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Graeme Nicholson [60]Richard H. Nicholson [38]Peter Nicholson [29]Linda Nicholson [22]
Linda J. Nicholson [19]Daniel J. Nicholson [19]Peter P. Nicholson [15]Hugh Nicholson [13]

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Daniel J. Nicholson
Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research
Andrew J. Nicholson
State University of New York, Stony Brook
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  1. Is the Cell Really a Machine?Daniel J. Nicholson - 2019 - Journal of Theoretical Biology 477:108–126.
    It has become customary to conceptualize the living cell as an intricate piece of machinery, different to a man-made machine only in terms of its superior complexity. This familiar understanding grounds the conviction that a cell's organization can be explained reductionistically, as well as the idea that its molecular pathways can be construed as deterministic circuits. The machine conception of the cell owes a great deal of its success to the methods traditionally used in molecular biology. However, the recent introduction (...)
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  2. A Manifesto for a Processual Philosophy of Biology.John A. Dupre & Daniel J. Nicholson - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John A. Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology.
    This chapter argues that scientific and philosophical progress in our understanding of the living world requires that we abandon a metaphysics of things in favour of one centred on processes. We identify three main empirical motivations for adopting a process ontology in biology: metabolic turnover, life cycles, and ecological interdependence. We show how taking a processual stance in the philosophy of biology enables us to ground existing critiques of essentialism, reductionism, and mechanicism, all of which have traditionally been associated with (...)
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  3.  59
    On Being the Right Size, Revisited: The Problem with Engineering Metaphors in Molecular Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2020 - In Sune Hannibal Holm & Maria Serban (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on the Engineering Approach in Biology: Living Machines? London, UK: pp. 40-68.
    In 1926, Haldane published an essay titled 'On Being the Right Size' in which he argued that the structure, function, and behavior of an organism are strongly conditioned by the physical forces that exert the greatest impact at the scale at which it exists. This chapter puts Haldane’s insight to work in the context of contemporary cell and molecular biology. Owing to their minuscule size, cells and molecules are subject to very different forces than macroscopic organisms. In a sense, macroscopic (...)
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  4. Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson & John A. Dupre (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    This collection of essays explores the metaphysical thesis that the living world is not made up of substantial particles or things, as has often been assumed, but is rather constituted by processes. The biological domain is organised as an interdependent hierarchy of processes, which are stabilised and actively maintained at different timescales. Even entities that intuitively appear to be paradigms of things, such as organisms, are actually better understood as processes. Unlike previous attempts to articulate processual views of biology, which (...)
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  5. The Concept of Mechanism in Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):152-163.
    The concept of mechanism in biology has three distinct meanings. It may refer to a philosophical thesis about the nature of life and biology (‘mechanicism’), to the internal workings of a machine-like structure (‘machine mechanism’), or to the causal explanation of a particular phenomenon (‘causal mechanism’). In this paper I trace the conceptual evolution of ‘mechanism’ in the history of biology, and I examine how the three meanings of this term have come to be featured in the philosophy of biology, (...)
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  6. Neither Logical Empiricism nor Vitalism, but Organicism: What the Philosophy of Biology Was.Daniel J. Nicholson & Richard Gawne - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (4):345-381.
    Philosophy of biology is often said to have emerged in the last third of the twentieth century. Prior to this time, it has been alleged that the only authors who engaged philosophically with the life sciences were either logical empiricists who sought to impose the explanatory ideals of the physical sciences onto biology, or vitalists who invoked mystical agencies in an attempt to ward off the threat of physicochemical reduction. These schools paid little attention to actual biological science, and as (...)
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  7. Organisms ≠ Machines.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):669-678.
    The machine conception of the organism (MCO) is one of the most pervasive notions in modern biology. However, it has not yet received much attention by philosophers of biology. The MCO has its origins in Cartesian natural philosophy, and it is based on the metaphorical redescription of the organism as a machine. In this paper I argue that although organisms and machines resemble each other in some basic respects, they are actually very different kinds of systems. I submit that the (...)
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  8. The Machine Conception of the Organism in Development and Evolution: A Critical Analysis.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:162-174.
    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in modern biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. This paper analyses the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the study of development and evolution. In (...)
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  9. The Return of the Organism as a Fundamental Explanatory Concept in Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (5):347-359.
    Although it may seem like a truism to assert that biology is the science that studies organisms, during the second half of the twentieth century the organism category disappeared from biological theory. Over the past decade, however, biology has begun to witness the return of the organism as a fundamental explanatory concept. There are three major causes: (a) the realization that the Modern Synthesis does not provide a fully satisfactory understanding of evolution; (b) the growing awareness of the limits of (...)
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  10.  56
    Reconceptualizing the Organism: From Complex Machine to Flowing Stream.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John A. Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology.
    This chapter draws on insights from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate the ontological inadequacy of the machine conception of the organism. The thermodynamic character of living systems underlies the importance of metabolism and calls for the adoption of a processual view, exemplified by the Heraclitean metaphor of the stream of life. This alternative conception is explored in its various historical formulations and the extent to which it captures the nature of living systems is examined. Following this, the chapter considers the metaphysical (...)
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  11. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong-lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing Fang, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay-Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho-Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri & Mark Weber - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  12.  80
    Rethinking Woodger’s Legacy in the Philosophy of Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson & Richard Gawne - 2014 - Journal of the History of Biology 47 (2):243-292.
    The writings of Joseph Henry Woodger (1894–1981) are often taken to exemplify everything that was wrongheaded, misguided, and just plain wrong with early twentieth-century philosophy of biology. Over the years, commentators have said of Woodger: (a) that he was a fervent logical empiricist who tried to impose the explanatory gold standards of physics onto biology, (b) that his philosophical work was completely disconnected from biological science, (c) that he possessed no scientific or philosophical credentials, and (d) that his work was (...)
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  13. On Nature and Normativity: Normativity, Teleology, and Mechanism in Biological Explanation.Lenny Moss & Daniel J. Nicholson - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):88-91.
  14. Feminism/Postmodernism.Linda J. Nicholson - 1992 - Science and Society 56 (2):234-236.
  15.  32
    Relational Leadership for Sustainability: Building an Ethical Framework From the Moral Theory of ‘Ethics of Care’.Elizabeth Kurucz & Jessica Nicholson - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (1):25-43.
    The practice of relational leadership is essential for dealing with the increasingly urgent and complex social, economic and environmental issues that characterize sustainability. Despite growing attention to both relational leadership and leadership for sustainability, an ethical understanding of both is limited. This is problematic as both sustainability and relational leadership are rife with moral implications. This paper conceptually explores how the moral theory of ‘ethics of care’ can help to illuminate the ethical dimensions of relational leadership for sustainability. In doing (...)
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  16. Biological Atomism and Cell Theory.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):202-211.
    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with (...)
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  17. The Play of Reason: From the Modern to the Postmodern.Linda Nicholson - 1999 - Cornell University Press.
  18. Expressions of Corporate Social Responsibility in U.K. Firms.Diana C. Robertson & Nigel Nicholson - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (10):1095 - 1106.
    This study examines corporate publications of U.K. firms to investigate the nature of corporate social responsibility disclosure. Using a stakeholder approach to corporate social responsibility, our results suggest a hierarchical model of disclosure: from general rhetoric to specific endeavors to implementation and monitoring. Industry differences in attention to specific stakeholder groups are noted. These differences suggest the need to understand the effects on social responsibility disclosure of factors in a firm's immediate operating environment, such as the extent of government regulation (...)
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  19.  10
    One Step Ahead: The Perceived Kinematics of Others’ Actions Are Biased Toward Expected Goals.Matthew Hudson, Toby Nicholson, William A. Simpson, Rob Ellis & Patric Bach - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (1):1-7.
  20.  15
    Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language.Jane A. Nicholson & Umberto Eco - 1985 - Substance 14 (2):105.
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  21.  9
    Toward Legitimate Governance of Solar Geoengineering Research: A Role for Sub-State Actors.Sikina Jinnah, Simon Nicholson & Jane Flegal - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (3):362-381.
    ABSTRACTTwo recently proposed solar radiation management experiments in the United States have highlighted the need for governance mechanisms to guide SRM research. This paper draws on the literatures on legitimacy in global governance, responsible innovation, and experimental governance to argue that public engagement is a necessary condition for any legitimate SRM governance regime. We then build on the orchestration literature to argue that, in the absence of federal leadership, U.S. states, such as California, New York, and other existing leaders in (...)
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  22.  75
    Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History.Andrew J. Nicholson - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Some postcolonial theorists argue that the idea of a single system of belief known as "Hinduism" is a creation of nineteenth-century British imperialists. Andrew J. Nicholson introduces another perspective: although a unified Hindu identity is not as ancient as some Hindus claim, it has its roots in innovations within South Asian philosophy from the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries. During this time, thinkers treated the philosophies of Vedanta, Samkhya, and Yoga, along with the worshippers of Visnu, Siva, and Sakti, as belonging (...)
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  23.  14
    Biological Atomism and Cell Theory.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):202-211.
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  24.  6
    Collapsing the Boundaries Between De Jure and De Facto Slavery: The Foundations of Slavery Beyond the Transatlantic Frame.Katarina Schwarz & Andrea Nicholson - forthcoming - Human Rights Review:1-24.
    The identification of contemporary forms of slavery is often problematically demarcated by reference to transatlantic enslavement as the definitive archetype. Such an approach overlooks other historic slaveries and neglects the totality of the maangamizi—the African holocaust. This article addresses the problematics of positioning the transatlantic system as the paradigm and unpacks the constituent elements of de jure slavery to construct an understanding of slavery as a condition as well as a status. By identifying the core features of de jure chattel (...)
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  25.  31
    Relationships Between Implicit and Explicit Uncertainty Monitoring and Mindreading: Evidence From Autism Spectrum Disorder.Toby Nicholson, David M. Williams, Catherine Grainger, Sophie E. Lind & Peter Carruthers - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 70:11-24.
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  26.  15
    Cases of Incongruity: Exploring the Divide Between Adolescents’ Beliefs and Behavior Related to Academic Dishonesty.Jason M. Stephens & Heather Nicholson - 2008 - Educational Studies 34 (4):361-376.
    The past several decades of research has produced many important insights into prevalence and correlates of academic dishonesty. While these studies have offered important contributions to our understanding of such cheating, we are in need of research that allows us to hear what students have to say about it. This paper begins to fill the relative void of student voices by presenting results from individual interviews with a sample of adolescents who acknowledge cheating despite believing that is wrong to do (...)
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  27. Toleration as a Moral Ideal. Aspects of Toleration.P. P. Nicholson - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies. London: Methuen.
  28.  6
    I See What You Say: Prior Knowledge of Other’s Goals Automatically Biases the Perception of Their Actions.Matthew Hudson, Toby Nicholson, Rob Ellis & Patric Bach - 2016 - Cognition 146:245-250.
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  29. The Puzzle of Self‐Deception.Maria Baghramian & Anna Nicholson - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1018-1029.
    It is commonly accepted that people can, and regularly do, deceive themselves. Yet closer examination reveals a set of conceptual puzzles that make self-deception difficult to explain. Applying the conditions for other-deception to self-deception generates what are known as the ‘paradoxes’ of belief and intention. Simply put, the central problem is how it is possible for me to believe one thing, and yet intentionally cause myself to simultaneously believe its contradiction. There are two general approaches taken by philosophers to account (...)
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  30.  96
    Social Criticism Without Philosophy: An Encounter Between Feminism and Postmodernism.N. Fraser & L. Nicholson - 1988 - Theory, Culture and Society 5 (2-3):373-394.
  31.  45
    Ethics in Organizations: A Framework for Theory and Research. [REVIEW]Nigel Nicholson - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (8):581 - 596.
    In a climate of increasing interest and activity within the field of business ethics, as yet there exists no coherent conceptual framework for organizational theory and research. From a review of current thinking and previous writings a framework of concepts is suggested to help set an agenda for empirical research. The elements of this are, first, a taxonomy of ethical domains: the foci of organizations'' and their agents'' ethical concerns and conduct. Second, it is considered how ethical functioning might be (...)
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  32.  8
    Corporate Philanthropy as a Context for Moral Agency, a MacIntyrean Enquiry.Helen Nicholson, Ron Beadle & Richard Slack - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics.
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  33.  46
    Delays and Diversity in the Practice of Local Research Ethics Committees.A. H. Ahmed & K. G. Nicholson - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):263-266.
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the practices of local research ethics committees and the time they take to obtain ethical approval for a multi-centre study. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of outcome of applications for a multi-centre study to local research ethics committees. SETTING: Thirty-six local research ethics committees covering 38 district health authorities in England. MAIN MEASURES: Response of chairmen and women, the time required to obtain approval, and questions asked in application forms. RESULTS: We received replies from all 36 chairmen contacted: (...)
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  34.  24
    Postmodernism, Feminism, and Education: The Need for Solidarity.Carol Nicholson - 1989 - Educational Theory 39 (3):197-205.
  35. The Political Philosophy of the British Idealists: Selected Studies.Peter P. Nicholson - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers a reassessment of the political philosophy of the British Idealists, a group of once influential and now neglected nineteenth-century Hegelian philosophers, whose work has been much misunderstood. Peter Nicholson focuses on F. H. Bradley's idea of morality and moral philosophy; T. H. Green's theory of the Common Good, of the social nature of rights, of freedom, and of state interference; and Bernard Bosanquet's notorious theory of the General Will. By examining the arguments offered by the Idealists and (...)
     
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  36.  4
    Linking Metacognition and Mindreading: Evidence From Autism and Dual-Task Investigations.Toby Nicholson, David M. Williams, Sophie E. Lind, Catherine Grainger & Peter Carruthers - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
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  37.  11
    The Effect of Phonics-Enhanced Big Book Reading on the Language and Literacy Skills of 6-Year-Old Pupils of Different Reading Ability Attending Lower SES Schools.Laura Tse & Tom Nicholson - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  38.  35
    Cardiovascular and Nervous System Changes During Meditation.Steven R. Steinhubl, Nathan E. Wineinger, Sheila Patel, Debra L. Boeldt, Geoffrey Mackellar, Valencia Porter, Jacob T. Redmond, Evan D. Muse, Laura Nicholson, Deepak Chopra & Eric J. Topol - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  39. Feminism / Postmodernism.Linda Nicholson - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (2):228-233.
     
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  40.  6
    Individuals Vs. BARD: Experimental Evaluation of an Online System for Structured, Collaborative Bayesian Reasoning.Kevin B. Korb, Erik P. Nyberg, Abraham Oshni Alvandi, Shreshth Thakur, Mehmet Ozmen, Yang Li, Ross Pearson & Ann E. Nicholson - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  41. Heidegger's Being and Time: Critical Essays.Jean Grondin, Karin de Boer, Graeme Nicholson, Charles Guignon, William McNeill, Günter Figal, Steven Crowell, Hubert L. Dreyfus, Daniel O. Dahlstrom, Jeffrey Andrew Bara, Theodore Kisiel & Dieter Thomä - 2005 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Heidegger's Being and Time: Critical Essays provides a variety of recent studies of Heidegger's most important work. Twelve prominent scholars, representing diverse nationalities, generations, and interpretive approaches deal with general methodological and ontological questions, particular issues in Heidegger's text, and the relation between Being and Time and Heidegger's later thought. All of the essays presented in this volume were never before available in an English-language anthology. Two of the essays have never before been published in any language ; three of (...)
     
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  42.  3
    Community Perspectives of Complex Trauma Assessment for Aboriginal Parents: ‘Its Important, but How These Discussions Are Held Is Critical’.Catherine Chamberlain, Graham Gee, Deirdre Gartland, Fiona K. Mensah, Sarah Mares, Yvonne Clark, Naomi Ralph, Caroline Atkinson, Tanja Hirvonen, Helen McLachlan, Tahnia Edwards, Helen Herrman, Stephanie J. Brown & and Jan M. Nicholson - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  43.  12
    The Processing of Auditory and Visual Recognition of Self-Stimuli.Susan M. Hughes & Shevon E. Nicholson - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1124-1134.
    This study examined self-recognition processing in both the auditory and visual modalities by determining how comparable hearing a recording of one’s own voice was to seeing photograph of one’s own face. We also investigated whether the simultaneous presentation of auditory and visual self-stimuli would either facilitate or inhibit self-identification. Ninety-one participants completed reaction-time tasks of self-recognition when presented with their own faces, own voices, and combinations of the two. Reaction time and errors made when responding with both the right and (...)
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  44.  53
    Missing the Party: Political Categorization and Reasoning in the Absence of Party Label Cues.Evan Heit & Stephen P. Nicholson - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (3):697-714.
    This research addressed theoretical approaches in political science arguing that the American electorate is either poorly informed or dependent on party label cues, by assessing performance on political judgment tasks when party label information is missing. The research materials were created from the results of a national opinion survey held during a national election. The experiments themselves were run on nationally representative samples of adults, identified from another national electoral survey. Participants saw profiles of simulated individuals, including information about demographics (...)
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  45.  21
    The Political Philosophy of the British Idealists: Selected Studies.Peter P. Nicholson - 1990 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers a reassessment of the political philosophy of the British Idealists, a group of once influential and now neglected nineteenth-century Hegelian philosophers, whose work has been much misunderstood. Peter Nicholson focuses on F. H. Bradley's idea of morality and moral philosophy; T. H. Green's theory of the Common Good, of the social nature of rights, of freedom, and of state interference; and Bernard Bosanquet's notorious theory of the General Will. By examining the arguments offered by the Idealists and (...)
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  46. Non-Eliminative Reductionism: Reconciling Qualia and Physicalism.Dennis Nicholson - manuscript
    A physicalist view of qualia labelled non-eliminative reductionism is outlined. If it is true, qualia and physicalism can co-exist without difficulty. First, qualia present no particular problem for reductionist physicalism - they are entirely physical, can be studied and explained using the standard scientific approach, and present no problem any harder than any other scientists face. Second, reductionist physicalism presents no particular problem for qualia – they can be encompassed within an entirely physicalist position without any necessity, either to reduce (...)
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  47.  41
    Identity and the Politics of Recognition.Linda Nicholson - 1996 - Constellations 3 (1):1-16.
  48. Specifying the Nature of Substance in Aristotle and in Indian Philosophy.Hugh R. Nicholson - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (4):533-553.
    : Aristotle struggles with two basic tensions in his understanding of reality or substance that have parallels in Indian metaphysical speculation. The first of these tensions, between the understanding of reality as the underlying substrate (to hupokeimenon) and as the individual "this" (tode ti), finds a parallel in the concept of dravya in Patañjali's Mahābhāsa. The second tension, between the understanding of reality as the individual this and as the intelligible essence of the individual this (to ti ēn einai), corresponds (...)
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  49.  15
    Hard to Reach and Hard to Teach: Supporting the Self-Regulation of Learning in an Alternative Provision Secondary School.David W. Putwain, Laura J. Nicholson & Jenna L. Edwards - 2016 - Educational Studies 42 (1).
  50.  2
    Emotions and Instructed Language Learning: Proposing a Second Language Emotions and Positive Psychology Model.Kaiqi Shao, Laura J. Nicholson, Gulsah Kutuk & Fei Lei - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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