do toddlers prioritize these properties when recognizing familiar words, and are there systematic differences among children? In this study, toddlers viewed pairs of objects associated with prototypical colors. On some trials, objects were typically colored ; on other trials, colors were switched. On each trial, toddlers were directed (...)
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  11.  15
    An Attempt to Appraise Individual Differences in Level of Muscular Tension.M. A. Wenger - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (3):213.
  12.  62
    Infants' Minds, Mothers' Minds, and Other Minds: How Individual Differences in Caregivers Affect the Co-Construction of Mind.Elizabeth Meins - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):116-116.
    Carpendale & Lewis's (C&L's) constructivist account needs greater emphasis on how individual differences in caregivers' impact on the efficacy of epistemic triangle interaction in fostering children's understanding of mind. Caregivers' attunement to their infants' mental states and their willingness to enable infants to participate in exchanges about the mind are posited as important determinants of effective epistemic triangle interaction.
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  13. Individual Differences in Reasoning: Implications for the Rationality Debate?Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):645-665.
    Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit that the gap is due to (1) performance errors, (2) computational (...)
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  14.  24
    Individual Differences in Age Preferences in Mates: Taking a Closer Look.Dorothy Einon - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (1):137-138.
    British marriage statistics (N = 311,564) suggest that women of breeding age choose young men. Women past breeding age who could still be raising children extend choices to include older men. After this, women do not marry. The choices of men over 50 are restricted to women between 40 and 55: past breeding but young enough to be raising children; the few men over 50 that marry choose women in this age range.
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  15.  31
    The Fragmented Folk: More Evidence of Stable Individual Differences in Moral Judgments and Folk Intuitions.A. Feltz & E. T. Cokely - 2008 - In B. C. Love, K. McRae & V. M. Sloutsky (eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1771--1776.
    In a series of five experiments, we demonstrate that moral judgments and folk intuitions are often predictably fragmented. Drawing on the domains of ethics and action theory, we illustrate ways in which judgment tends to be associated with stable individual differences such as personality traits and reflective cognitive styles. We argue that these individual differences pose several unique challenges as well as provide opportunities for further theoretical development in the emerging field of experimental philosophy. Implications are (...)
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  16.  40
    Causes of Individual Differences in Animal Exploration and Search.Simon M. Reader - 2015 - Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (3):451-468.
    Numerous studies have documented individual differences in exploratory tendencies and other phenomena related to search, and these differences have been linked to fitness. Here, I discuss the origins of these differences, focusing on how experience shapes animal search and exploration. The origin of individual differences will also depend upon the alternatives to exploration that are available. Given that search and exploration frequently carry significant costs, we might expect individuals to utilize cues indicating the potential (...)
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  17.  5
    Free-Recall Transfer and Individual Differences in Subjective Organization.Marcia Earhard - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1169.
  18.  31
    Fringe Consciousness in Sequence Learning: The Influence of Individual Differences.Elisabeth Norman, Mark C. Price & Simon C. Duff - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):723-760.
    We first describe how the concept of “fringe consciousness” can characterise gradations of consciousness between the extremes of implicit and explicit learning. We then show that the NEO-PI-R personality measure of openness to feelings, chosen to reflect the ability to introspect on fringe feelings, influences both learning and awareness in the serial reaction time task under conditions that have previously been associated with implicit learning . This provides empirical evidence for the proposed phenomenology and functional role of fringe consciousness in (...)
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  19.  8
    Individual Differences in Interference From Stimulus Similarity.Willard N. Runquist & David Blackmore - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):141.
  20.  14
    Individual Differences in Subtle Awareness and Levels of Awareness: Olfaction as a Model System.Gary E. Schwartz - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 209.
  21.  10
    Individual Differences in the Consciousness of Phantom Limbs.J. M. Katz - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 45--97.
  22. Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Source Monitoring: Theoretical, Experimental, and Clinical Considerations.Robert G. Kunzendorf - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  23.  45
    Individual Differences in Conscious Experience.Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.) - 2000 - Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Individual Differences in Subjective Experience First-Person Constraints on Theories of Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Self-Consciousness Robert G. ...
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  24. Individual Differences in Patterns of Hypnotic Experience Across Low and High Hypnotically Susceptible Individuals.Ronald J. Pekala & V. K. Kumar - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins. pp. 309-335.
  25. Individual Differences in Implicit Learning: Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness.Arthur S. Reber & Robert F. Allen - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamin.
  26. Individual Differences in Visual Imagination Imagery.Alan W. Richardson - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  27. Biological Rhythms and Individual Differences in Consciousness.B. Alan Wallace & Linda Fisher - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & B. Alan Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. John Benjamins.
  28.  2
    Children's Strategy Choices on Complex Subtraction Problems: Individual Differences and Developmental Changes.Sara Caviola, Irene C. Mammarella, Massimiliano Pastore & Jo-Anne LeFevre - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  29. Individual Differences in Moral Behaviour: A Role for Response to Risk and Uncertainty?Colin J. Palmer, Bryan Paton, Trung T. Ngo, Richard H. Thomson, Jakob Hohwy & Steven M. Miller - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):97-103.
    Investigation of neural and cognitive processes underlying individual variation in moral preferences is underway, with notable similarities emerging between moral- and risk-based decision-making. Here we specifically assessed moral distributive justice preferences and non-moral financial gambling preferences in the same individuals, and report an association between these seemingly disparate forms of decision-making. Moreover, we find this association between distributive justice and risky decision-making exists primarily when the latter is assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task. These findings are consistent with neuroimaging (...)
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  30.  6
    Sex Differences in Children’s Investment in Peers.Joyce F. Benenson, Tamara Morganstein & Rosanne Roy - 1998 - Human Nature 9 (4):369-390.
    It is hypothesized from within an evolutionary framework that females should be less invested in peer relations than males. Investment was operationalized as enjoyment in Study 1 and as preference for interaction in Study 2. In the first study, four- and six-year-old children’s enjoyment of peer interaction was observed in 26 groups of same-sex peers. Girls were rated as enjoying their interactions significantly less than boys. In the second study, six- and nine-year-old children were interviewed about the individuals (...)
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  31.  16
    Individual Differences in the Phenomenology of Mental Time Travel: The Effect of Vivid Visual Imagery and Emotion Regulation Strategies.Arnaud D’Argembeau & Martial Van der Linden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):342-350.
    It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events (...)
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  32.  17
    Individual Differences in the Phenomenology of Mental Time Travel: The Effect of Vivid Visual Imagery and Emotion Regulation Strategies.A. DArgembeau & M. Vanderlinden - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):342-350.
    It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events (...)
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  33.  29
    Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Metacognitive Performance on Different Perceptual Tasks.Chen Song, Ryota Kanai, Stephen M. Fleming, Rimona S. Weil, D. Samuel Schwarzkopf & Geraint Rees - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1787.
    Human behavior depends on the ability to effectively introspect about our performance. For simple perceptual decisions, this introspective or metacognitive ability varies substantially across individuals and is correlated with the structure of focal areas in prefrontal cortex. This raises the possibility that the ability to introspect about different perceptual decisions might be mediated by a common cognitive process. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether inter-individual differences in metacognitive ability were correlated across two different perceptual tasks where individuals (...)
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  34.  32
    Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Are Enhanced by Perceptual Learning.Thorsten Albrecht, Susan Klapötke & Uwe Mattler - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):656-666.
    In vision research metacontrast masking is a widely used technique to reduce the visibility of a stimulus. Typically, studies attempt to reveal general principles that apply to a large majority of participants and tend to omit possible individual differences. The neural plasticity of the visual system, however, entails the potential capability for individual differences in the way observers perform perceptual tasks. We report a case of perceptual learning in a metacontrast masking task that leads to the (...)
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  35.  54
    Individual Differences in Theory-of-Mind Judgments: Order Effects and Side Effects.Adam Feltz & Edward T. Cokely - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):343 - 355.
    We explore and provide an account for a recently identified judgment anomaly, i.e., an order effect that changes the strength of intentionality ascriptions for some side effects (e.g., when a chairman's pursuit of profits has the foreseen but unintended consequence of harming the environment). Experiment 1 replicated the previously unanticipated order effect anomaly controlling for general individual differences. Experiment 2 revealed that the order effect was multiply determined and influenced by factors such as beliefs (i.e., that the same (...)
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  36.  22
    Species and Individual Differences in Communication Based on Private States.David Lubinski & Travis Thompson - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):627-642.
  37.  80
    Free Will, Causes, and Decisions: Individual Differences in Written Reports.Adam Feltz, A. Perez & M. Harris - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (9-10):166-189.
    We present evidence indicating new individual differences with people's intuitions about the relation of determinism to freedom and moral responsibility. We analysed participants' written explanations of why a person acted. Participants offered one of either 'decision' or 'causal' based explanations of behaviours in some paradigmatic cases. Those who gave causal explanations tended to have more incompatibilist intuitions than those who gave decision explanations. Importantly, the affective content of a scenario influenced the type of explanation given. Scenarios containing highly (...)
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  38.  52
    Music to the Inner Ears: Exploring Individual Differences in Musical Imagery.Roger E. Beaty, Chris J. Burgin, Emily C. Nusbaum, Thomas R. Kwapil, Donald A. Hodges & Paul J. Silvia - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1163-1173.
    In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling design to assess the phenomenology of musical imagery over the course of one week in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Both studies found episodes of musical imagery to be common and positive: people rarely wanted such experiences to end and often heard (...)
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  39.  47
    Individual Differences in Time Perspective Predict Autonoetic Experience.Kathleen M. Arnold, Kathleen B. McDermott & Karl K. Szpunar - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):712-719.
    Tulving posited that the capacity to remember is one facet of a more general capacity—autonoetic consciousness. Autonoetic consciousness was proposed to underlie the ability for “mental time travel” both into the past and into the future to envision potential future episodes . The current study examines whether individual differences can predict autonoetic experience. Specifically, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory was administered to 133 undergraduate students, who also rated phenomenological experiences accompanying autobiographical remembering and episodic future thinking. Scores on (...)
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  40.  24
    Normative Benchmarks Are Useful for Studying Individual Differences in Reasoning.Edward Jn Stupple & Linden J. Ball - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):270-271.
    We applaud many aspects of Elqayam & Evans' (E&E's) call for a descriptivist research programme in studying reasoning. Nevertheless, we contend that normative benchmarks are vital for understanding individual differences in performance. We argue that the presence of normative responses to particular problems by certain individuals should inspire researchers to look for converging evidence for analytic processing that may have a normative basis.
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  41.  20
    Interactive Skills and Individual Differences in a Word Production Task.Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau & Miles Wrightman - 2010 - AI and Society 25 (4):433-439.
    In attempting to solve a wide variety of tasks, people naturally seek to modify their external environment such that the physical space in which they work is more amenable or ‘congenial’ to achieving a desired outcome. Attempts to determine the effectiveness of certain artifacts or spatial reorganizations in aiding reasoners solve problems must be relativised to the difficulty of the task and the cognitive abilities of the reasoners. These factors were examined using a simple word production task with letter tiles. (...)
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  42.  11
    Ethics and Well-Being: The Paradoxical Implications of Individual Differences in Ethical Orientation.Robert A. Giacalone, Carole L. Jurkiewicz & Mark Promislo - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):491-506.
    Following on theoretical work and studies that assert a relationship between unethical activities and diminished well-being, and a common belief that those more ethically inclined experience greater well-being, the present study examined whether individual differences in ethical orientation may be associated with the experience of well-being. This paper reports the findings of two separate studies showing that individual differences in moral attentiveness, moral identity, idealism, relativism, and integrity were associated with differences in a wide range (...)
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  43.  35
    Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Regarding Sensitivity and Response Bias.Thorsten Albrecht & Uwe Mattler - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1222-1231.
    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers’ performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a (...)
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  44.  29
    Individual Differences in Workplace Deviance and Integrity as Predictors of Academic Dishonesty.Gale M. Lucas & James Friedrich - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (1):15 – 35.
    Meta-analytic findings have suggested that individual differences are relatively weaker predictors of academic dishonesty than are situational factors. A robust literature on deviance correlates and workplace integrity testing, however, demonstrates that individual difference variables can be relatively strong predictors of a range of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). To the extent that academic cheating represents a kind of counterproductive behavior in the work role of "student", employment-type integrity measures should be strong predictors of academic dishonesty. Our results with (...)
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  45.  28
    Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking: A Call for Caution When Interpreting Group Data☆.Thorsten Albrecht & Uwe Mattler - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):672-673.
    In this issue of Consciousness and Cognition, Bachmann comments on our study , which revealed two groups of observers with qualitative individual differences in metacontrast masking that are enhanced by perceptual learning. We are pleased that our study receives this attention and even more about Bachmann’s extremely positive comments. In this invited reply we argue that observers seem to be similar only at the beginning of the experiment but they have no choice as to which group to join. (...)
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  46.  22
    Individual Differences in Metacontrast: An Impetus for Clearly Specified New Research Objectives in Studying Masking and Perceptual Awareness?☆.Talis Bachmann - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):667-671.
    While the majority of perceptual phenomena based research on consciousness is implicitly nomothetic, some idiographic perspective can be sometimes highly valuable for it. It may turn out that after having had a closer look at individual differences in the expression of psychometric functions a need to revise some nomothetic laws considered as the general ones arises as well. A study of individual differences in metacontrast masking published in this issue superbly illustrates this. A myriad of urgent (...)
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  47.  52
    Individual Differences in Framing and Conjunction Effects.Keith E. Stanovich & Richard F. West - 1998 - Thinking and Reasoning 4 (4):289-317.
    Individual differences on a variety of framing and conjunction problems were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding/acceptance principle-that more reflective and skilled reasoners are more likely to affirm the axioms that define normative reasoning and to endorse the task construals of informed experts. The predictions derived from the principle were confirmed for the much discussed framing effect in the Disease Problem and for the conjunction fallacy on the Linda Problem. Subjects of higher cognitive ability were (...)
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  48.  26
    Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategy Are Related to Views About Recreational Drug Use in Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan.Katinka J. P. Quintelier, Keiko Ishii, Jason Weeden, Robert Kurzban & Johan Braeckman - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (2):196-217.
    Individual differences in moral views are often explained as the downstream effect of ideological commitments, such as political orientation and religiosity. Recent studies in the U.S. suggest that moral views about recreational drug use are also influenced by attitudes toward sex and that this relationship cannot be explained by ideological commitments. In this study, we investigate student samples from Belgium, The Netherlands, and Japan. We find that, in all samples, sexual attitudes are strongly related to views about recreational (...)
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  49.  31
    Individual Differences in the Encoding Processes of Egocentric and Allocentric Survey Knowledge.Wen Wen, Toru Ishikawa & Takao Sato - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):176-192.
    This study examined how different components of working memory are involved in the acquisition of egocentric and allocentric survey knowledge by people with a good and poor sense of direction (SOD). We employed a dual-task method and asked participants to learn routes from videos with verbal, visual, and spatial interference tasks and without any interference. Results showed that people with a good SOD encoded and integrated knowledge about landmarks and routes into egocentric survey knowledge in verbal and spatial working memory, (...)
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  50.  6
    Individual but Not Fragile: Individual Differences in Task Control Predict Stroop Facilitation.E. Kalanthroff & A. Henik - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (2):413-419.
    The Stroop effect is composed of interference and facilitation effects. The facilitation is less stable and thus many times is referred to as a “fragile effect”. Here we suggest the facilitation effect is highly vulnerable to individual differences in control over the task conflict . We replicated previous findings of a significant correlation between stop-signal reaction time and Stroop interference, and also found a significant correlation between SSRT and the Stroop facilitation effect—participants with low inhibitory control had no (...)
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