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Profile: Ellen John (University of Delhi)
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  1.  19
    David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John (1994). Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
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  2. John Hawthorne (2002). Advice for Physicalists. Philosophical Studies 109 (1):17-52.
    This paper engages with two compelling challenges to physicalism, each designed to show that the nature of experience is elusive from the standpoint of physical science. It is argued that the physicalist is ultimately well placed to meet both challenges.
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  3. John Hawthorne (2001). Freedom in Context. Philosophical Studies 104 (1):63-79.
    David Lewis has recently deployed a contextualist strategy for defending ordinary claims to know.1 In this paper, I wish to extend that strategy to ordinary claims about freedom.2 The result is a species of compatibilism that, while foreign to current debates, has a good deal going for it.
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  4. John Deigh (2002). Promises Under Fire. Ethics 112 (3):483-506.
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  5. J. Griffin & Mahon John (1997). The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate: 25 Years ofIncomparable ReseaarchJ. Business and Society 1:73-75.
     
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  6.  53
    John Symons (2001). Explanation, Representation and the Dynamical Hypothesis. Minds and Machines 11 (4):521-541.
    This paper challenges arguments that systematic patterns of intelligent behavior license the claim that representations must play a role in the cognitive system analogous to that played by syntactical structures in a computer program. In place of traditional computational models, I argue that research inspired by Dynamical Systems theory can support an alternative view of representations. My suggestion is that we treat linguistic and representational structures as providing complex multi-dimensional targets for the development of individual brains. This approach acknowledges the (...)
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  7.  46
    John Milton-Smith (2002). Ethics, the Olympics and the Search for Global Values. Journal of Business Ethics 35 (2):131 - 142.
    The backlash against the Olympic Games reflects the failure of the major global institutions in dealing with the social and ethical consequences of globalisation in areas such as the environment, poverty, terrorism and natural disasters. Disillusionment with the Olympic Games mirrors the disenchantment with the perceived values of globalisation, including winning at any price, commercial exploitation by MNCs, intense national rivalry, cronyism, cheating and corruption and the competitive advantage of advanced nations. How could the Olympic Movement reverse this perception? The (...)
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  8.  22
    Tyler John, Joseph Millum & David Wasserman (2016). How to Allocate Scarce Health Resources Without Discriminating Against People with Disabilities. Economics and Philosophy:1-26.
    One widely used method for allocating health care resources involves the use of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to rank treatments in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. CEA has been criticized for discriminating against people with disabilities by valuing their lives less than those of non-disabled people. Avoiding discrimination seems to lead to the ’QALY trap’: we cannot value saving lives equally and still value raising quality of life. This paper reviews existing responses to the QALY trap and argues that all (...)
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  9.  20
    Schwenkler John, Puzzling Identities.
    Review of Vincent Descombes, Puzzling Identities, trans. Stephen Adam Schwartz (Harvard University Press, 2016).
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  10.  39
    John W. Cook (2007). Did Wittgenstein Speak with the Vulgar or Think with the Learned? Or Did He Do Both? Philosophy 82 (2):234.
    Wittgenstein has often been criticized, and even dismissed, for being a patron of ordinary language, a champion of the vernacular, a defender of the status quo. One critic has written: 'When Wittgenstein set up the actual use of language as a standard, that was equivalent to accepting a certain set up of culture and belief as a standard ... It is lucky no such philosophy was thought of until recently or we should still be under the sway of witch doctors (...)
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  11.  16
    Daniel Gibson, Benders G., A. Gwynedd, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Evgeniya Denisova, Baden-Tillson A., Zaveri Holly, Stockwell Jayshree, B. Timothy, Anushka Brownley, David Thomas, Algire W., A. Mikkel, Chuck Merryman, Lei Young, Vladimir Noskov, Glass N., I. John, J. Craig Venter, Clyde Hutchison, Smith A. & O. Hamilton (2008). Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma Genitalium Genome. Science 319 (5867):1215--1220.
    We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted "watermarks" at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping "cassettes" of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate (...)
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  12.  36
    John Divers (1998). Recent Work on Supervenience. Philosophical Books 39 (2):81-91.
    At the core of the concept of supervenience are certain general maxims— notably, that there can be no A-differences without B-differences and that Bindiscernibility must bring A-discernibility. Supervenience is thus conceived as a matter of modal covariance between two sets of things in a given category, usually properties. The perennial issues surrounding supervenience concern: (a) the variety of specifically formulated theses that serve the core maxims and the patterns of entailment that obtain among these theses, and (b) the relations that (...)
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  13.  26
    Farrell Ackerman & John Moore (1999). Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Dimensions of Causee Encodings. Linguistics and Philosophy 22 (1):1-44.
    There have been essentially two types of theoretical approaches to account for the grammatical relations associated with the causee argument of causative constructions. Ignoring the specifics of particular theories, there are transitivity based approaches in which the causee is a direct object when the embedded clause is intransitive, and an indirect object or oblique when the embedded clause is transitive. This pattern finds considerable cross-linguistic support. On the other hand, there are languages in which the causee exhibits alternative grammatical relations (...)
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  14. E. Roy John (2001). A Field Theory of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):184-213.
    This article summarizes a variety of current as well as previous research in support of a new theory of consciousness. Evidence has been steadily accumulating that information about a stimulus complex is distributed to many neuronal populations dispersed throughout the brain and is represented by the departure from randomness of the temporal pattern of neural discharges within these large ensembles. Zero phase lag synchronization occurs between discharges of neurons in different brain regions and is enhanced by presentation of stimuli. This (...)
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  15.  23
    John Alder (2000). Dissents in Courts of Last Resort: Tragic Choices? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 20 (2):221-246.
    A democratic society does not embody a permanent and internally consistent set of values but attempts to accommodate disagreement between incommensurable values. One of the purposes of the law is to manage such disagreement by ensuring that disputes are settled in a way that advances the interests of stability without foreclosing options. In this respect the function of the formal dissenting judgment has been neglected in the English literature. By contrast there is a rich US literature which reveals an ambivalent (...)
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  16. Stephen John (2011). Expert Testimony and Epistemological Free-Riding: The Mmr Controversy. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):496-517.
    Using the controversy over the MMR vaccine, I consider the reasons why non-experts should defer to experts, and I sketch a model for understanding cases where they fail to defer. I first suggest that an intuitively plausible model of the expert/non-expert relationship is complicated by shifting epistemic standards. One possible moderate response to this challenge, based on a more complex notion of non-experts' relationship with experts, seems unappealing as an account of the MMR controversy. A more radical suggestion is that (...)
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  17.  17
    John Woods (1999). Angustus Demorgan (1806--1871). Argumentation 13 (4):393-397.
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  18.  99
    Stephen John (2010). In Defence of Bad Science and Irrational Policies: An Alternative Account of the Precautionary Principle. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (1):3-18.
    In the first part of the paper, three objections to the precautionary principle are outlined: the principle requires some account of how to balance risks of significant harms; the principle focuses on action and ignores the costs of inaction; and the principle threatens epistemic anarchy. I argue that these objections may overlook two distinctive features of precautionary thought: a suspicion of the value of “full scientific certainty”; and a desire to distinguish environmental doings from allowings. In Section 2, I argue (...)
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  19.  2
    E. Roy John (1976). A Model of Consciousness. In Gary E. Schwartz & D. H. Shapiro (eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation. Plenum Press. pp. 1--50.
  20.  11
    Oliver P. John & James J. Gross (2007). Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation. In James J. Gross (ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation. Guilford Press. pp. 351--372.
  21. Catherine Rachel John (2011). A Few Notes on Croatia. The Chesterton Review 37 (1-2):303-305.
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  22.  11
    E. R. John, L. S. Prichep, W. Kox, P. Valdes-Sosa, J. Bosch-Bayard, E. Aubert, M. Tom, F. diMichele & L. D. Gugino (2001). Invariant Reversible QEEG Effects of Anesthetics. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):165-183.
    Continuous recordings of brain electrical activity were obtained from a group of 176 patients throughout surgical procedures using general anesthesia. Artifact-free data from the 19 electrodes of the International 10/20 System were subjected to quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (QEEG). Induction was variously accomplished with etomidate, propofol or thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained throughout the procedures by isoflurane, desflurane or sevoflurane (N = 68), total intravenous anesthesia using propofol (N = 49), or nitrous oxide plus narcotics (N = 59). A set (...)
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  23.  30
    Stephen John (2015). Inductive Risk and the Contexts of Communication. Synthese 192 (1):79-96.
    In recent years, the argument from inductive risk against value free science has enjoyed a revival. This paper investigates and clarifies this argument through means of a case-study: neonicitinoid research. Sect. 1 argues that the argument from inductive risk is best conceptualised as a claim about scientists’ communicative obligations. Sect. 2 then shows why this argument is inapplicable to “public communication”. Sect. 3 outlines non-epistemic reasons why non-epistemic values should not play a role in public communicative contexts. Sect. 4 analyses (...)
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  24.  32
    Stephen John (2015). The Example of the IPCC Does Not Vindicate the Value Free Ideal: A Reply to Gregor Betz. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (1):1-13.
    In a recent paper, Gregor Betz has defended the value-free ideal: “the justification of scientific findings should not be based on non-epistemic values”against the methodological critique, by reference to the work of the International Panel on Climate Change . This paper argues that Betz’s defence is unsuccessful. First, Betz’s argument is sketched, and it is shown that the IPCC does not avoid the need to “translate” claims. In Section 2, it is argued that Betz mischaracterises the force of the methodological (...)
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  25. Eileen John (2014). XI—Literature and Disagreement. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (3pt3):239-260.
    To understand rational response to ethical disagreement, we need to consider how epistemic and ethical factors interact. The notion of an ethical peer is developed, and the roles that epistemic and ethical peers play in disagreement are compared. In the light of some literary examples, the view that conciliation in response to an ethical peer can be called for, even if that peer is an epistemic inferior, is defended.
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  26.  21
    I. I. I. John (2008). Not Biting the Hand That Feeds Them: Hegemonic Expediency in the Newsroom and the Karen Ryan/Health and Human Services Department Video News Release. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (2):110 – 125.
    This study examines the use of a video news release in a specific story. Press coverage and editorial criticism in the case showed that journalists do not articulate sufficiently how the news owners' sway, through institutional controls, can lead to a hegemony of expedient action in the newsroom. Critical self-reflection by news workers will better enable journalists to ethically deliberate news choices that balance their responsibilities to owners, peers, and the public.
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  27.  8
    John Murphy (2004). The Merits of Rylands V Fletcher. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24 (4):643-669.
    English and Australian judges have, over the past few decades, severely questioned the juridical distinctiveness and utility of the rule in Rylands v Fletcher. The popular assertion in this country has been that the rule is really only a sub-species of the law of private nuisance. By contrast, the Australian judiciary has abandoned the rule altogether, preferring to expand the law of negligence to capture the rule's former territory. This article seeks to defend the rule in Rylands v Fletcher. In (...)
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  28.  89
    Eileen John (1998). Reading Fiction and Conceptual Knowledge: Philosophical Thought in Literary Context. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (4):331-348.
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  29.  14
    E. Roy John, P. Easton & R. Isenhart (1997). Consciousness and Cognition May Be Mediated by Multiple Independent Coherent Ensembles. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):3-39.
    Short-term or working memory provides temporary storage of information in the brain after an experience and is associated with conscious awareness. Neurons sensitive to the multiple stimulus attributes comprising an experience are distributed within many brain regions. Such distributed cell assemblies, activated by an event, are the most plausible system to represent the WM of that event. Studies with a variety of imaging technologies have implicated widespread brain regions in the mediation of WM for different categories of information. Each kind (...)
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  30. Michael J. Jacobson, Charlotte Taylor, Anne Newstead, Wai Yat Wong, Deborah Richards, Meredith Taylor, Porte John, Kartiko Iwan, Kapur Manu & Hu Chun (2011). Collaborative Virtual Worlds and Productive Failure. In Proceedings of the CSCL (Computer Supported Cognition and Learning) III. University of Hong Kong.
    This paper reports on an ongoing ARC Discovery Project that is conducting design research into learning in collaborative virtual worlds (CVW).The paper will describe three design components of the project: (a) pedagogical design, (b)technical and graphics design, and (c) learning research design. The perspectives of each design team will be discussed and how the three teams worked together to produce the CVW. The development of productive failure learning activities for the CVW will be discussed and there will be an interactive (...)
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  31. E. Roy John (2002). The Neurophysics of Consciousness. Brain Research Reviews 39 (1):1-28.
  32.  1
    S. John (2014). Patient Preference Predictors, Apt Categorization, and Respect for Autonomy. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (2):169-177.
    In this paper, I set out two ethical complications for Rid and Wendler’s proposal that a “Patient Preference Predictor” (PPP) should be used to aid decision making about incapacitated patients’ care. Both of these worries concern how a PPP might categorize patients. In the first section of the paper, I set out some general considerations about the “ethics of apt categorization” within stratified medicine and show how these challenge certain PPPs. In the second section, I argue for a more specific—but (...)
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  33.  13
    Stephen John (2010). Three Worries About Three Arguments for Research Exceptionalism. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):67-69.
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  34.  5
    John J. McGrath (2006). The Romance of Balancing Selection Versus the Sober Alternatives: Let the Data Rule. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):417-418.
    Schizophrenia has attracted more than its fair share of evolutionary-based theories. The theories involving balancing selection are based on the assumption that the incidence of schizophrenia is invariant across time and place. Modern epidemiology allows us to reject this dogmatic belief. Once variations in the genetic and epidemiological landscape of schizophrenia are acknowledged, more productive research models can be generated. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  35. L. Woolfolk Robert, M. Doris John & M. Darley John (2007). Identification, Situational Constraint, and Social Cognition : Studies in the Attribution of Moral Responsibility. In Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    In three experiments we studied lay observers’ attributions of responsibility for an antisocial act (homicide). We systematically varied both the degree to which the action was coerced by external circumstances and the degree to which the actor endorsed and accepted ownership of the act, a psychological state that philosophers have termed ‘identification’. Our findings with respect to identification were highly consistent. The more an actor was identified with an action, the more likely observers were to assign responsibility to the actor, (...)
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  36. Yohan J. John, Daniel Bullock, Basilis Zikopoulos & Helen Barbas (2013). Anatomy and Computational Modeling of Networks Underlying Cognitive-Emotional Interaction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  37.  9
    J. St John (2007). Problems with Theory, Problems with Practice: Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Bioethics. South African Journal of Philosophy 26 (2):204-215.
    In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls devised the method of reflective equilibrium in an attempt to broker consensus between ethical approaches emphasising individual moral judgements, and those emphasising moral principles, expanding this method in the later paper; “The Independence of Moral Theory”, to produce wide reflective equilibrium. In a number of essays compiled in Justice and Justification, Norman Daniels articulated a more comprehensive version of Rawls's methodology in response to something of a similar struggle within contemporary bioethics, between those (...)
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  38.  6
    E. Hoyle & P. John (1996). Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice. British Journal of Educational Studies 44 (1):102-103.
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  39.  5
    Carolyn H. John (1988). Emotionality Ratings and Free-Association Norms of 240 Emotional and Non-Emotional Words. Cognition and Emotion 2 (1):49-70.
  40.  5
    Mark F. John (1992). The Story Gestalt: A Model Of Knowledge‐Intensive Processes in Text Comprehension. Cognitive Science 16 (2):271-306.
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  41. Caruana John (2002). Levinas's Critique of the Sacred. International Philosophical Quarterly 42 (4).
     
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  42. Laura Schroeter & Bigelow & John (2009). Jackson's Classical Model of Meaning. In Ian Ravenscroft (ed.), Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. Oxford University Press. pp. 85.
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  43.  58
    Stephen John (2009). Why 'Health' is Not a Central Category for Public Health Policy. Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):129-143.
    We normally think that public health policy is an important political activity. In turn, we normally understand the value of public health policy in terms of the promotion of health or some health-related good (such as opportunity for health), on the basis of the assumption that health is an important constituent or determinant of wellbeing. In this paper, I argue that the assumption that the value of public health policy should be understood in terms of health leads us to overlook (...)
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  44. James John (2010). Against Qualia Theory. Philosophical Studies 147 (3):323 - 346.
    Representational theorists identify experiences’ phenomenal properties with their representational properties. Qualia theorists reject this identity, insisting that experiences’ phenomenal properties can come apart from and completely outrun their representational properties. Qualia theorists account for phenomenal properties in terms of “qualia,” intrinsic mental properties they allege experiences to instantiate. The debate between representational theorists and qualia theorists has focused on whether phenomenal properties really can come apart from and completely outrun representational properties. As a result, qualia theorists have failed (1) to (...)
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  45. Eileen John (2003). Literary Fiction and the Philosophical Value of Detail. In Matthew Kieran & Dominic Lopes (eds.), Imagination, Philosophy, and the Arts. Routledge. pp. 142--159.
     
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  46. Eileen John (2001). Art and Knowledge. In Berys Nigel Gaut & Dominic Lopes (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. Routledge.
     
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  47.  62
    Stephen John (2013). Efficiency, Responsibility and Disability: Philosophical Lessons From the Savings Argument for Pre-Natal Diagnosis. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):1470594-13505412.
    Pre-natal-diagnosis technologies allow parents to discover whether their child is likely to suffer from serious disability. One argument for state funding of access to such technologies is that doing so would be “cost-effective”, in the sense that the expected financial costs of such a programme would be outweighed by expected “benefits”, stemming from the births of fewer children with serious disabilities. This argument is extremely controversial. This paper argues that the argument may not be as unacceptable as is often assumed. (...)
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  48.  14
    Helen J. John, S. N. D. (1992). Hildegard of Bingen: A New Twelfth‐Century Woman Philosopher? Hypatia 7 (1):115-123.
  49. Stephen Stich & Doris & John (2005). Empirical Perspectives on Ethics. In Frank Jackson & Michael Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  50.  3
    Paul Mitchell & John Phillips (2002). The Contractual Nexus: Is Reliance Essential? Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 22 (1):115-134.
    This article challenges the generally accepted dogma that reliance is an essential ingredient in contractual formation. We argue that this view has resulted from an erroneous interpretation of the relevant case law, failure to cite contrary authority, and the elevation of often oblique judicial references to the need for reliance to the status of fundamental contractual principle. Contractual theory and clear policy reasons support our position that in English law a contractual obligation subsists when a person, knowing of a promise, (...)
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