Results for 'Magical thinking'

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  1. Magical Thinking.Andrew M. Bailey - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):181-201.
    According to theists, God is an immaterial thinking being. The main question of this article is whether theism supports the view that we are immaterial thinking beings too. I shall argue in the negative. Along the way, I will also explore some implications in the philosophy of mind following from the observation that, on theism, God’s mentality is in a certain respect magical.
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  2.  33
    Hegel’s Magical Thinking.Angela Hume - 2015 - Evental Aesthetics 4 (1):8-31.
    FEATURED IN EVENTAL AESTHETICS RETROSPECTIVE 1. LOOKING BACK AT 10 ISSUES OF EVENTAL AESTHETICS. In this article I ask: how to rescue “magical thinking” in and from Hegel and imagine its possibilities for posthuman society, ethics, and aesthetics? To address this question, I read Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit through Horkheimer and Adorno, who argue that Enlightenment’s program is “the disenchantment of the world”: with the end of magical thinking and the beginning of enlightened thinking came (...)
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  3. (Rescuing) Hegels Magical Thinking.Angela Hume - 2012 - Evental Aesthetics 1 (1):11-38.
    This article asks how one can rescue magical thinking in and from Hegel and imagines its possibilities for posthuman society, ethics, and aesthetics.
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  4.  22
    Beyond the Magical Thinking Behind the Principal Principle.Edward James - 2015 - Philosophy 90 (3):479-503.
    David Lewis's Principal Principle states that our credence in a single case follows from the general probability of all such cases. Against this stands the Challenge Argument – to show that the inference is justified. Recent law-to-chance, Bayesian, and propensity theories of probability take up the challenge – but, I argue, fall short. Rather, we should understand propensity via Aristotle's analysis of spontaneity and probabilistic reasoning via the Anti-PP and the practice of bundling one offs, where forced bad-odds one offs (...)
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  5.  7
    Benign Magical Thinking.Richard B. Blacher - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (2):190-196.
  6.  3
    McWilliams, Magical Thinking: History, Possibility and the Idea of the Occult. London: Continuum, 2012. Pp. X + 187. ISBN 978-1-4411-1697-0. £65.00. [REVIEW]Claire Fanger - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Science 45 (4):681-682.
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  7.  46
    The Year of Magical Thinking: Joan Didion and the Dialectic of Grief.F. Brennan & M. Dash - 2008 - Medical Humanities 34 (1):35-39.
    Joan Didion is a prominent American writer. In late 2003, while her only child lay critically ill, her husband, John, died suddenly. Theirs was a marriage of great intimacy and love. Grief enveloped her. Eventually she began to write an account of the first 12 months of her bereavement and the vigil for her child: The year of magical thinking. Raw, insightful and challenging, it is a rich, generous and graceful document. Didion draws on the literature of grief, (...)
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  8.  24
    In Algorithms We Trust: Magical Thinking, Superintelligent Ai and Quantum Computing.Nathan Schradle - 2020 - Zygon 55 (3):733-747.
  9.  8
    On the Origin of Magical Thinking in the Contemporary Context.Susanne Heine - 2000 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 23 (1):81-101.
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    Belief in the Causative Power of Words as a Manifestation of Magical Thinking in Late Childhood.Agnieszka Bieńkowska - 2011 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 42 (4):226-234.
    Belief in the causative power of words as a manifestation of magical thinking in late childhood The purpose of the research was to present one of the manifestations of magical thinking in late childhood, i.e. belief in the causative power of words, and relations between this phenomenon and language. One hundred and three primary school students, grades 4 to 6, aged 10 to 13 were studied. A significant relation was found between belief in the direct effect (...)
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  11.  15
    Stage Notes and/as/or Track Changes: Introductory Remarks and Magical Thinking on Printing: An Election and a Provocation.Isaac Linder - 2012 - Continent 2 (4):244-247.
    In this issue we include contributions from the individuals presiding at the panel All in a Jurnal's Work: A BABEL Wayzgoose, convened at the second Biennial Meeting of the BABEL Working Group. Sadly, the contributions of Daniel Remein, chief rogue at the Organism for Poetic Research as well as editor at Whiskey & Fox , were not able to appear in this version of the proceedings. From the program : 2ND BIENNUAL MEETING OF THE BABEL WORKING GROUP CONFERENCE “CRUISING IN (...)
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  12.  4
    Pamela Thurschwell. Literature, Technology, and Magical Thinking, 1880–1920. Edited by, Gillian Beer. 194 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. $54.95. [REVIEW]Seymour Mauskopf - 2002 - Isis 93 (4):742-743.
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  13.  7
    The Luoshu Magic Square as Evidence of the Rational and Mathematical Orientation of the Chinese Style of Thinking.Natalya V. Pushkarskaya - 2019 - Russian Journal of Philosophical Sciences 62 (6):151-159.
    This article considers the meaning of the ancient Chinese magic square Luoshu. It is known that this square is the most ancient of this type of squares. The importance of the magic square in the philosophical tradition and in the whole culture of China is large. The ancient understanding of number differs from the modern one by its dual character, combining the features of philosophical symbolism and mathematical constructions. Unfortunately, modern interpretations of the Luoshu as well as other numerical constructions (...)
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  14.  22
    Jacob’s Ladder: Logics of Magic, Metaphor and Metaphysics: Narratives of the Unconscious, the Self, and the Assembly.Julio Michael Stern - 2020 - Sophia 59 (2):365-385.
    In this article, we discuss some issues concerning magical thinking—forms of thought and association mechanisms characteristic of early stages of mental development. We also examine good reasons for having an ambivalent attitude concerning the later permanence in life of these archaic forms of association, and the coexistence of such intuitive but informal thinking with logical and rigorous reasoning. At the one hand, magical thinking seems to serve the creative mind, working as a natural vehicle for (...)
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  15.  27
    Magic of Language.Korzeniewski Bernard - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (4):455.
    Language, through the discrete nature of linguistic names and strictly determined grammatical rules, creates absolute, “quantized”, sharply separated “facts” within the external world that is continuous, “fuzzy” and relational in its essence. Therefore, it is similar, in some important sense, to magic, which attributes causal and creative power to magical words and formulas. On the one hand, language increases greatly the effectiveness of the processes of thinking and interpersonal communication, yet, on the other hand, it determines and distorts (...)
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  16. Magic Realism and the Limits of Intelligibility: What Makes Us Conscious.Alva Noë - 2007 - Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):457–474.
    In the “Notes for Lectures on “Private Experience‘ and “Sense Data‘", Wittgenstein endorsed one kind of inverted spectrum hypothesis and rejected another. This paper argues that the kind of inverted spectrum hypothesis that Wittgenstein endorsed is the thin end of the wedge that precludes a Wittgensteinian critique of the kind of inverted spectrum hypothesis he rejected. I will attempt to explicate the difference between the innocuous and dangerous scenarios, to give arguments in favor of the coherence of the dangerous scenario, (...)
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  17.  29
    Jacob’s Ladder: Logics of Magic, Metaphor and Metaphysics.Julio Michael Stern - 2020 - Sophia 59:365-385.
    In this article, we discuss some issues concerning magical thinking—forms of thought and association mechanisms characteristic of early stages of mental development. We also examine good reasons for having an ambivalent attitude concerning the later permanence in life of these archaic forms of association, and the coexistence of such intuitive but informal thinking with logical and rigorous reasoning. At the one hand, magical thinking seems to serve the creative mind, working as a natural vehicle for (...)
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  18.  29
    The Magic of Reality: How We Know What's Really True.Richard Dawkins - 2011 - Free Press.
    Magic takes many forms. Supernatural magic is what our ancestors used in order to explain the world before they developed the scientific method. The ancient Egyptians explained the night by suggesting the goddess Nut swallowed the sun. The Vikings believed a rainbow was the gods’ bridge to earth. The Japanese used to explain earthquakes by conjuring a gigantic catfish that carried the world on its back—earthquakes occurred each time it flipped its tail. These are magical, extraordinary tales. But there (...)
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  19. Embodied Cognition and the Magical Future of Interaction Design.David Kirsh - 2013 - ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 20 (1):30.
    The theory of embodied cognition can provide HCI practitioners and theorists with new ideas about interac-tion and new principles for better designs. I support this claim with four ideas about cognition: (1) interacting with tools changes the way we think and perceive – tools, when manipulated, are soon absorbed into the body schema, and this absorption leads to fundamental changes in the way we perceive and conceive of our environments; (2) we think with our bodies not just with our brains; (...)
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  20. The Magic of Holes.Achille C. Varzi - 2019 - In Pina Marsico & Luca Tateo (eds.), Ordinary Things and Their Extraordinary Meanings. Charlotte (NC): Information Age Publishing. pp. 21-33.
    There is no doughnut without a hole, the saying goes. And that’s true. If you think you can come up with an exception, it simply wouldn’t be a doughnut. Holeless doughnuts are like extensionless color, or durationless sound—nonsense. Does it follow, then, that when we buy a doughnut we really purchase two sorts of thing—the edible stuff plus the little chunk of void in the middle? Surely we cannot just take the doughnut and leave the hole at the grocery store, (...)
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  21. In Defence of Magical Ersatzism.David A. Denby - 2006 - In Philosophical Quarterly. pp. 161-74.
    David Lewis' objection to a generic theory of modality which he calls ‘magical ersatzism’ is that its linchpin, a relation he calls ‘selection’, must be either an internal or an external relation, and that this is unintelligible either way. But the problem he points out with classifying selection as internal is really just an instance of the general problem of how we manage to grasp underdetermined predicates, is not peculiar to magical ersatzism, and is amenable to some familiar (...)
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  22. In Defence of Magical Ersatzism.David A. Denby - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (223):161–174.
    David Lewis' objection to a generic theory of modality which he calls ‘magical ersatzism’ is that its linchpin, a relation he calls ‘selection’, must be either an internal or an external relation, and that this is unintelligible either way. But the problem he points out with classifying selection as internal is really just an instance of the general problem of how we manage to grasp underdetermined predicates, is not peculiar to magical ersatzism, and is amenable to some familiar (...)
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  23.  16
    Schizotypy and Religiosity : The Magic of Prayer.Christopher Alan Lewis & Michael J. Breslin - 2015 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 37 (1):84-97.
    The term schizotypy is used to describe a diverse range of characteristics symptomatic of schizotypal personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. An emerging body of research is concerned with the relationship between schizotypy and religiosity. Mixed findings suggest a gender-specific, weak positive association between schizotypy and religiosity. The present aim was to clarify the relationship between schizotypy and religiosity by employing a multidimensional measure of prayer as a measure of religiosity. A sample of 371 Irish respondents completed the Measure of (...)
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  24.  91
    Sympathetic Magic and Perceptions of Randomness: The Hot Hand Versus the Gambler's Fallacy.Lana M. Trick & Christopher J. R. Roney - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (2):197-210.
    The gambler's fallacy and hot hand were studied in predictions about outcomes of coin tosses. A critical trial occurred when participants made predictions after a “run” of four heads or tails. Participants' attention was manipulated to focus on the person flipping the coin, the coin, or neither (control group) as a possible cause of the run. We also manipulated whether or not there was a change in who tossed the coin. In the control condition the standard reversal was observed (gambler's (...)
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  25.  16
    The Magical Life and Creative Works of Paulo Coelho: A Psychobiographical Investigation.Claude-Hélène Mayer & David Maree - 2018 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 18 (sup1):65-80.
    Based on a psychobiographical approach, this study addresses magical thinking across the life span of Paulo Coelho. Paulo Coelho, who was born in Brazil in the 1940s, has become one of the most sold and famous contemporary authors in the world. In his life, as well as in his books, which are mainly autobiographical accounts, magic and magical thinking, spirituality, meaningfulness, and the living of one’s dream, are key themes. The aim of this study was to (...)
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  26.  11
    Problem Solving of Magic Tricks: Guiding to and Through an Impasse with Solution Cues.Judit Pétervári & Amory H. Danek - 2019 - Thinking and Reasoning 26 (4):502-533.
    This study investigated how problem solvers get into and out of a state of impasse while solving difficult problems. 47 participants had to decipher the secret method behind 33 magic tricks while r...
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  27.  16
    The Wizards of the Violet Flame. A Magical Mystery Tour of Romanian Politics.Doru Pop - 2014 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 13 (38):155-171.
    This study presents the manifestations of irrational practices in recent Romanian politics. Providing a short history of the mystical and the occult in Romanian politics, this research uses as a case study the alleged use of the occult “violet flame” in the presidential campaign of 2009. By showing how public religiousness and the daily mystical practices are changing, the author is describing the transformations of the national political communication under the pressure of the news media, which are becoming more and (...)
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  28. Magic, Semantics, and Putnam’s Vat Brains.Mark Sprevak & Christina Mcleish - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 35 (2):227-236.
    In this paper we offer an exegesis of Hilary Putnam’s classic argument against the brain-in-avat hypothesis offered in his Reason, truth and history (1981). In it, Putnam argues that we cannot be brains in a vat because the semantics of the situation make it incoherent for anyone to wonder whether they are a brain a vat. Putnam’s argument is that in order for ‘I am a brain in a vat’ to be true, the person uttering it would have to be (...)
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  29.  31
    Bergson: Thinking Backwards.F. C. T. Moore - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is a book about the philosophy of Henri Bergson which shows how relevant Bergson is to much contemporary philosophy. The book takes as its point of departure Bergson's insistence on precision in philosophy. It then discusses a variety of topics including laughter, the nature of time as experienced, how intelligence and language should be construed as a pragmatic product of evolution, and the antinomies of reason represented by magic and religion. This is not just another exposition of Bergson's work. (...)
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  30. The Magic of Common Sense.George Frederick Wates - 1923 - London: J. Murray.
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  31. "Soul Dust: The Magic of Consciousness" by Nicholas Humphrey. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - The Times Literary Supplement 1.
    Nicholas Humphrey thinks that consciousness is a kind of illusion. He claims that when we have conscious sensory experiences, it seems to us that we are aware of certain “phenomenal” properties like colours, smells, sounds, when in reality there are no such things. In fact, there cannot be any such things, since phenomenal properties are impossible. Something in our brains causes us to have experiences which represent “extraordinary otherworldly properties”. The whole of conscious experience seems to us like something “ (...)”; hence the subtitle of the book. (shrink)
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  32.  1
    Gregor Mendel, Franz Unger, Carl Na Geli and the Magic of Numbers.Ariane Dröscher - 2015 - History of Science 53 (4):492-508.
    This paper aims to illustrate the influence of Franz Unger’s and Carl Wilhelm Nägeli’s anatomical and developmental works on Gregor Mendel’s use of numerical ratios in biological inquiry. All hypotheses concerning Mendel’s sources of inspiration have hitherto overlooked the cytological teaching of Unger, his professor of botany. In the 1830s and 1840s, he was a pioneer of cell theory. His publications, including his university textbooks, are characterised by a particulate and quantifying approach towards vital phenomena. Special attention will be paid (...)
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  33.  4
    Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition.Stuart A. Vyse - 2000 - Oxford University Press USA.
    'Professor Vyse presents the historical, sociocultural, and psychological basis for superstition in a clear, interesting, and even entertaining way. What easily could have been a dry, over-intellectualized tome is, instead, a gem of a book that engaginly tells the story of what science has learned about superstition, of how pervasive and powerful superstition can be, and of why critical thinking skills are so important in everyday life.' -Douglas A. Bernstein, Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 'Many books deal (...)
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  34.  9
    Keeping the Magic Alive: Social Sharing of Positive Life Experiences Sustains Happiness.Arpine Hovasapian & Linda J. Levine - 2018 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (8):1559-1570.
    ABSTRACTSocial sharing of positive life experiences has been linked to increased intensity of positive emotion. Less is known about the relations among sharing, the perceived response of the listener, and the duration of positive emotion. We hypothesised that sharing an experience would sustain positive emotion when listeners responded in a manner that highlighted the appraised importance and remarkability of the experience, thereby slowing hedonic adaptation. College students who received a desirable exam grade reported their emotional response, appraisals, and sharing on (...)
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  35.  70
    Mental Fictionalism: The Costly Combination of Magic and the Mind.Amber Ross - forthcoming - In T. Parent & Adam Toon Tamas Demeter (ed.), Mental Fictionalism: Philosophical Explorations.
    Mental fictionalism is not the benign view that we may better understand the mind if we think of mental states as something like useful fictions, but the more radical view that mental states just are useful fictions. This paper argues that, if one were to treat mental states as a kind of fiction, the genre of fiction best suited to this purpose would be fantasy make-believe, in which magic is a central feature. After defending a promising fictionalist account of mental (...)
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  36.  14
    What's in a Name?: Reflections on Language, Magic, and Religion.George Albert Wells - 1993 - Open Court.
    Words, Ideas, and Things I. Introduction When we first learn to speak and to understand, we are surrounded by people who make noises and also by a great ...
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  37.  11
    Teaching Critical Thinking: The Struggle Against Dogmatism.Cristiane Maria Cornelia Gottschalk - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-9.
    From a Wittgensteinian point of view, my goal is to argue against the idea that teaching critical thinking should have as one of its aims the possibility of changing or adapting our deeply held beliefs. As pointed out by the Austrian philosopher in On Certainty, we have a world-picture which is neither true nor false, but above all, ‘it is the substratum of all my enquiring and asserting’. Besides that, in his remarks on Frazer’s Golden Bough, Wittgenstein insists on (...)
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  38.  26
    Teaching Critical Thinking: The Struggle Against Dogmatism.Cristiane Maria Cornelia Gottschalk - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (5):469-477.
    From a Wittgensteinian point of view, my goal is to argue against the idea that teaching critical thinking should have as one of its aims the possibility of changing or adapting our deeply held beliefs. As pointed out by the Austrian philosopher in On Certainty, we have a world-picture which is neither true nor false, but above all, ‘it is the substratum of all my enquiring and asserting’. Besides that, in his remarks on Frazer’s Golden Bough, Wittgenstein insists on (...)
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  39.  3
    Nahmanides’ Astrological and Religious Thinking and the Views of the Contemporaneous Catalan Christian Sages.Esperança Valls-Pujol - 2020 - Perichoresis 18 (4):81-95.
    This paper examines the astrological and religious thinking of Moshe ben Nahman and the intellectual connections in this field with two of the most outstanding Christian thinkers of his time, Ramon Llull and Arnau de Vilanova. Nahmanides, like many medieval scholars, admitted an astral influence, but he did not accept astrology as a divinatory science. He incorporated astrological doctrines in his exegetical works, assuming that Israel is not determined by any star because it only responds to God. Yet the (...)
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  40.  14
    Without Vision: Thinking Without a Banister in the Twentieth Century.Tracy B. Strong - 2012 - University of Chicago Press.
    The world as we find it -- Kant and the death of God -- Nietzsche: the tragic ethos and the spirit of music -- Max Weber, magic, and the politics of social scientific objectivity -- "What have we to do with morals?": Nietzsche and Weber on the politics of morality -- Sigmund Freud and the heroism of knowledge -- Lenin and the calling of the party -- Carl Schmitt and the exceptional sovereign -- Martin Heidegger and the space of the (...)
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  41.  11
    Mitzvot, lumi, comunitate în gândirea hasidicã moderna/ Mitzvot, Worlds, and Community in Modern Hasidic Thinking.Petru Moldovan - 2003 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 2 (5):158-167.
    Moshe Idel considers that the emergence of Hasidism is not the result of the confrontation between ancient and modern orientations. In M. Idel’s interpretation of the Hasidic phenomenon, a central point is ascribed to the inevitable encounter of the Hasidim masters with a variety of mystic literature. I have chosen to analyze three extremely complex and very important concepts regarding Jewish mystic phenomenon: mitzvoth, worlds, and community. In discussing these concepts I have tried to emphasize their practical and very important (...)
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  42. Scientific Styles, Plain Truth, and Truthfulness.Robert Kowalenko - 2018 - South African Journal of Philosophy 37 (3):361-378.
    Ian Hacking defines a “style of scientific thinking” loosely as a “way to find things out about the world” characterised by five hallmark features of a number of scientific template styles. Most prominently, these are autonomy and “self-authentication”: a scientific style of thinking, according to Hacking, is not good because it helps us find out the truth in some domain, it itself defines the criteria for truth-telling in its domain. I argue that Renaissance medicine, Mediaeval “demonology”, and (...) thinking pass muster as scientific according to Hacking's criteria. However, application of these thought styles to the entities they introduce generates statements that logically imply a set of “ordinary” statements—or what Bernard Williams calls “plain truths”—which, contra the claims of autonomy and self-authentication, allows styles to be assessed from a style- independent perspective. Using Williams’ notion of plain truth, I show that Renaissance medicine, demonology, and magical thinking, in reality issue in many plain falsehoods. This confronts us with what I call Hacking's dilemma: either define stricter necessary conditions on being a style of scientific thinking, or concede that some styles albeit scientific are not as good at finding things out about the world as others. I make three suggestions to deal with the dilemma. (shrink)
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  43.  10
    An Early Indian Interpretive Puzzle: Vedic Etymologies as a Tool for Thinking.Paolo Visigalli - 2018 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 46 (5):983-1007.
    Etymologies are often encountered in Vedic prose, in Brāhmaṇas and early Upaniṣads. Though they have received a fair amount of scholarly attention, Vedic etymologies still present a challenge to interpreters. To respond to it, I critically review previous interpretations, and focus on three case studies, Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 1.1.2, Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 1.3, and Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.8. In my interpretation, I emphasize the need for a contextual reading, foreground Vedic etymologies’ complexity and sophistication, and call attention to the variety of purposes they (...)
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  44.  7
    The Eclipse of Sacramental Realism in the Age of Reform: Re‐Thinking Luther's Gutenberg Galaxy in a Post‐Digital Age.Johannes Hoff - 2018 - New Blackfriars 99 (1080):248-270.
    In the last 500 years our modern world has oscillated between the belief in “disenchanted” strategies of bureaucratic control and surveillance, and the celebration of iconoclastic ruptures that are supposed to preserve our sense of freedom and dignity. Yet, the equilibrium between these poles has fallen out of balance after the turn of the millennium. While the obsession with control has released concerted efforts to replace our supposedly irrational intelligence by the “artificial intelligence” of digital technologies, the implementation of ICT (...)
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  45.  6
    From the Mouth of Shadows: On the Surrealist Use of Automatism.Opstrup Kasper - 2017 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 25 (53).
    From surrealism’s beginnings around a Parisian séance table, it oscillated between the occult and the political. One of its key methods, automatism, provided access to both the esoteric and the exoteric: it took form in the mid-19th century as a spiritualist technique for communicating with the other side while, simultanously, this other side could address political issues as equal rights, de-colonisation and a utopian future with an authority coming from beyond the individual. By tracing the development of automatism, the article (...)
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  46. Transitional Anger.Martha C. Nussbaum - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (1):41--56.
    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT: A close philosophical analysis of the emotion of anger will show that it is normatively irrational: in some cases, based on futile magical thinking, in others, based on defective values.
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  47.  41
    Logic and the Art of Memory: The Quest for a Universal Language.Paolo Rossi - 2000 - Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press.
    The mnemonic arts and the idea of a universal language that would capture the essence of all things were originally associated with cryptology, mysticism, and other occult practices. And it is commonly held that these enigmatic efforts were abandoned with the development of formal logic in the seventeenth century and the beginning of the modern era. In his distinguished book, Logic and the Art of Memory Italian philosopher and historian Paolo Rossi argues that this view is belied by an examination (...)
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  48.  96
    Essentialist Beliefs About Bodily Transplants in the United States and India.Meredith Meyer, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Susan A. Gelman & Sarah M. Stilwell - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):668-710.
    Psychological essentialism is the belief that some internal, unseen essence or force determines the common outward appearances and behaviors of category members. We investigated whether reasoning about transplants of bodily elements showed evidence of essentialist thinking. Both Americans and Indians endorsed the possibility of transplants conferring donors' personality, behavior, and luck on recipients, consistent with essentialism. Respondents also endorsed essentialist effects even when denying that transplants would change a recipient's category membership (e.g., predicting that a recipient of a pig's (...)
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  49.  2
    Rationality: The Critical View.Joseph Agassi & I. C. Jarvie (eds.) - 1987 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    In our papers on the rationality of magic, we distinghuished, for purposes of analysis, three levels of rationality. First and lowest (rationalitYl) the goal directed action of an agent with given aims and circumstances, where among his circumstances we included his knowledge and opinions. On this level the magician's treatment of illness by incantation is as rational as any traditional doctor's blood-letting or any modern one's use of anti-biotics. At the second level (rationalitY2) we add the element of rational (...) or thinking which obeys some set of explicit rules, a level which is not found in magic in general, though it is sometimes given to specific details of magical thinking within the magical thought-system. It was the late Sir Edward E. Evans-Pritchard who observed that when considering magic in detail the magician may be as consistent or critical as anyone else; but when considering magic in general, or any system of thought in general, the magician could not be critical or even comprehend the criticism. Evans-Pritchard went even further: he was sceptical as to whether it could be done in a truly consistent manner: one cannot be critical of one's own system, he thought. On this level (rationalitY2) of discussion we have explained (earlier) why we prefer to wed Evans Pritchard's view of the magician's capacity for piece-meal rationality to Sir James Frazer's view that magic in general is pseudo-rational because it lacks standards of rational thinking. (shrink)
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  50. Touch and the Experience of the Genuine.C. Korsmeyer - 2012 - British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (4):365-377.
    Genuineness is an important property of objects that are rare, old, or preserved as memorials. Being genuine enhances economic value for objects such as works of art, and it is obviously critical for historical purposes, such as assessing the artefacts from a past culture. Here I argue that genuineness is also an aesthetic property that delivers an experience of its own. I contend that the sense of touch covertly operates in such experiences, as this sense conveys the impression of being (...)
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