This article builds on contemporary debates about the doctrine of justification by faith alone to revisit the old question of the “nature of Protestantism”. Traditionally a core feature of Protestant theology, the doctrine of sola fide has been under assault for the past forty years, including within Protestant theology. This essay begins by showing that the major contemporary critique that sola fide bases salvation on a “legal fiction” misses the way that early Reformers like Luther and Melanchthon understood the (...) doctrine very substantially in terms of its pastoral power to “console” consciences. Attending to the theme of “consolation” reveals a psychological and affective realism close to the heart of the doctrine of justification by faith alone as it was originally understood. This article then shows that traditional Protestant critiques of the reliability of external mechanisms and instruments in the mediation of grace were shaped by the same orientation to psychological and affective factors that are evident in the doctrine of justification. Together, these observations suggest that “the nature of Protestantism” may be usefully understood in terms of a foundational prioritization of psychological and affective considerations over metaphysical considerations in theology. (shrink)
Este artigo propõe analisar as relações entre o pentecostalismo e o protestantismo “histórico” nos últimos 100 anos. Desde o ano 2010 comemora-se o centenário da chegada do pentecostalismo no Brasil por meio das pregações do ítalo-americano Luis Francescon e dos suecos Daniel Berg e Gunner Vingren. Até os anos 1950, a Congregação Cristã no Brasil e a Assembléia de Deus, resultantes do trabalho dos três, eram os dois maiores exemplos de igrejas pentecostais consolidadas no Brasil. Uma nova explosão pentecostal ocorrida (...) nos anos 1950 voltou a desestabilizar as relações entre protestantes e pentecostais. As igrejas surgidas desde então faziam da cura divina, dos milagres e prodígios o centro de suas atividades. Mas, no decorrer do século passado houve um crescente acirramento da competição, conflitos, sincretismo e acomodação. Isso se tornou mais forte após os anos 1970, quando um pentecostalismo com maior capacidade competitiva passou a levar vantagem. Esses neopentecostais cresceram em números, porém, ao ampliar os seus respectivos universos simbólicos, incorporaram símbolos, crenças e se tornaram portadores de teologias e discursos, híbridos e sincréticos. Que futuro tais acertos e desacertos poderão trazer para o campo religioso do País? Palavras chaves : Pentecostalismo brasileiro; Protestantismo Histórico; Acomodação Cultural; Conflito Religioso.This article proposes an analysis between Pentecostalism and “historical” Protestantism in the last century. Since 2010 there have been celebrations of the 100 th anniversary of the establishment of Pentecostalism in Brazil, featuring renowned preachers such as the Italian-American Luis Francescon and Swedish Daniel Berg and Gunnar Vingren. Until the 1950s, the Christian Congregation in Brazil and Assembly of God, which resulted from the work of these three preachers, were the two major Pentecostal churches in Brazil. A new Pentecostal outbreak in the 1950s shook up the relations between Protestants and Pentecostal once again. Until then, Pentecostal churches centered their activities on divine healing and miracles. But in the last century, there was a process of intensification of the competition, conflicts, syncretism and complacency within the religious scenario, which accelerated after the 1970s, when a more competitive Pentecostalism started to advance. These neo-Pentecostals grew in numbers, and while expanding their symbolic universes, they incorporated symbols and beliefs, becoming the bearers of a hybrid and syncretic theology and rhetoric. What future can these successes and failures bring to Brazil’s religious field? Key words : Brazilian Pentecostalism; Historical Protestantism; Cultural Complacency; Religious Conflict. (shrink)
Many of the most well-known Protestant systematic theologies, particularly in the Reformed tradition, display (more or less) a common thematic division. There are prolegomena: questions about the nature of theology, the relationship between faith and reason, and (sometimes treated separately) the attributes of scripture and its role in faith and practice. There is the doctrine of God: divine attributes, Godʼs relationship to creation, etc. There is the doctrine of humanity: the nature and post-mortem survival of human persons, and the human (...) condition, including the Fall and human sinfulness. There are parts devoted to the person and work of Christ: most especially, the incarnation and atonement. There is discussion of questions in practical theology: the organization and function of the church, morality and politics. Other matters get discussed along the way as well. Most of these topics are ones which we contributors to this volume have been asked to address in our position statements. So I take my assignment to be, in effect, the production of a miniature sketch of a partial systematic theology. Even in miniature, this is a monumental task for a mere essay, and a daunting one for someone whose formal training lies outside of theology. The remarks that follow represent my best effort to articulate such views on these topics as I currently hold—albeit briefly and incompletely. I hope that the views hang together in a reasonably systematic way; but, as this is but a first effort at accomplishing a task of this sort, I wish to emphasize the programmatic nature of what I shall be saying. Since I am writing specifically as a representative of Protestantism (in all of its wide diversity), it seems fitting for me to structure my essay in accord with the thematic divisions just described. I begin with prolegomena, focusing primarily on faith and reason, and doctrines about scripture. The next three sections are devoted, respectively, to the doctrine of God, doctrine of humanity (in which I include doctrines about the person and work of Christ), and practical theology. (shrink)
The slavery debates in the antebellum United States sparked a turning point in American theology. They forced moderately antislavery Protestants, including William Ellery Channing, Francis Wayland, and Horace Bushnell, to reconcile their contradictory loyalties to the Bible and to antislavery reform. Unable to use the letter of the Bible to make a scriptural case against slavery in itself, the moderates argued that although slavery had been acceptable in biblical times, it had become a sin. Antislavery Protestantism required a theory (...) of moral progress, a deeply unorthodox idea that became fundamental to the development of late nineteenth-century liberal Protestantism. The antislavery argument from moral progress, along with the moral progress represented by abolition, established a progressive conception of revelation that would be further developed by late nineteenth-century liberal theologians, including Newman Smyth, Lyman Abbott, and Theodore Munger. (shrink)
Yitzhak Y. Melamed - Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.2 333-334 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Yitzhak Y. Melamed University of Chicago Graeme Hunter. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought. Aldershot, UK–Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. Pp. vii + 196. Cloth, $89.95. If this book's announced and modest aim—"to present the Christian dimension of Spinoza's thought positively and directly" —were all the author meant (...) to achieve, he was clearly successful. Any reader of the Theological Political Treatise cannot fail to see that Spinoza engaged seriously with Christianity, its sacred texts, and its internal divisions and disputes. Throughout his mature life, Spinoza lived among the Collegiants, the radical Dutch reformers, and it is clear that his dialogue with this circle played a significant role in shaping his writing on religion, Judaism, and.. (shrink)
This article examines Charles Villers's Essay on the Spirit and Influence of Luther's Reformation (1804) in its intellectual and historical context. Exiled from France after 1792, Villers intervened in important French and German debates about the relationship of religion, history, and philosophy. The article shows how he took up a German Protestant discussion on the meaning of the Reformation that had been underway from the 1770s through the end of the century, including efforts by Kantians to seize the mantle of (...)Protestantism for themselves. Villers's essay capitalized on a broad interest in the question of Protestantism and its meaning for modern freedom around 1800. Revisiting the formation of the narrative of Protestantism and progress reveals that it was not a logical progression from Protestant theology or religion but rather part of a specific ideological and social struggle in the wake of the French Revolution and the collapse of the Old Regime. (shrink)
Max Weber’s sociological theories of secularization have vastly influenced the study of Protestant belief. _Protestant Modernity_ offers a multifaceted understanding of secularization within the broader context of nineteenth-century liberal Protestantism. Anthony J. Carroll reconstructs Weber’s original writings to highlight Protestant motifs, reviews current secularization theories, and settles debates about contested meanings of secularization in this volume that will be essential reading for students and scholars of theology and the sociology of religion.
The article examines the development of Paul Tillich’s understanding of Protestantism. Beginning with his 1913 ‘Systematic Theology’, the shifts in his theory of Protestantism, first developed after the First World War and then at the end of the 1920s, are reconstructed. It is demonstrated that, from the outset, Tillich extended the traditional soteriological interpretation of Protestantism into a universal-cosmological theory. Protestantism means not only critique, but also formation.
Any list of important changes in Western religion in the last hundred years would mention the rise ofliberal Protestantism , and the decline in size and influence of the Protestant churches. What has been less obvious is the partial operation of secularization; in Britain and America liberal Protestant churches have declined more than their conservative rivals. In summary one could speak of the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries as an era in which liberal Protestantism rose and then (...) declined. This essay will attempt to synthesize, from a variety of sociological ideas, a suggested outline for a comprehensive explanation of that rise and fall. Such an ambitious and necessarily speculative project will require the argument to be conducted at a high level of abstraction but at various junctures details from the biographies of individuals and the careers of organizations will be introduced to illustrate and exemplify the points being made. (shrink)
Protestantism as a phenomenon of culture, its influence on the development of society, man - the problem is complex and multifaceted. Since Protestantism is a religious and cultural phenomenon, it has a wide range of functionality and, therefore, has a great cultural impact on all spheres of life, both human and social, from a worldview and axiological aspect to a praxeological and ontological one. That is why the analysis of the internal links between Protestantism and culture becomes (...) an urgent research challenge for academic religious studies. (shrink)
The article "Protestantism: to the causes of growth and spread at an early stage of its development" by V.Shevchenko deals with the epochmaking phenomenon of Protestantism, its exceptional place, role and significance in the history of Christian progress during past five hundred years. Special attention is dedicated to disclosure of number of some reasons, which caused the appearance of Protestantism.
Abridged selections, with brief one page introductions, from sixteen authors influential in the development of Protestantism. In addition to such recognized theologicians as Luther, Calvin, Schleiermacher, and Ritschl, the editor has included a liberal sprinkling of American writers. Contemporary thought is represented by Barth.--L. S. F.
The article analyzes the economic determinants of the rise and initial growth of Protestantism, specifically Calvinism, described as the Weber reverse problem in light of his thesis of Calvinist outcomes for economy. These determinants of Calvinism are differentiated from its assumed economic outcomes, specifically the emergence and development of modern capitalism in Weberian sociological accounts. It is argued and showed that the economic determinants of Calvinism’s emergence and early evolution are primarily pre-capitalist in character rather than capitalist in the (...) modern sense. Therefore, the initial overarching economic determinant and setting of early Calvinism is considered to be pre-capitalism, as distinguished from modern industrial capitalism, specifically feudalism as the ancien regime of master–servant economy. Such a pre-capitalist determinant and context suggests that of Calvinism was itself economically determined or influenced before presumably determining or influencing modern capitalism.. (shrink)
This article gives an account of what Ronald Dworkin calls ‘the protestant attitude’ towards law. Dworkin’s protestantist claim that the interpretive attitude towards law is to be taken not only by judges, but also by ordinary citizens is explained and defended. The account of Dworkin’s protestantism about law in this article is not based on his more general protestantist view about the interpretation of social practices, but, rather, on the nature of authoritative statements of the law in Dworkin’s theory (...) of law as integrity. Protestantism is thus shown to be an integral part of the theory of law as integrity. It is also argued in this article that protestantism about law can accommodate the idea that legal deliberation is an authoritative and public process while leaving room for a significant role for citizens in the development of law. Indeed, any plausible theory of law should incorporate protestantism. (shrink)
This paper examines various nineteenth-century appropriations of classical Protestantism, the age of post-Reformation confessionalization and orthodoxy. I focus on an important source from the 1850s, namely Isaak AugustDorner’s famed essay on the problemof divine immutability. Though Karl Barth and others fixated on Dorner’s constructive arguments for God’s immutability in ethical and not metaphysical or essential terms, the role that Dorner assigned to the seventeenth-century Lutheran scholastic Johann Andreas Quenstedt remains neglected. I contextualize Dorner’s essay and stance toward classical (...) class='Hi'>Protestantism and argue that he rhetorically obfuscated Quenstedt’s discussion of the claim that God does not change. At the same time, his own interaction withQuenstedt belied his statements to the effect that the dogmatic works of the seventeenth century were outdated. Dorner’s essay thus serves as an insightful case study into the complex and myriad ways in which Protestant theologians of Europe’s revolutionary era viewed seventeenth- century Lutheran and Reformed sources both critically and constructively. (shrink)
“This important collection of essays will help all Americans to consider anew the relationship between the ‘spirit of liberty’ and the ‘spirit of religion’ at work in the American Founding. Michael Zuckert’s masterful response establishes him as one of the leading scholars of the period.” —Jean Yarbrough, author of _American Virtues: Thomas Jefferson on the Character of a Free People_ "_Protestantism and the American Founding_ is an extraordinarily rich and thought provoking dialogue on the religious dimension of the nation's foundations." (...) —Thomas L. Pangle, University of Texas at Austin “This collection of essays by some of the most eminent scholars in the field will have a wide-ranging influence on both academic and political debate on the vital interaction of religion and politics in historical and contemporary America.” —Garrett Ward Sheldon, University of Virginia’s College at Wise This welcome new textbook explores the relationship between Protestant theology and American political thought of the founding era. It gathers together both new and well-known essays by scholars and outstanding thinkers in political philosophy and is enriched by classic selections from Alexis de Tocqueville's _Democracy in America_. _Protestantism and the American Founding_ will serve as a valuable classroom guide for discussion and debate about issues in American and modern political philosophy. (shrink)
In the article O. Panich "Institutionalization of Evangelical Protestantism in Ukraine reveals the history of the emergence and development of Ukrainian evangelical Protestant communities, especially the evangelical-Baptist movement. The peculiarity of the faith and the way of life of Baptists and evangelical Christians is considered.
The purpose of the article is to identify, analyze and summarize the main theological and sociological approaches to the study of the latest trends of the Western Protestant theological inquiry that takes into account the condition of postmodernity, based on the study of the researches of the Emerging church. As a methodological foundation of the research it is employed the interdisciplinary approach, as well as the comparative method, which gives the researcher the opportunity to fully consider the theological and socio-cultural (...) features of Emerging Church. Scientific novelty. As follows from the analysis, there are various theological and sociological interpretations of the church. In particular, the phenomenon of post-modern religiosity is interpreted as a form of protest against the traditional evangelical Protestantism, as the movement of cultural and religious criticism, whose identity is formed by the deconstruction of narratives and discourses of traditional evangelical Christianity, as the autonomous Protestant tradition that applies postmodern forms of knowledge for rethinking of the Christian faith. Conclusions. A new phenomenon of Western Christianity has caused intense debate in the scientific and especially theological environment. Despite the availability of a wide range of interpretations of the new movement, the researchers acknowledge its religious innovative meaning, recognizing the potential of the Emerging Church to actualize the process of transformation of traditional institutions and practices of Protestantism so that it again would be able to enter into dialogue with society in a new socio-cultural situation. (shrink)
Protestantism in the light of the conceptual foundations of diversification theory. Current article considers Protestantism from the perspective of the main principles of the theory of diversification, including a change and forms variability as a prerequisite for real exercise "held constant through change." It is shown that the preservation and transmission of religious, particularly Protestant, tradition is a complex process in which an important role is played by various factors shaping by the multiform etymologies.
The study of the current state and tendencies of the development of the traditional trends of late Protestantism in Ukraine - Baptism, Adventism and Pentecostalism, as well as Jehovah's Witnesses during 1999-2005 made it possible, in our opinion, to be scientifically valuable and relevant to the public in these confessions. generalizations and conclusions. At the same time, in our study, they have both a universal character for all four of these denominations, as well as a specific context in the (...) form of an extended analysis of the nature of theological, doctrinal, institutionalization changes that have taken place in the past 15 years in particular in Ukrainian Baptism and the religious organization of Jehovah's Witnesses. Adventism was preserved somewhat during this period. (shrink)
This is an essay in controversy theory. It focuses on the question of how Reformed Christian theologians can help their bioethics have appropriate content and secure proper boundaries. After all, one wants to know when Christian bioethics is still Christian. Among the cardinal issues this involves is the challenge to scholars in Reformed Christian bioethics to define their field and give normative guidance. This cluster of problems will be addressed by exploring puzzles regarding the character of Reformed Christian theology in (...) general and its appreciation of the Eucharist as a heuristic puzzle to help delineate the commitments of Reformed theology, as well as the issue of holy icons and grace so as to chart the attitude of Reformed theology to the disenchantment that characterized the West from the sixteenth century on. Last but not least, the question of the eschaton is addressed, all in order to give a better account of the Reformed theology that must lie at the foundations of any Reformed Christian bioethics. With the reflections on these issues in hand, this essay returns to a central issue for any bioethics: what authorities exist and who is in authority to resolve the controversies of bioethics, in this case Reformed Christian bioethics? (shrink)
Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity.
The article explores a range of motifs in the writing of the Austrian émigré novelist and essayist Hermann Broch, that point to themes in the sociological thought of Max Weber. Although explicit citations of Weber’s name appear rarely in Broch’s writings, the thematic and stylistic contents of Broch’s first novel of 1930-1 The Sleepwalkers indicate a plethora of ways in which the Austrian author engages with ideas he can only have first assimilated by means of a more or less conscious (...) programme of reading in texts by Weber and by other thinkers of the same milieu and generation, including Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert. Most notably in the ‘Excursus on the Disintegration of Values’, in Part III of The Sleepwalkers, Broch elaborates what might be seen as a certain poetic extension of the Weberian vision of modernity in terms of rationalization, disenchantment and the fragmentation of value-spheres. (shrink)
As dialectical theology rose to prominence in the years following World War I, the new theologians sought to distance themselves from liberalism in a number of ways, an important one being a rejection of Schleiermacher’s methods and conclusions. In reading the history of Weimar-era theology as it has been written in the twentieth century one would be forgiven for assuming that Schleiermacher found no defenders during this time, as liberal theology quietly faded into the twilight. However, a closer examination of (...) this period reveals a different story. The last generation of liberal theologians consistently appealed to Schleiermacher for support and inspiration, perhaps none more so than Georg Wobbermin, whom B. A. Gerrish has called a “captain of the liberal rearguard.” Wobbermin sought to construct a religio-psychological method on the basis of Schleiermacher’s definition of religion and on his “Copernican turn” toward the subject and resolutely defended such a method against the new dialectical theology long after liberal theology’s supposed demise. A consideration of Wobbermin’s appeals to Schleiermacher in his defense of the liberal program reveals a more complex picture of the state of theology in the Weimar period and of Schleiermacher’s legacy in German Protestant thought. (shrink)