The study of intellectual humility is still in its early stages and issues of definition and measurement are only now being explored. To inform and guide the process of defining and measuring this important intellectual virtue, we conducted a series of studies into the implicit theory – or ‘folk’ understanding – of an intellectually humble person, a wise person, and an intellectually arrogant person. In Study 1, 350 adults used a free-listing procedure to generate a list of descriptors, one for (...) each person-concept. In Study 2, 335 adults rated the previously generated descriptors by how characteristic each was of the target person-concept. In Study 3, 344 adults sorted the descriptors by similarity for each person-concept. By comparing and contrasting the three person-concepts, a complex portrait of an intellectually humble person emerges with particular epistemic, self-oriented, and other-oriented dimensions. (shrink)
A second-person approach that prioritizes dyadic emotional interaction is not well equipped to explain the origins of the understanding of mind conceived as intentionality. Instead, the critical elements that will deliver the understanding of self and other as persons with intentionality are shared object-centered interactions that include not only emotional engagement, but also joint attention and joint goal-directed action.
This commentary to Vanhoutte and Wynants’s paper “Performing phenomenology: negotiating presence in intermedial theatre” tries to ascertain whether the dialectics between the real and the virtual in CREW’s artistic and technological experiments, which the authors call a ‘strategy,’ implies an a-priori relation that is hard to reconcile to the ethos of discovering through doing proposed by postphenomenological research, and to an ‘empirical turn’ based in case studies and descriptive concreteness suggested by a ‘pragmatic phenomenology.’ I propose that the shift from (...) live to mediated perception in CREW’s experimental productions, producing a multistable ontology, is less occasion for strategic dialectics and Benjaminian ‘illumination’ of our mediatized culture, than for an analytic perspective on what actually happens when the shift occurs and what this tells us about our relationship to digital technologies of reproduction. (shrink)
In recent years, cognitive neuroscientists have began to explore the process of how sensory information gains access to awareness. To further probe this process, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used while testing subjects with a paradigm known as the “attentional blink.” In this paradigm, visually presented information sporadically fails to reach awareness. It was found that the magnitude and time course of activation within the anterior cingulate , medial prefrontal cortex , and frontopolar cortex predicted whether or not information (...) was consciously perceived during the critical period for the attentional blink. These results are discussed in light of a neural framework for conscious processing. (shrink)
Prior work shows that children selectively learn from credible speakers. Yet little is known how they treat information from non-credible speakers. This research examined to what extent and under what conditions children may or may not learn from problematic sources. In three studies, we found that children displayed trust toward previously inaccurate speakers. Children were equally likely to extend labels from previously accurate and inaccurate speakers to novel objects. Moreover, they expected third parties to share labels provided by previously inaccurate (...) speakers. Only when there was clear evidence that the speakers' information was wrong, did young children reject the label. Together, the findings provide evidence that young children do not completely ignore the labels supplied by non-credible speakers unless there is strong reason to do so. (shrink)
Second-person neuroscience offers a framework for the study of social emotions, such as embarrassment and pride. However, we propose that an enduring mental representation of oneself in relation to others without a continuous direct social interaction is possible. We call this state and will explain its impact on the neuroscience of social emotions.
La aplicación del principio de relatividad, una vez que se ha formulado la posibilidad de una instancia de referencia central, determina una libre opción (autónoma) por medio de la cual se prescinde de la posibilidad de existir en el relativismo, dado que si bien no se descubre una "realidad" , ..
Many studies have suggested that the motor system is organized in a hierarchical fashion, around the prototypical end location associated with using objects. However, most studies supporting the hierarchical view have used well-known actions and objects that are highly over-learned. Accordingly, at present it is unclear if the hierarchical principle applies to learning the use of novel objects as well. In the present study we found that when learning to use a novel object subjects acquired an action representation of the (...) end location associated with using the object, as evidenced by slower responses in an action observation task, when the object was presented at an incorrect end location. By showing the importance of knowledge about end locations when learning to use a novel object, the present study suggests that end locations are a fundamental organizing feature of the human motor system. (shrink)
RésuméĽexposé qui précéde àété lu par ľauteur au Congrés international de Gérontologie qui s'est tenu á Saint Louis en septembre 1951. II étudie ľévolution Psychologique de la personnalié humaine pendant la seconde partie de la vie, les chances ?épanouissement et de bonheur qui lui restent alors, enfln les facteurs soit externes, soit internes, qui peuvent faire échec à cet épanouissement.Une Psychologie correcte de la maturityé et de la vieillesse suppose que ľon prenne en considération la multiplicityé; et ľhétérogénélté des besoins (...) humains fondamentaux, ľémergence tardive de certains ?entre eux qui ne font sentir leur action que lorsque les plus élémentaires ont recu satisfaction, ľinfluence prolongée aussi bien de la maturation que de ľapprentissage, enfln ľimportance de la réalisation de soi‐même, qui ne peut être acquise quà un âge avancé.Si tant ?individus répugnent à faire face au déclin et à la mort, c'est à la suite ?un echec irrémédiable dans cette tâche capitale de ľactualisa‐tion de soi‐même. Cet échec à son tour tient soit à certaines circonstances externes , soit à des expériences internes telles que la frustration ou ľexcès de gratification. Frustré ou exagérément comblé au cours ?une période de la vie, et relativement aux besoins carac‐téristiques de cette période, ľindividu tend à s'attarder et à se fixer en celle‐ci ainsi qu'a répéter indéfiniment de façon compulsive les mécanismes de satisfaction en cause. II devient alors incapable de s'adapter à des phases ultérieures et ?accepter les limitations et renonciations imposées par elles. (shrink)
In Europe, a well-known problem is the coordination of interagency service delivery to independently living older persons, disabled persons or persons suffering from chronic illness. Coordination is necessary in order for the users to receive services at the appropriate time and place. Based on historical institutionalism, which focuses on the path dependency of the development of government policy and organizational and professional rules, it can be stated that coordination requires organizational models or other solutions that fit the characteristics of the (...) context (‘configuration’) for which the solution is intended. The western European countries have different configurations. Remarkably, across these countries, we see the emergence of multidisciplinary teams as a solution to the problem of coordination. Consequently, if we take the above statement to mean that a solution should fit all the configuration’s characteristics, we must reject the statement. However, when we assume that a solution should fit particular configurational characteristics, we must not. We take the second position and we argue that multidisciplinary teams have emerged because they fit one particular feature that is similar in the countries: professionalism and professional fragmentation. (shrink)