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Herbert Richards [122]H. Richards [94]Robert J. Richards [59]Glyn Richards [55]
G. C. Richards [45]I. A. Richards [36]David A. J. Richards [30]Bernadette Richards [26]

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Norvin Richards
University of Alabama
Richard A. Richards
University of Alabama
Robert Richards
University of Chicago
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  1.  37
    The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Richard A. Richards - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    There is long-standing disagreement among systematists about how to divide biodiversity into species. Over twenty different species concepts are used to group organisms, according to criteria as diverse as morphological or molecular similarity, interbreeding and genealogical relationships. This, combined with the implications of evolutionary biology, raises the worry that either there is no single kind of species, or that species are not real. This book surveys the history of thinking about species from Aristotle to modern systematics in order to understand (...)
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  2. Exploring Inductive Risk: Case Studies of Values in Science.Kevin C. Elliott & Ted Richards (eds.) - 2017 - Oup Usa.
    This book brings together eleven case studies of inductive risk-the chance that scientific inference is incorrect-that range over a wide variety of scientific contexts and fields. The chapters are designed to illustrate the pervasiveness of inductive risk, assist scientists and policymakers in responding to it, and productively move theoretical discussions of the topic forward.
     
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  3. Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.Sigmund Freud & Angela Richards - 1991
  4.  34
    Parts of Recognition.D. D. Hoffman & W. A. Richards - 1984 - Cognition 18 (1-3):65-96.
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  5.  14
    Comprehension of Sentences by Bottlenosed Dolphins.Louis M. Herman, Douglas G. Richards & James P. Wolz - 1984 - Cognition 16 (2):129-219.
  6. The Philosophy of Rhetoric.I. Richards - 1937 - Philosophical Review 46:676.
  7.  52
    The Influence of Affect on Higher Level Cognition: A Review of Research on Interpretation, Judgement, Decision Making and Reasoning. [REVIEW]Isabelle Blanchette & Anne Richards - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (4):561-595.
  8. Horgan and Tienson on Phenomenology and Intentionality.Andrew Bailey & Bradley Richards - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (2):313-326.
    Terence Horgan, George Graham and John Tienson argue that some intentional content is constitutively determined by phenomenology alone. We argue that this would require a certain kind of covariation of phenomenal states and intentional states that is not established by Horgan, Tienson and Graham’s arguments. We make the case that there is inadequate reason to think phenomenology determines perceptual belief, and that there is reason to doubt that phenomenology determines any species of non-perceptual intentionality. We also raise worries about the (...)
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  9.  13
    The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics.Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.) - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Evolutionary ethics - the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification - began in the nineteenth century with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but was subsequently criticized as an example of the naturalistic fallacy. In recent decades, however, evolutionary ethics has found new support among both the Darwinian and the Spencerian traditions. This accessible volume looks at the history of thought about evolutionary ethics as well as current debates in the subject, examining first the claims (...)
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  10. The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe.Robert J. Richards - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 36 (3):618-619.
     
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  11.  44
    The Ethics of Parenthood.Norvin Richards - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    The Ethics of Parenthood argues for original views about the right to raise one's biological children, about paternalism, about reacting differently to bad behavior because the wrongdoer is "only a child," about what raising a child requires, and about the obligations that parents and children have after the children are grown.
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  12. Luck and Desert.Norvin Richards - 1986 - Mind 95 (378):198-209.
  13. Identity-Crowding and Object-Seeing: A Reply to Block.Bradley Richards - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):9-19.
    Contrary to Block's assertion, “identity-crowding” does not provide an interesting instance of object-seeing without object-attention. The successful judgments and unusual phenomenology of identity-crowding are better explained by unconscious perception and non-perceptual phenomenology associated with cognitive states. In identity-crowding, as in other cases of crowding, subjects see jumbled textures and cannot individuate the items contributing to those textures in the absence of attention. Block presents an attenuated sense in which identity-crowded items are seen, but this is irrelevant to the debate about (...)
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  14.  63
    Research Led by Participants: A New Social Contract for a New Kind of Research.Effy Vayena, Roger Brownsword, Sarah Jane Edwards, Bastian Greshake, Jeffrey P. Kahn, Navjoyt Ladher, Jonathan Montgomery, Daniel O'Connor, Onora O'Neill, Martin P. Richards, Annette Rid, Mark Sheehan, Paul Wicks & John Tasioulas - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (4):216-219.
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  15.  61
    A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics.Robert Richards - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):265-293.
    From Charles Darwin to Edward Wilson, evolutionary biologists have attempted to construct systems of evolutionary ethics. These attempts have been roundly criticized, most often for having committed the naturalistic fallacy. In this essay, I review the history of previous efforts at formulating an evolutionary ethics, focusing on the proposals of Darwin and Wilson. I then advance and defend a proposal of my own. In the last part of the essay, I try to demonstrate that my revised version of evolutionary ethics: (...)
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  16. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong-lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing Fang, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay-Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho-Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri & Mark Weber - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to (...)
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  17.  89
    Kant and Blumenbach on the Bildungstrieb: A Historical Misunderstanding.Robert J. Richards - 2000 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 31 (1):11-32.
  18.  29
    Evaluation of a Behavioral Measure of Risk Taking: The Balloon Analogue Risk Task.C. W. Lejuez, Jennifer P. Read, Christopher W. Kahler, Jerry B. Richards, Susan E. Ramsey, Gregory L. Stuart, David R. Strong & Richard A. Brown - 2002 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 8 (2):75-84.
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  19.  36
    Food Justice or Food Sovereignty? Understanding the Rise of Urban Food Movements in the USA.Jessica Clendenning, Wolfram H. Dressler & Carol Richards - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (1):165-177.
    As world food and fuel prices threaten expanding urban populations, there is greater need for the urban poor to have access and claims over how and where food is produced and distributed. This is especially the case in marginalized urban settings where high proportions of the population are food insecure. The global movement for food sovereignty has been one attempt to reclaim rights and participation in the food system and challenge corporate food regimes. However, given its origins from the peasant (...)
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  20.  37
    A Theory of Reasons for Action.David A. J. Richards - 1971 - Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  21. The Philosophy of Rhetoric.I. A. Richards - 1970 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 3 (2):120-124.
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  22.  97
    Forgiveness.Norvin Richards - 1988 - Ethics 99 (1):77-97.
  23.  79
    Justification Through Biological Faith: A Rejoinder. [REVIEW]Robert J. Richards - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (3):337-354.
    Though I have not found enough of the latter to test out this bromide, I am sensible of the value bestowed by colleagues who have taken such exacting care in analyzing my arguments. While their incisive observation and hard objections threaten to leave an extinct theory, I hope the reader will rather judge it one strengthened by adversity. Let me initially expose the heart of my argument so as to make obvious the shocks it must endure. I ask the reader (...)
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  24.  68
    Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and its Moral Purpose.Robert Richards - 2009 - In Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the "Origin of Species". Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas Henry Huxley recalled that after he had read Darwin’s Origin of Species, he had exclaimed to himself: “How extremely stupid not to have thought of that!” (Huxley,1900, 1: 183). It is a famous but puzzling remark. In his contribution to Francis Darwin’s Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Huxley rehearsed the history of his engagement with the idea of transmutation of species. He mentioned the views of Robert Grant, an advocate of Lamarck, and Robert Chambers, who anonymously published Vestiges (...)
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  25.  8
    Moral (and Ethical) Realism.Howard Richards - 2019 - Journal of Critical Realism 18 (3):285-302.
    ABSTRACTThis article advocates a naturalist and realist ethics of solidarity. Specifically, it argues that human needs should be met; and that they should be met in harmony with the environment. Realism should include respect for existing cultures and the morals presently being practiced – with reasonable exceptions. Dignity must come in a form understood and appreciated by the person whose dignity is being respected. It is also argued that naturalist ethics are needed to combat liberal ethics, not least because the (...)
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  26.  42
    The Innate and the Learned: The Evolution of Konrad Lorenz's Theory of Instinct.Robert J. Richards - 1974 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 4 (2):111-133.
  27.  18
    Ethical Guidelines for Deliberately Infecting Volunteers with COVID-19.Adair D. Richards - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):502-504.
    Global fatalities related to COVID-19 are expected to be high in 2020–2021. Developing and delivering a vaccine may be the most likely way to end the pandemic. If it were possible to shorten this development time by weeks or months, this may have a significant effect on reducing deaths. Phase II and phase III trials could take less long to conduct if they used human challenge methods—that is, deliberately infecting participants with COVID-19 following inoculation. This article analyses arguments for and (...)
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  28.  77
    The Worlds of David Lewis.Tom Richards - 1975 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 53 (2):105 – 118.
    Arguments are advanced that a theory of possible worlds cannot be a theory of meaning for modal statements, And lewis's version of the theory in his "counterfactuals" is used as a particular stalking-Horse. (a) 'possible world', Though used referentially, Is defined in a way that makes it non-Referential, And moreover, The theory does not supply or validate proposals for criteria that individuate worlds; hence the theory seems incomprehensible. (b) the theory yields no useable account of truth-Conditions for modal statements. (c) (...)
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  29.  87
    Ethics and the Auditing Culture: Rethinking the Foundation of Accounting and Auditing.David Satava, Cam Caldwell & Linda Richards - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (3):271-284.
    Although the foundation of financial accounting and auditing has traditionally been based upon a rule-based framework, the concept of a principle-based approach has been periodically advocated since being incorporated into the AICPA Code of Conduct in 1989. Recent high profile events indicate that the accountants and auditors involved have followed rule-based ethical perspectives and have failed to protect investors and stakeholders – resulting in a wave of scandals and charges of unethical conduct. In this paper we describe how the rule-based (...)
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  30.  59
    Is Humility a Virtue?Norvin Richards - 1988 - American Philosophical Quarterly 25 (3):253 - 259.
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  31. Humility.Norvin Richards - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (266):568-570.
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  32.  20
    The Cambridge Companion to the 'Origin of Species'.Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin is universally recognized as one of the most important science books ever written. Published in 1859, it was here that Darwin argued for both the fact of evolution and the mechanism of natural section. The Origin of Species is also a work of great cultural and religious significance, in that Darwin maintained that all organisms, including humans, are part of a natural process of growth from simple forms. This Companion commemorates the 150th anniversary (...)
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  33. A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Olivier Furrer, David Brock, Ruth Alas, Florian Wangenheim, Fidel León Darder, Christine Kuo, Vojko Potocan, Audra I. Mockaitis, Erna Szabo, Jaime Ruiz Gutiérrez, Andre Pekerti, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer, Irina Naoumova, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Arunas Starkus, Vu Thanh Hung, Tevfik Dalgic, Mario Molteni, María Teresa de la Garza Carranza, Isabelle Maignan, Francisco B. Castro, Yong-lin Moon, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Marina Dabic, Yongjuan Li, Wade Danis, Maria Kangasniemi, Mahfooz Ansari, Liesl Riddle, Laurie Milton, Philip Hallinger, Detelin Elenkov, Ilya Girson, Modesta Gelbuda, Prem Ramburuth, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Malika Richards, Cheryl Van Deusen, Ping-Ping Fu, Paulina Man Kei Wan, Moureen Tang, Chay-Hoon Lee, Ho-Beng Chia, Yongquin Fan & Alan Wallace - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (1):1-31.
    This article provides current Schwartz Values Survey (SVS) data from samples of business managers and professionals across 50 societies that are culturally and socioeconomically diverse. We report the society scores for SVS values dimensions for both individual- and societal-level analyses. At the individual-level, we report on the ten circumplex values sub-dimensions and two sets of values dimensions (collectivism and individualism; openness to change, conservation, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence). At the societal-level, we report on the values dimensions of embeddedness, hierarchy, mastery, affective (...)
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  34. Biological Classification: A Philosophical Introduction.Richard A. Richards - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    Modern biological classification is based on the system developed by Linnaeus, and interpreted by Darwin as representing the tree of life. But despite its widespread acceptance, the evolutionary interpretation has some problems and limitations. This comprehensive book provides a single resource for understanding all the main philosophical issues and controversies about biological classification. It surveys the history of biological classification from Aristotle to contemporary phylogenetics and shows how modern biological classification has developed and changed over time. Readers will also be (...)
     
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  35.  17
    Food Waste, Power, and Corporate Social Responsibility in the Australian Food Supply Chain.Bree Devin & Carol Richards - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (1):199-210.
    By examining corporate social responsibility and power within the context of the food supply chain, this paper illustrates how food retailers claim to address food waste while simultaneously setting standards that result in the large-scale rejection of edible food on cosmetic grounds. Specifically, this paper considers the powerful role of food retailers and how they may be considered to be legitimately engaging in socially responsible behaviors to lower food waste, yet implement practices that ultimately contribute to higher levels of food (...)
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  36.  50
    Nephrarious Goings On: Kidney Sales and Moral Arguments.J. R. Richards - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (4):375-416.
    From all points of the political compass, from widely different groups, have come indignant outcries against the trade in human organs from live vendors. Opponents contend that such practices constitute a morally outrageous and gross exploitation of the poor, inherently coercive and obviously intolerable in any civilized society. This article examines the arguments typically offered in defense of these claims, and finds serious problems with all of them. The prohibition of organ sales is derived not from the principles and argument (...)
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  37.  25
    Mencius on the Mind: Experiments in Multiple Definition.I. A. Richards - 1932 - Routledge.
    Please see I. A. Richards (ISBN: 0415217318) for details or email [email protected]
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  38.  67
    Raising a Child with Respect.Norvin Richards - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (S1):90-104.
    Parents whose children will become adults are expected to help them do so, as opposed to only keeping them alive while they manage it on their own. The parental help must respect the child's standing as a separate individual: our children aren't ours to shape to our design, even if our aim is to help them flourish. But then how are we to raise our children with respect for their individuality? According to Matthew Clayton, doing so requires refraining from attempting (...)
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  39. Michael Ruse's Design for Living.Robert J. Richards - 2004 - Journal of the History of Biology 37 (1):25 - 38.
    The eminent historian and philosopher of biology, Michael Ruse, has written several books that explore the relationship of evolutionary theory to its larger scientific and cultural setting. Among the questions he has investigated are: Is evolution progressive? What is its epistemological status? Most recently, in "Darwin and Design: Does Evolution have a Purpose?," Ruse has provided a history of the concept of teleology in biological thinking, especially in evolutionary theorizing. In his book, he moves quickly from Plato and Aristotle to (...)
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  40.  72
    Here and Now: Discovering the Sacred with Entheogens.William A. Richards - 2014 - Zygon 49 (3):652-665.
    Renewed research with entheogens (psychedelic substances) has been able to facilitate the occurrence of mystical forms of consciousness in healthy volunteers with a high degree of reliability. This article explores the potential significance of this development for religious scholars, especially those interested in the study of mysticism. The definition of “mystical consciousness” employed in this research is presented and differentiated from visionary/archetypal and other types of alternative mental states. The ways in which entheogens may be employed with skill and maximum (...)
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  41. Principles of Literary Criticism.I. A. Richards - 1926 - Mind 35 (137):81-84.
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  42.  37
    How Distinctive is Genetic Information?M. Richards - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 32 (4):663-687.
    There is extensive discussion of the ethical, social, economic and political issues associated with the use of technologies based on DNA techniques. Many of these debates are premised on the assumption that DNA, and the genetic information that may be derived from it, have unique features which raise new social and ethical issues. In this paper it is argued that several of the features associated with DNA which are sometimes regarded as unique are shared with other biological materials. Others owe (...)
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  43.  83
    Character Individuation in Phylogenetic Inference.Richard Richards - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):264-279.
    Ontological questions in biology have typically focused on the nature of species: what are species; how are they identified and individuated? There is an analogous, but much neglected concern: what are characters; how are they identified and individuated? Character individuation is significant because biological systematics relies on a parsimony principle to determine phylogeny and classify taxa, and the parsimony principle is usually interpreted to favor the phylogenetic hypothesis that requires the fewest changes in characters. But no character individuation principle identified (...)
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  44.  13
    Device Representatives in Hospitals: Are Commercial Imperatives Driving Clinical Decision-Making?Quinn Grundy, Katrina Hutchison, Jane Johnson, Brette Blakely, Robyn Clay-Wlliams, Bernadette Richards & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):589-592.
    Despite concerns about the relationships between health professionals and the medical device industry, the issue has received relatively little attention. Prevalence data are lacking; however, qualitative and survey research suggest device industry representatives, who are commonly present in clinical settings, play a key role in these relationships. Representatives, who are technical product specialists and not necessarily medically trained, may attend surgeries on a daily basis and be available to health professionals 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to provide (...)
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  45.  8
    Reasoning About Emotional Contents Following Shocking Terrorist Attacks: A Tale of Three Cities.Isabelle Blanchette, Anne Richards, Laura Melnyk & Anastasia Lavda - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 13 (1):47-56.
  46.  33
    Attention and Seeing Objects: The Identity-Crowding Debate.Bradley Richards - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (5):743-758.
    Can unattended objects by seen? Ned Block has claimed they can on the basis of “identity-crowding.” This paper summarizes the ensuing debate with particular emphasis on the role of unconscious perception. Although unconscious perception plays an important role, it cannot support conscious object-seeing in identity-crowding. Nevertheless, unconscious perception assists in making successful judgments about unseen objects. Further, compelling conceptual evidence against seeing unattended objects places the burden of proof on Block. I argue that countability is necessary for seeing objects and (...)
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  47.  32
    Retailer-Driven Agricultural Restructuring—Australia, the UK and Norway in Comparison.Carol Richards, Hilde Bjørkhaug, Geoffrey Lawrence & Emmy Hickman - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (2):235-245.
    In recent decades, the governance of food safety, food quality, on-farm environmental management and animal welfare has been shifting from the realm of ‘the government’ to that of the private sector. Corporate entities, especially the large supermarkets, have responded to neoliberal forms of governance and the resultant ‘hollowed-out’ state by instituting private standards for food, backed by processes of certification and policed through systems of third party auditing. Today’s food regime is one in which supermarkets impose ‘private standards’ along the (...)
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  48.  33
    The "Moral Anatomy" of Robert Knox: The Interplay Between Biological and Social Thought in Victorian Scientific Naturalism. [REVIEW]Evelleen Richards - 1989 - Journal of the History of Biology 22 (3):373 - 436.
    Historians are now generally agreed that the Darwinian recognition and institutionalization of the polygenist position was more than merely nominal.194 Wallace, Vogt, and Huxley had led the way, and we may add Galton (1869) to the list of those leading Darwinians who incorporated a good deal of polygenist thinking into their interpretions of human history and racial differences.195 Eventually “Mr. Darwin himself,” as Hunt had suggested he might, consolidated the Darwinian endorsement of many features of polygenism. Darwin's Descent of Man (...)
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  49.  27
    On Food Security and Alternative Food Networks: Understanding and Performing Food Security in the Context of Urban Bias.Jane Dixon & Carol Richards - 2016 - Agriculture and Human Values 33 (1):191-202.
    This paper offers one explanation for the institutional basis of food insecurity in Australia, and argues that while alternative food networks and the food sovereignty movement perform a valuable function in building forms of social solidarity between urban consumers and rural producers, they currently make only a minor contribution to Australia’s food and nutrition security. The paper begins by identifying two key drivers of food security: household incomes and nutrition-sensitive, ‘fair food’ agriculture. We focus on this second driver and argue (...)
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  50.  61
    4 Darwin on Mind, Morals and Emotions.Robert J. Richards - 2003 - In J. Hodges & Gregory Radick (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Darwin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 92.
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