This article examines Charles Villers's Essay on the Spirit and Influence of Luther's Reformation (1804) in its intellectual and historical context. Exiled from France after 1792, Villers intervened in important French and German debates about the relationship of religion, history, and philosophy. The article shows how he took up a German Protestant discussion on the meaning of the Reformation that had been underway from the 1770s through the end of the century, including efforts by Kantians to seize the mantle of (...)Protestantism for themselves. Villers's essay capitalized on a broad interest in the question of Protestantism and its meaning for modern freedom around 1800. Revisiting the formation of the narrative of Protestantism and progress reveals that it was not a logical progression from Protestant theology or religion but rather part of a specific ideological and social struggle in the wake of the French Revolution and the collapse of the Old Regime. (shrink)
Context -- A Jew in Amsterdam -- Conflicts and communities -- Christian philosophy? -- A Bible gallery -- Religion and politics in the TTP -- Miracles, meaning, and moderation -- Christian pluralism -- Ethics reconsidered -- Providence, obedience, and love -- Spinoza and Christianity.
Protestantism in the light of the conceptual foundations of diversification theory. Current article considers Protestantism from the perspective of the main principles of the theory of diversification, including a change and forms variability as a prerequisite for real exercise "held constant through change." It is shown that the preservation and transmission of religious, particularly Protestant, tradition is a complex process in which an important role is played by various factors shaping by the multiform etymologies.
In an attempt to think through the Islamic alongside the Christian, this article draws upon the political theology of Carl Schmitt to reflect on the salience of sovereignty. But in doing so, the article re-reads Schmitt’s political theology for its Protestant voluntarism, and adopts a more robust theological voluntarism as a vehicle for reflecting on political thought across both Christian and Islamic history. Moreover, this approach to political theology makes possible reflections on how political theology, whether in Christian or Islamic (...) thought, may offer a critical lens by which to gain new analytic insights into the operation of sovereignty in presumably secularised regimes of thought, such as international law. (shrink)
The article "Protestantism: to the causes of growth and spread at an early stage of its development" by V.Shevchenko deals with the epochmaking phenomenon of Protestantism, its exceptional place, role and significance in the history of Christian progress during past five hundred years. Special attention is dedicated to disclosure of number of some reasons, which caused the appearance of Protestantism.
Yitzhak Y. Melamed - Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:2 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.2 333-334 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Yitzhak Y. Melamed University of Chicago Graeme Hunter. Radical Protestantism in Spinoza's Thought. Aldershot, UK–Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005. Pp. vii + 196. Cloth, $89.95. If this book's announced and modest aim—"to present the Christian dimension of Spinoza's thought positively and directly" —were all the author meant (...) to achieve, he was clearly successful. Any reader of the Theological Political Treatise cannot fail to see that Spinoza engaged seriously with Christianity, its sacred texts, and its internal divisions and disputes. Throughout his mature life, Spinoza lived among the Collegiants, the radical Dutch reformers, and it is clear that his dialogue with this circle played a significant role in shaping his writing on religion, Judaism, and.. (shrink)
Many of the most well-known Protestant systematic theologies, particularly in the Reformed tradition, display (more or less) a common thematic division. There are prolegomena: questions about the nature of theology, the relationship between faith and reason, and (sometimes treated separately) the attributes of scripture and its role in faith and practice. There is the doctrine of God: divine attributes, Godʼs relationship to creation, etc. There is the doctrine of humanity: the nature and post-mortem survival of human persons, and the human (...) condition, including the Fall and human sinfulness. There are parts devoted to the person and work of Christ: most especially, the incarnation and atonement. There is discussion of questions in practical theology: the organization and function of the church, morality and politics. Other matters get discussed along the way as well. Most of these topics are ones which we contributors to this volume have been asked to address in our position statements. So I take my assignment to be, in effect, the production of a miniature sketch of a partial systematic theology. Even in miniature, this is a monumental task for a mere essay, and a daunting one for someone whose formal training lies outside of theology. The remarks that follow represent my best effort to articulate such views on these topics as I currently hold—albeit briefly and incompletely. I hope that the views hang together in a reasonably systematic way; but, as this is but a first effort at accomplishing a task of this sort, I wish to emphasize the programmatic nature of what I shall be saying. Since I am writing specifically as a representative of Protestantism (in all of its wide diversity), it seems fitting for me to structure my essay in accord with the thematic divisions just described. I begin with prolegomena, focusing primarily on faith and reason, and doctrines about scripture. The next three sections are devoted, respectively, to the doctrine of God, doctrine of humanity (in which I include doctrines about the person and work of Christ), and practical theology. (shrink)
The purpose of the article is to identify, analyze and summarize the main theological and sociological approaches to the study of the latest trends of the Western Protestant theological inquiry that takes into account the condition of postmodernity, based on the study of the researches of the Emerging church. As a methodological foundation of the research it is employed the interdisciplinary approach, as well as the comparative method, which gives the researcher the opportunity to fully consider the theological and socio-cultural (...) features of Emerging Church. Scientific novelty. As follows from the analysis, there are various theological and sociological interpretations of the church. In particular, the phenomenon of post-modern religiosity is interpreted as a form of protest against the traditional evangelical Protestantism, as the movement of cultural and religious criticism, whose identity is formed by the deconstruction of narratives and discourses of traditional evangelical Christianity, as the autonomous Protestant tradition that applies postmodern forms of knowledge for rethinking of the Christian faith. Conclusions. A new phenomenon of Western Christianity has caused intense debate in the scientific and especially theological environment. Despite the availability of a wide range of interpretations of the new movement, the researchers acknowledge its religious innovative meaning, recognizing the potential of the Emerging Church to actualize the process of transformation of traditional institutions and practices of Protestantism so that it again would be able to enter into dialogue with society in a new socio-cultural situation. (shrink)
“This important collection of essays will help all Americans to consider anew the relationship between the ‘spirit of liberty’ and the ‘spirit of religion’ at work in the American Founding. Michael Zuckert’s masterful response establishes him as one of the leading scholars of the period.” —Jean Yarbrough, author of _American Virtues: Thomas Jefferson on the Character of a Free People_ "_Protestantism and the American Founding_ is an extraordinarily rich and thought provoking dialogue on the religious dimension of the nation's foundations." (...) —Thomas L. Pangle, University of Texas at Austin “This collection of essays by some of the most eminent scholars in the field will have a wide-ranging influence on both academic and political debate on the vital interaction of religion and politics in historical and contemporary America.” —Garrett Ward Sheldon, University of Virginia’s College at Wise This welcome new textbook explores the relationship between Protestant theology and American political thought of the founding era. It gathers together both new and well-known essays by scholars and outstanding thinkers in political philosophy and is enriched by classic selections from Alexis de Tocqueville's _Democracy in America_. _Protestantism and the American Founding_ will serve as a valuable classroom guide for discussion and debate about issues in American and modern political philosophy. (shrink)
After Stalin's death, the struggle for power took place in the top of the CPSU, and in the lower echelons they took a standstill, so in 1953, in the reports of the ROC Commissioner and the Commissioner of Religious Cults, he was formally restrained.
Ariga Tetsutaro war Professor für das Studium des Christentums an der Universität Kyoto und gehörte dort der zweiten Professoren-generation an. Er legte die Grundlagen der Patristik und der Erforschung des Christentums in Japan. In seinem Hauptwerk “Origenes” hatte er den Historismus in der Theologie erforscht, aber nachdem er seinen Dienst als Professor an der staatlichen Universität aufgenommen hatte, die die Trennung von Staat und Religion hochhielt, suchte er nach Wegen, ein ‘Studium des Christlichen’ zu etablieren, das sich von der Theologie (...) unterschied. Dabei dienten ihm Schleiermachers “Kurze Darstellung des theologischen Studiums” und die Tradition des deutschen liberalen Protestantismus als Anhaltspunkte. Anstatt der Theologie, die den Glauben als methodischen Ausgangspunkt hat, und der Religionswissenschaft, die nur die distanzierte Objektivität als Ausgangspunkt wählt, schlug er als neuen Versuch ein Christliches Studium mit akademischem Standpunkt vor, bei dem der Gelehrte eine Forschungshaltung einnimmt, die durch ein Mindestmaß an vernünftiger Kritik und ‘Ur-Sympathie’ gegenüber der Religion geprägt ist. (shrink)
Max Weber’s sociological theories of secularization have vastly influenced the study of Protestant belief. _Protestant Modernity_ offers a multifaceted understanding of secularization within the broader context of nineteenth-century liberal Protestantism. Anthony J. Carroll reconstructs Weber’s original writings to highlight Protestant motifs, reviews current secularization theories, and settles debates about contested meanings of secularization in this volume that will be essential reading for students and scholars of theology and the sociology of religion.
A collection of literate, intelligent essays and editorials dealing with the implications of orthodox Protestant Christianity for social and political action. The author, a professional philosopher, treats the philosophical issues inevitably raised by such considerations with a terse and illuminating competence. Christian journalism at its best.--A. C. P.
KazuoMuto war Professor für das Studium des Christentums an der Universität Kyoto und gehörte der dritten Professorengeneration an. Er war sich der Stellung der Dialektischen Theologie voll bewusst, und davon ausgehend verfolgte er neue Möglichkeiten der Religionsphilosophie, wobei sich seine Forschungen an der subjektiven Innerlichkeit und der Moral im liberalen Protestantismus orientierte. Die Wahrheitsforschung als Wissenschaft verlange natürlich eine kritische Neutralität, aber sie muüsse auch religiöse Wahrheiten im Blickfeld haben, die sich nicht durch bloßes Zuschauen offenbaren, sondern erst dadurch, dass (...) man sich für sie engagiert. Kazuo analysierte die Argumente von Troeltsch, Barth und Tillich. Dabei stimmte er Tillichs ‘Korrelation zwischen der existentiellen Frage und der theologischen Antwort’ zu. Dennoch dachte er, dass die Ernsthaftigkeit des die existentielle Frage Stellenden der Theologie immanent sein müsse, und entwickelte dabei nicht nur eine ‘antwortende Theologie’, sondern auch eine ‘fragende Theologie’. Diese Haltung hatte er vor allem von Kierkegaard gelernt, so erklärte er, Frage und Antwort seien nicht voneinander getrennt, sondern müssten miteinander zusammenhängen. (shrink)
The so-called international colloquium, which took place in Kyiv on April 13-14, 1994, was attended by scientists, university professors and religious figures. In numerous reports and reports, many interesting questions were raised about the history and contemporary activities of Protestant churches in Ukraine - ECH, HVJ, ADS, and others.
Der Lehrstuhl für Christentumswissenschaft an der Kaiserlichen Universität Kyoto wurde 1922 als Stiftungslehrstuhl gegründet. Die Gründung der Christentumswissenschaft in Kyoto erfolgte in einer spezifischen bildungspolitischen Konstellation: Es ging um die spannungsreichen Beziehung zwischen staatlichen Hochschulen und den Religionsgemeinschaften sowie um die Ansprüche einer dezidiert nationalen Politik. Der erste Inhaber des Lehrstuhls war einer der prominentesten japanischen Ideenhistoriker und Philosophen, Seiichi Hatano. Für Hatano gab es keinen Unterschied zwischen Theologie und Christentumswissenschaft. Er wandte die historische Methode auf die Forschung zum frühen (...) Christentum an, die er von deutschen Theologen gelernt hatte. Besonders stark hatte ihn die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule beeinflusst. Als Philosoph entwickelte Hatano eine Religionsphilosophie, die auf der Idee der Persönlichkeit basierte. Das starke Interesse am Thema “Persönlichkeit” hatte er auch mit den deutschen Theologen gemeinsam. Andererseits kritisierte Hatano den liberalen Protestantismus in Deutschland scharf. Dennoch wurde seine Haltung, mit der er die Vorgänger und Zeitgenossen “voraussetzungslos” kritisiert hatte, von führenden Vertretern des liberalen Protestantismus in Deutschland angenommen. (shrink)