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Stephen John
Cambridge University
John Whelan, Jr.
Lycoming College
John Lamola
University of Fort Hare
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  1. How to Allocate Scarce Health Resources Without Discriminating Against People with Disabilities.Tyler M. John, Joseph Millum & David Wasserman - 2017 - Economics and Philosophy 33 (2):161-186.
    One widely used method for allocating health care resources involves the use of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to rank treatments in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. CEA has been criticized for discriminating against people with disabilities by valuing their lives less than those of non-disabled people. Avoiding discrimination seems to lead to the ’QALY trap’: we cannot value saving lives equally and still value raising quality of life. This paper reviews existing responses to the QALY trap and argues that all (...)
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  2. The Philosophers' Brief on Chimpanzee Personhood.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, Gillian Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David Pena-Guzman, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo, Adam Shriver & Rebecca Walker - 2018 - Proposed Brief by Amici Curiae Philosophers in Support of the Petitioner-Appelllant Court of Appeals, State of New York,.
    In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
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  3.  33
    Characteristics of Dissociable Human Learning Systems.David R. Shanks & Mark F. St John - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-395.
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  4. Contemporary Debates in Epistemology.Steup Matthias, Turri John & Sosa Ernest (eds.) - 2013 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  5. The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate: 25 Years ofIncomparable ReseaarchJ.J. Griffin & Mahon John - 1997 - Business and Society 1:73-75.
     
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  6. Know-How and Concept Possession.Bengson John & Moffett Marc - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 136 (1):31 - 57.
    We begin with a puzzle: why do some know-how attributions entail ability attributions while others do not? After rejecting the tempting response that know-how attributions are ambiguous, we argue that a satisfactory answer to the puzzle must acknowledge the connection between know-how and concept possession (specifically, reasonable conceptual mastery, or understanding). This connection appears at first to be grounded solely in the cognitive nature of certain activities. However, we show that, contra anti-intellectualists, the connection between know-how and concept possession can (...)
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  7. Could There Ever Be an App for That? Consent Apps and the Problem of Sexual Assault.Danaher John - 2018 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 12 (1):143-165.
    Rape and sexual assault are major problems. In the majority of sexual assault cases consent is the central issue. Consent is, to borrow a phrase, the ‘moral magic’ that converts an impermissible act into a permissible one. In recent years, a handful of companies have tried to launch consent apps which aim to educate young people about the nature of sexual consent and allow them to record signals of consent for future verification. Although ostensibly aimed at addressing the problems of (...)
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  8. Advice for Physicalists.Hawthorne John - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 109 (1):17-52.
    This paper engages with two compelling challenges to physicalism, each designed to show that the nature of experience is elusive from the standpoint of physical science. It is argued that the physicalist is ultimately well placed to meet both challenges.
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  9. Promises Under Fire.Deigh John - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):483-506.
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  10. Freedom in Context.Hawthorne John - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 104 (1):63-79.
    David Lewis has recently deployed a contextualist strategy for defending ordinary claims to know.1 In this paper, I wish to extend that strategy to ordinary claims about freedom.2 The result is a species of compatibilism that, while foreign to current debates, has a good deal going for it.
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  11.  27
    Complete Chemical Synthesis, Assembly, and Cloning of a Mycoplasma Genitalium Genome.Daniel Gibson, Benders G., A. Gwynedd, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Evgeniya Denisova, Baden-Tillson A., Zaveri Holly, Stockwell Jayshree, B. Timothy, Anushka Brownley, David Thomas, Algire W., A. Mikkel, Chuck Merryman, Lei Young, Vladimir Noskov, Glass N., I. John, J. Craig Venter, Clyde Hutchison, Smith A. & O. Hamilton - 2008 - Science 319 (5867):1215--1220.
    We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted "watermarks" at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping "cassettes" of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate (...)
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  12.  30
    Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation.Oliver P. John & James J. Gross - 2007 - In James J. Gross (ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation. Guilford Press. pp. 351--372.
  13. A Field Theory of Consciousness.E. Roy John - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):184-213.
    This article summarizes a variety of current as well as previous research in support of a new theory of consciousness. Evidence has been steadily accumulating that information about a stimulus complex is distributed to many neuronal populations dispersed throughout the brain and is represented by the departure from randomness of the temporal pattern of neural discharges within these large ensembles. Zero phase lag synchronization occurs between discharges of neurons in different brain regions and is enhanced by presentation of stimuli. This (...)
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  14. Expert Testimony and Epistemological Free-Riding: The Mmr Controversy.Stephen John - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):496-517.
    Using the controversy over the MMR vaccine, I consider the reasons why non-experts should defer to experts, and I sketch a model for understanding cases where they fail to defer. I first suggest that an intuitively plausible model of the expert/non-expert relationship is complicated by shifting epistemic standards. One possible moderate response to this challenge, based on a more complex notion of non-experts' relationship with experts, seems unappealing as an account of the MMR controversy. A more radical suggestion is that (...)
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  15.  33
    Epistemic Trust and the Ethics of Science Communication: Against Transparency, Openness, Sincerity and Honesty.Stephen John - 2018 - Social Epistemology 32 (2):75-87.
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  16.  46
    The Example of the IPCC Does Not Vindicate the Value Free Ideal: A Reply to Gregor Betz.Stephen John - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 5 (1):1-13.
    In a recent paper, Gregor Betz has defended the value-free ideal: “the justification of scientific findings should not be based on non-epistemic values”against the methodological critique, by reference to the work of the International Panel on Climate Change . This paper argues that Betz’s defence is unsuccessful. First, Betz’s argument is sketched, and it is shown that the IPCC does not avoid the need to “translate” claims. In Section 2, it is argued that Betz mischaracterises the force of the methodological (...)
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  17.  46
    Inductive Risk and the Contexts of Communication.Stephen John - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):79-96.
    In recent years, the argument from inductive risk against value free science has enjoyed a revival. This paper investigates and clarifies this argument through means of a case-study: neonicitinoid research. Sect. 1 argues that the argument from inductive risk is best conceptualised as a claim about scientists’ communicative obligations. Sect. 2 then shows why this argument is inapplicable to “public communication”. Sect. 3 outlines non-epistemic reasons why non-epistemic values should not play a role in public communicative contexts. Sect. 4 analyses (...)
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  18. In Defence of Bad Science and Irrational Policies: An Alternative Account of the Precautionary Principle.Stephen John - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (1):3-18.
    In the first part of the paper, three objections to the precautionary principle are outlined: the principle requires some account of how to balance risks of significant harms; the principle focuses on action and ignores the costs of inaction; and the principle threatens epistemic anarchy. I argue that these objections may overlook two distinctive features of precautionary thought: a suspicion of the value of “full scientific certainty”; and a desire to distinguish environmental doings from allowings. In Section 2, I argue (...)
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  19.  62
    Ethics, the Olympics and the Search for Global Values.Milton-Smith John - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 35 (2):131 - 142.
    The backlash against the Olympic Games reflects the failure of the major global institutions in dealing with the social and ethical consequences of globalisation in areas such as the environment, poverty, terrorism and natural disasters. Disillusionment with the Olympic Games mirrors the disenchantment with the perceived values of globalisation, including winning at any price, commercial exploitation by MNCs, intense national rivalry, cronyism, cheating and corruption and the competitive advantage of advanced nations. How could the Olympic Movement reverse this perception? The (...)
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  20.  2
    A Model of Consciousness.E. Roy John - 1976 - In Gary E. Schwartz & D. H. Shapiro (eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation. Plenum Press. pp. 1--50.
  21.  8
    From Social Values to P-Values: The Social Epistemology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Stephen John - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (2):157-171.
    In this article I ask two questions prompted by the phenomenon of ‘politically patterned’ climate change denial. First, can an individual's political commitments provide her with good reasons not to defer to cognitive experts’ testimony? Building on work in philosophy of science on inductive risk, I argue they can. Second, can an individual's political commitments provide her with good reasons not to defer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's testimony? I argue that they cannot, because of the high epistemic (...)
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  22. What is a Speech Act?. M. Black, Ed.Searle John - 1965 - In Max Black (ed.), Philosophy in America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 221--239.
     
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  23.  41
    Developing the Quantitative Histopathology Image Ontology : A Case Study Using the Hot Spot Detection Problem.Metin Gurcan, Tomaszewski N., Overton John, A. James, Scott Doyle, Alan Ruttenberg & Barry Smith - 2017 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 66:129-135.
    Interoperability across data sets is a key challenge for quantitative histopathological imaging. There is a need for an ontology that can support effective merging of pathological image data with associated clinical and demographic data. To foster organized, cross-disciplinary, information-driven collaborations in the pathological imaging field, we propose to develop an ontology to represent imaging data and methods used in pathological imaging and analysis, and call it Quantitative Histopathological Imaging Ontology – QHIO. We apply QHIO to breast cancer hot-spot detection with (...)
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  24.  24
    Invariant Reversible QEEG Effects of Anesthetics.E. R. John, L. S. Prichep, W. Kox, P. Valdes-Sosa, J. Bosch-Bayard, E. Aubert, M. Tom, F. diMichele & L. D. Gugino - 2001 - Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):165-183.
    Continuous recordings of brain electrical activity were obtained from a group of 176 patients throughout surgical procedures using general anesthesia. Artifact-free data from the 19 electrodes of the International 10/20 System were subjected to quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (QEEG). Induction was variously accomplished with etomidate, propofol or thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained throughout the procedures by isoflurane, desflurane or sevoflurane (N = 68), total intravenous anesthesia using propofol (N = 49), or nitrous oxide plus narcotics (N = 59). A set (...)
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  25.  12
    Allostatic Load as a Complex Clinical Construct: A Case-Based Computational Modeling Approach.J. Galen Buckwalter, Brian Castellani, Bruce Mcewen, Arun S. Karlamangla, Albert A. Rizzo, Bruce John, Kyle O'donnell & Teresa Seeman - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S1):291-306.
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  26.  15
    Not Biting the Hand That Feeds Them: Hegemonic Expediency in the Newsroom and the Karen Ryan/Health and Human Services Department Video News Release.Burton St John - 2008 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (2):110-125.
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  27.  65
    Efficiency, Responsibility and Disability: Philosophical Lessons From the Savings Argument for Pre-Natal Diagnosis.Stephen John - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):1470594-13505412.
    Pre-natal-diagnosis technologies allow parents to discover whether their child is likely to suffer from serious disability. One argument for state funding of access to such technologies is that doing so would be “cost-effective”, in the sense that the expected financial costs of such a programme would be outweighed by expected “benefits”, stemming from the births of fewer children with serious disabilities. This argument is extremely controversial. This paper argues that the argument may not be as unacceptable as is often assumed. (...)
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  28. Collaborative Virtual Worlds and Productive Failure.Michael J. Jacobson, Charlotte Taylor, Anne Newstead, Wai Yat Wong, Deborah Richards, Meredith Taylor, Porte John, Kartiko Iwan, Kapur Manu & Hu Chun - 2011 - In Proceedings of the CSCL (Computer Supported Cognition and Learning) III. University of Hong Kong.
    This paper reports on an ongoing ARC Discovery Project that is conducting design research into learning in collaborative virtual worlds (CVW).The paper will describe three design components of the project: (a) pedagogical design, (b)technical and graphics design, and (c) learning research design. The perspectives of each design team will be discussed and how the three teams worked together to produce the CVW. The development of productive failure learning activities for the CVW will be discussed and there will be an interactive (...)
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  29. A Few Notes on Croatia.Catherine Rachel John - 2011 - The Chesterton Review 37 (1/2):303-305.
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  30.  54
    Explanation, Representation and the Dynamical Hypothesis.Symons John - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (4):521-541.
    This paper challenges arguments that systematic patterns of intelligent behavior license the claim that representations must play a role in the cognitive system analogous to that played by syntactical structures in a computer program. In place of traditional computational models, I argue that research inspired by Dynamical Systems theory can support an alternative view of representations. My suggestion is that we treat linguistic and representational structures as providing complex multi-dimensional targets for the development of individual brains. This approach acknowledges the (...)
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  31.  18
    The Value of Knowledge.Carter J. Adam, Pritchard Duncan & Turri John - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The value of knowledge has always been a central topic within epistemology. Going all the way back to Plato’s Meno, philosophers have asked, why is knowledge more valuable than mere true belief? Interest in this question has grown in recent years, with theorists proposing a range of answers. But some reject the premise of the question and claim that the value of knowledge is ‘swamped’ by the value of true belief. And others argue that statuses other than knowledge, such as (...)
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  32. XI—Literature and Disagreement.Eileen John - 2014 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (3pt3):239-260.
    To understand rational response to ethical disagreement, we need to consider how epistemic and ethical factors interact. The notion of an ethical peer is developed, and the roles that epistemic and ethical peers play in disagreement are compared. In the light of some literary examples, the view that conciliation in response to an ethical peer can be called for, even if that peer is an epistemic inferior, is defended.
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  33.  98
    Reading Fiction and Conceptual Knowledge: Philosophical Thought in Literary Context.Eileen John - 1998 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (4):331-348.
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  34.  23
    Not Biting the Hand That Feeds Them: Hegemonic Expediency in the Newsroom and the Karen Ryan/Health and Human Services Department Video News Release.I. I. I. John - 2008 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (2):110 – 125.
    This study examines the use of a video news release in a specific story. Press coverage and editorial criticism in the case showed that journalists do not articulate sufficiently how the news owners' sway, through institutional controls, can lead to a hegemony of expedient action in the newsroom. Critical self-reflection by news workers will better enable journalists to ethically deliberate news choices that balance their responsibilities to owners, peers, and the public.
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  35.  32
    Puzzling Identities, by Vincent Descombes, Translated by Stephen Adam Schwartz.Schwenkler John - 2017 - Mind 126 (503):967-974.
    © Mind Association 2017This rich and engaging book addresses a nest of questions that have been mostly neglected in recent Anglophone philosophy. These questions concern ordinary uses of the concept of identity in speaking for example of identity crises, of one’s identity as something that can be lost or maintained, of identification with certain groups, traits, values, or beliefs, and so on. That there are these uses, and that they are an important feature of contemporary culture, is beyond question: witness (...)
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  36.  15
    Three Worries About Three Arguments for Research Exceptionalism.Stephen John - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):67-69.
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  37. Identification, Situational Constraint, and Social Cognition : Studies in the Attribution of Moral Responsibility.L. Woolfolk Robert, M. Doris John & M. Darley John - 2007 - In Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    In three experiments we studied lay observers’ attributions of responsibility for an antisocial act (homicide). We systematically varied both the degree to which the action was coerced by external circumstances and the degree to which the actor endorsed and accepted ownership of the act, a psychological state that philosophers have termed ‘identification’. Our findings with respect to identification were highly consistent. The more an actor was identified with an action, the more likely observers were to assign responsibility to the actor, (...)
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  38.  45
    ‘Philosophy and the Novel’, by Goldman, Alan H.Eileen John - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (3):590-593.
    (2014). ‘Philosophy and the Novel’, by Goldman, Alan H. Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 590-593. doi: 10.1080/00048402.2014.885069.
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  39.  23
    Professional Knowledge and Professional Practice.E. Hoyle & P. John - 1996 - British Journal of Educational Studies 44 (1):102-103.
  40. The Neurophysics of Consciousness.E. Roy John - 2002 - Brain Research Reviews 39 (1):1-28.
  41.  14
    Consciousness and Cognition May Be Mediated by Multiple Independent Coherent Ensembles.E. Roy John, P. Easton & R. Isenhart - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):3-39.
    Short-term or working memory provides temporary storage of information in the brain after an experience and is associated with conscious awareness. Neurons sensitive to the multiple stimulus attributes comprising an experience are distributed within many brain regions. Such distributed cell assemblies, activated by an event, are the most plausible system to represent the WM of that event. Studies with a variety of imaging technologies have implicated widespread brain regions in the mediation of WM for different categories of information. Each kind (...)
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  42.  2
    Efficiency, Responsibility and Disability.Stephen John - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):3-22.
    Pre-natal-diagnosis technologies allow parents to discover whether their child is likely to suffer from serious disability. One argument for state funding of access to such technologies is that doing so would be “cost-effective”, in the sense that the expected financial costs of such a programme would be outweighed by expected “benefits”, stemming from the births of fewer children with serious disabilities. This argument is extremely controversial. This paper argues that the argument may not be as unacceptable as is often assumed. (...)
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  43.  41
    The Merits of Rylands V Fletcher.Murphy John - 2004 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 24 (4):643-669.
    English and Australian judges have, over the past few decades, severely questioned the juridical distinctiveness and utility of the rule in Rylands v Fletcher. The popular assertion in this country has been that the rule is really only a sub-species of the law of private nuisance. By contrast, the Australian judiciary has abandoned the rule altogether, preferring to expand the law of negligence to capture the rule's former territory. This article seeks to defend the rule in Rylands v Fletcher. In (...)
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  44.  40
    Did Wittgenstein Speak with the Vulgar or Think with the Learned? Or Did He Do Both?W. Cook John - 2007 - Philosophy 82 (2):234.
    Wittgenstein has often been criticized, and even dismissed, for being a patron of ordinary language, a champion of the vernacular, a defender of the status quo. One critic has written: 'When Wittgenstein set up the actual use of language as a standard, that was equivalent to accepting a certain set up of culture and belief as a standard ... It is lucky no such philosophy was thought of until recently or we should still be under the sway of witch doctors (...)
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  45. Literary Fiction and the Philosophical Value of Detail.Eileen John - 2003 - In Matthew Kieran & Dominic Lopes (eds.), Imagination, Philosophy, and the Arts. Routledge. pp. 142--159.
     
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  46.  38
    Recent Work on Supervenience.Divers John - 1998 - Philosophical Books 39 (2):81-91.
    At the core of the concept of supervenience are certain general maxims— notably, that there can be no A-differences without B-differences and that Bindiscernibility must bring A-discernibility. Supervenience is thus conceived as a matter of modal covariance between two sets of things in a given category, usually properties. The perennial issues surrounding supervenience concern: (a) the variety of specifically formulated theses that serve the core maxims and the patterns of entailment that obtain among these theses, and (b) the relations that (...)
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  47.  9
    An Integrated Pore-Pressure Model and its Application to Hydrocarbon Exploration: A Case Study From the Mahanadi Basin, East Coast of India.Ajesh John, Ashutosh Kumar, Karthikeyan G. & Pankaj Gupta - 2014 - Interpretation: SEG 2 (1):SB17-SB26.
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  48.  14
    Risk, Contractualism, and Rose's "Prevention Paradox".S. D. John - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (1):28-50.
    Geoffrey Rose’s prevention paradox points to a tension between two prima facie plausible moral principles: that we should save the greater number and that weshould save the most at risk. This paper argues that a novel moral theory, ex-ante contractualism, captures our intuitions in many prevention paradox cases, regardless of our interpretation of probability claims. However, it goes on to show that it might be impossible to square ex-ante contractualism with all of our moral intuitions. It concludes that even if (...)
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  49. Jackson's Classical Model of Meaning.Laura Schroeter & Bigelow & John - 2009 - In Ian Ravenscroft (ed.), Minds, Ethics, and Conditionals: Themes From the Philosophy of Frank Jackson. Oxford University Press. pp. 85.
     
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  50. Art and Knowledge.Eileen John - 2001 - In Berys Nigel Gaut & Dominic Lopes (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics. Routledge.
     
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