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Jean-Dominique Robert [144]Jason Scott Robert [56]C. Robert [52]Louis Robert [39]
Aurélien Robert [34]J. Robert [29]Carl Robert [28]Philippe Robert [26]

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  1.  21
    Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution: Taking Development Seriously.Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Historically, philosophers of biology have tended to sidestep the problem of development by focusing primarily on evolutionary biology and, more recently, on molecular biology and genetics. Quite often too, development has been misunderstood as simply, or even primarily, a matter of gene activation and regulation. Nowadays a growing number of philosophers of science are focusing their analyses on the complexities of development, and in Embryology, Epigenesis and Evolution Jason Scott Robert explores the nature of development against current trends in biological (...)
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  2. Crossing species boundaries.Jason Scott Robert & Françoise Baylis - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):1 – 13.
    This paper critically examines the biology of species identity and the morality of crossing species boundaries in the context of emerging research that involves combining human and nonhuman animals at the genetic or cellular level. We begin with the notion of species identity, particularly focusing on the ostensible fixity of species boundaries, and we explore the general biological and philosophical problem of defining species. Against this backdrop, we survey and criticize earlier attempts to forbid crossing species boundaries in the creation (...)
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  3.  44
    The ethos and ethics of translational research.Jane Maienschein, Mary Sunderland, Rachel A. Ankeny & Jason Scott Robert - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):43 – 51.
    Calls for the “translation” of research from bench to bedside are increasingly demanding. What is translation, and why does it matter? We sketch the recent history of outcome-oriented translational research in the United States, with a particular focus on the Roadmap Initiative of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD). Our main example of contemporary translational research is stem cell research, which has superseded genomics as the translational object of choice. We explore the nature of and obstacles to translational research (...)
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  4.  42
    Duty to disclose what? Querying the putative obligation to return research results to participants.F. A. Miller, R. Christensen, M. Giacomini & J. S. Robert - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):210-213.
    Many research ethics guidelines now oblige researchers to offer research participants the results of research in which they participated. This practice is intended to uphold respect for persons and ensure that participants are not treated as mere means to an end. Yet some scholars have begun to question a generalised duty to disclose research results, highlighting the potential harms arising from disclosure and questioning the ethical justification for a duty to disclose, especially with respect to individual results. In support of (...)
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  5. The inevitability of genetic enhancement technologies.Francoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):1–26.
    We outline a number of ethical objections to genetic technologies aimed at enhancing human capacities and traits. We then argue that, despite the persuasiveness of some of these objections, they are insufficient to stop the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies. We contend that the inevitability of the technologies results from a particular guiding worldview of humans as masters of the human evolutionary future, and conclude that recognising this worldview points to new directions for ethical thinking about genetic enhancement (...)
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  6.  51
    Bridging the gap between developmental systems theory and evolutionary developmental biology†.Jason Scott Robert, Brian K. Hall & Wendy M. Olson - 2001 - Bioessays 23 (10):954-962.
    Many scientists and philosophers of science are troubled by the relative isolation of developmental from evolutionary biology. Reconciling the science of development with the science of heredity preoccupied a minority of biologists for much of the twentieth century, but these efforts were not corporately successful. Mainly in the past fifteen years, however, these previously dispersed integrating programmes have been themselves synthesized and so reinvigorated. Two of these more recent synthesizing endeavours are evolutionary developmental biology and developmental systems theory. While the (...)
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  7.  10
    L’expertise collégiale à l’IRD : une courte présentation.Sylvain Robert - 2012 - Hermes 64:, [ p.].
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  8. Expected Comparative Utility Theory: A New Theory of Rational Choice.David Robert - 2018 - Philosophical Forum 49 (1):19-37.
    In this paper, I argue for a new normative theory of rational choice under risk, namely expected comparative utility (ECU) theory. I first show that for any choice option, a, and for any state of the world, G, the measure of the choiceworthiness of a in G is the comparative utility (CU) of a in G—that is, the difference in utility, in G, between a and whichever alternative to a carries the greatest utility in G. On the basis of this (...)
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  9.  24
    Automation for the artisanal economy: enhancing the economic and environmental sustainability of crafting professions with human–machine collaboration.Ron Eglash, Lionel Robert, Audrey Bennett, Kwame Porter Robinson, Michael Lachney & William Babbitt - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (3):595-609.
    Artificial intelligence is poised to eliminate millions of jobs, from finance to truck driving. But artisanal products are valued precisely because of their human origins, and thus have some inherent “immunity” from AI job loss. At the same time, artisanal labor, combined with technology, could potentially help to democratize the economy, allowing independent, small-scale businesses to flourish. Could AI, robotics and related automation technologies enhance the economic viability and environmental sustainability of these beloved crafting professions, perhaps even expanding their niche (...)
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  10.  16
    The Inevitability of Genetic Enhancement Technologies.FranÇoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):1-26.
    ABSTRACT We outline a number of ethical objections to genetic technologies aimed at enhancing human capacities and traits. We then argue that, despite the persuasiveness of some of these objections, they are insufficient to stop the development and use of genetic enhancement technologies. We contend that the inevitability of the technologies results from a particular guiding worldview of humans as masters of the human evolutionary future, and conclude that recognising this worldview points to new directions for ethical thinking about genetic (...)
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  11. How developmental is evolutionary developmental biology?Jason Scott Robert - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):591-611.
    Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) offers both an account of developmental processes and also new integrative frameworks for analyzing interactions between development and evolution. Biologists and philosophers are keen on evo-devo in part because it appears to offer a comfort zone between, on the one hand, what some take to be the relative inability of mainstream evolutionary biology to integrate a developmental perspective; and, on the other hand, what some take to be more intractable syntheses of development and evolution. In this (...)
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  12.  85
    Counterfactual Triviality: A Lewis‐Impossibility Argument for Counterfactuals.J. Robert & G. Williams - 2012 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (3):648-670.
    I formulate a counterfactual version of the notorious ‘Ramsey Test’. Whereas the Ramsey Test for indicative conditionals links credence in indicatives to conditional credences, the counterfactual version links credence in counterfactuals to expected conditional chance. I outline two forms: a Ramsey Identity on which the probability of the conditional should be identical to the corresponding conditional probability/expectation of chance; and a Ramsey Bound on which credence in the conditional should never exceed the latter. Even in the weaker, bound, form, the (...)
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  13.  28
    Model systems in stem cell biology.Jason Scott Robert - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (9):1005-1012.
    Stem cell scientists and ethicists have focused intently on questions relevant to the developmental stage and developmental capacities of stem cells. Comparably less attention has been paid to an equally important set of questions about the nature of stem cells, their common characteristics, their non‐negligible differences and their possible developmental species specificity. Answers to these questions are essential to the project of justly inferring anything about human stem cell biology from studies in non‐human model systems—and so to the possibility of (...)
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  14.  35
    On the Jeffreys-Lindley Paradox.Christian P. Robert - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (2):216-232,.
    This article discusses the dual interpretation of the Jeffreys-Lindley paradox associated with Bayesian posterior probabilities and Bayes factors, both as a differentiation between frequentist and Bayesian statistics and as a pointer to the difficulty of using improper priors while testing. I stress the considerable impact of this paradox on the foundations of both classical and Bayesian statistics. While assessing existing resolutions of the paradox, I focus on a critical viewpoint of the paradox discussed by Spanos in Philosophy of Science.
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  15.  78
    Part-human chimeras: Worrying the facts, probing the ethics.Françoise Baylis & Jason Scott Robert - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (5):41 – 45.
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  16.  13
    Strengthening conditional presuppositions.Van Rooij Robert - 2007 - Journal of Semantics 24 (3):289-304.
    In this paper it will be shown how conditional presuppositions can be strengthened to unconditional ones if we assume that the antecedent and consequent of a conditional presupposition are independent of one another. Our notion of independence is very weak, and based on Lewis' notion of orthogonality of questions. It will be argued that our way of strengthening these presuppositions does not give rise to some wrong predictions Geurts argued other proposed strengthening accounts do.
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  17.  36
    Dendrophobia in Bonobo Comprehension of Spoken English.Truswell Robert - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (4):395-415.
    Data from a study by Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues on comprehension of spoken English requests by a bonobo and a human infant supports Fitch's hypothesis that humans exhibit dendrophilia, or a propensity to manipulate tree structures, to a greater extent than other species. However, findings from language acquisition suggest that human infants do not show an initial preference for certain hierarchical syntactic structures. Infants are slow to acquire and generalize the structures in question, but they can eventually do so. Kanzi, in (...)
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  18.  47
    Aristotle and Modern Genetics.Thomas C. Vinci & Jason Scott Robert - 2005 - Journal of the History of Ideas 66 (2):201-221.
    We assess Aristotle's doctrine of the four causes in relation to current research on the development of organisms. Our goals are four-fold: first, to present and critically challenge what has become an orthodox interpretation of Aristotle among biologists; second, to present and defend a more adequate account of organismal development; third, to elaborate and justify a novel account of Aristotle's natural teleology, one at odds with the orthodox interpretation; and fourth, to illustrate how our reading of Aristotle, if right, permits (...)
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  19.  50
    The Efficiency Question in Economics.Northcott Robert - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):1140-1151.
    Much philosophical attention has been devoted to whether economic models explain, and more generally to how scientific models represent. Yet there is an issue more practically important to economics than either of these, which I label the efficiency question: regardless of how exactly models represent, or of whether their role is explanatory or something else, is current modeling practice an efficient way to achieve these goals – or should research efforts be redirected? In addition to showing how the efficiency question (...)
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  20. Epistemic Aspects of Representative Government. Goodin, E. Robert & Kai Spiekermann - 2012 - European Political Science Review 4 (3):303--325.
    The Federalist, justifying the Electoral College to elect the president, claimed that a small group of more informed individuals would make a better decision than the general mass. But the Condorcet Jury Theorem tells us that the more independent, better-than-random voters there are, the more likely it will be that the majority among them will be correct. The question thus arises as to how much better, on average, members of the smaller group would have to be to compensate for the (...)
     
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  21.  22
    Brill's Companion to the Reception of Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.Irene Caiazzo, Constantinos Macris & Aurélien Robert (eds.) - 2021 - Leiden ; Boston: BRILL.
    For the first time, the reader can have a synoptic view of the reception of Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, East and West, in a multicultural perspective. All the major themes of Pythagoreanism are addressed, from mathematics, number philosophy and metaphysics to ethics and religious thought.
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  22.  81
    Neo-Aristotelian Metaphysics and the Theology of Nature.William Simpson, Koons Robert & James Orr (eds.) - 2021 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    Despite the growing interest in Aristotelian approaches to contemporary philosophy of science, few metaphysicians have engaged directly with the question of how a neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of nature might change the landscape for theological discussion concerning theology and naturalism, the place of human beings within nature, or the problem of divine causality. The chapters in this volume are collected into three thematic sections: Naturalism and Nature, Mind and Nature, and God and Nature. By pushing the current boundaries of neo-Aristotelian metaphysics to (...)
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  23.  21
    Have sex differences in spatial ability evolved from male competition for mating and female concern for survival?Isabelle Ecuyer-Dab & Michèle Robert - 2004 - Cognition 91 (3):221-257.
  24.  64
    Systems bioethics and stem cell biology.Jason Scott Robert, Jane Maienschein & Manfred D. Laubichler - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):19-31.
    The complexities of modern science are not adequately reflected in many bioethical discussions. This is especially problematic in highly contested cases where there is significant pressure to generate clinical applications fast, as in stem cell research. In those cases a more integrated approach to bioethics, which we call systems bioethics, can provide a useful framework to address ethical and policy issues. Much as systems biology brings together different experimental and methodological approaches in an integrative way, systems bioethics integrates aspects of (...)
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  25.  24
    Unconventional combinations of prospective parents: ethical challenges faced by IVF providers.Klitzman Robert - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):18.
    BackgroundProfessional guidelines have addressed ethical dilemmas posed by a few types of nontraditional procreative arrangements, but many questions arise regarding how providers view and make decisions about these and other such arrangements.MethodsThirty-seven ART providers and 10 patients were interviewed in-depth for approximately 1 h each. Interviews were systematically analyzed.ResultsProviders faced a range of challenges and ethical dilemmas concerning both the content and the process of decisions about requests for unconventional interfamilial and other reproductive combinations. Providers vary in how they respond (...)
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  26.  13
    Dream recall frequency: Impact of prospective measures and motivational factors.Antonio Zadra & Geneviève Robert - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1695-1702.
    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log or checklist log for 2–5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer (...)
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  27.  20
    Is risky pediatric research without prospect of direct benefit ever justified?Rebecca A. Martin & Jason Scott Robert - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):12 – 15.
  28.  4
    Oidipus. Geschichte eines poetischen Stoffs im griechischen Altertum.B. L. G. & Carl Robert - 1915 - American Journal of Philology 36 (3):338.
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  29.  12
    Ethics of limb disposal: dignity and the medical waste stockpiling scandal.Esmée Hanna & Glenn Robert - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (9):575-578.
    We draw on the concept of dignity to consider the ethics of the disposal of amputated limbs. The ethics of the management and disposal of human tissue has been subject to greater scrutiny and discussion in recent years, although the disposal of the limbs often remains absent from such discourses. In light of the recent UK controversy regarding failures in the medical waste disposal and the stockpiling of waste, the appropriate handling of human tissue has been subject to further scrutiny. (...)
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  30.  6
    Die griechische Heldensage.David M. Robinson & Carl Robert - 1922 - American Journal of Philology 43 (1):90.
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  31.  55
    Schizophrenia epigenesis?Jason Scott Robert - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):191-215.
    I begin by examining how genetics drivesschizophrenia research, and raise both familiar andrelatively novel criticisms of the evidence putativelysupporting the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Inparticular, I call attention to a set of concernsabout the effects of placentation on concordance ratesof schizophrenia in monozygotic twins, which furtherweakens the case for schizophrenia''s so-called stronggenetic component. I then underscore two criticalpoints. First, I emphasize the importance of takingseriously considerations about the complexity of bothontogenesis and the development of hereditarydiseases. The recognition of developmentalconstraints and (...)
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  32.  51
    When research seems like clinical care: a qualitative study of the communication of individual cancer genetic research results.Fiona A. Miller, Mita Giacomini, Catherine Ahern, Jason S. Robert & Sonya de Laat - 2008 - BMC Medical Ethics 9 (1):4.
    Research ethicists have recently declared a new ethical imperative: that researchers should communicate the results of research to participants. For some analysts, the obligation is restricted to the communication of the general findings or conclusions of the study. However, other analysts extend the obligation to the disclosure of individual research results, especially where these results are perceived to have clinical relevance. Several scholars have advanced cogent critiques of the putative obligation to disclose individual research results. They question whether ethical goals (...)
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  33.  16
    Rethinking Human Embryo Research Policies.Kirstin R. W. Matthews, Ana S. Iltis, Nuria Gallego Marquez, Daniel S. Wagner, Jason Scott Robert, Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Marieke Bigg, Sarah Franklin, Soren Holm, Ingrid Metzler, Matteo A. Molè, Jochen Taupitz, Giuseppe Testa & Jeremy Sugarman - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (1):47-51.
    It now seems technically feasible to culture human embryos beyond the “fourteen‐day limit,” which has the potential to increase scientific understanding of human development and perhaps improve infertility treatments. The fourteen‐day limit was adopted as a compromise but subsequently has been considered an ethical line. Does it remain relevant in light of technological advances permitting embryo maturation beyond it? Should it be changed and, if so, how and why? What justifications would be necessary to expand the limit, particularly given that (...)
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  34.  15
    Les « années Cidoc » d’Ivan Illich, philosophe itinérant.Jean Robert - 2013 - Hermes 67:, [ p.].
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  35.  40
    Atomism in late medieval philosophy and theology.Christophe Grellard & Aurélien Robert (eds.) - 2009 - Boston: Brill.
    DMet 10: Prime matter is the origin of all quantities. Hence it is the origin of every dimension of continuous quantity whatever. ...
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  36.  69
    Is There a Moral Right to Workplace Democracy?Mayer Robert - 2000 - Social Theory and Practice 26 (2):301-325.
  37. Group Mind.Georg Theiner & Wilson Robert - 2013 - In Byron Kaldis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Sage Publications. pp. 401-04.
    Talk of group minds has arisen in a number of distinct traditions, such as in sociological thinking about the “madness of crowds” in the 19th-century, and more recently in making sense of the collective intelligence of social insects, such as bees and ants. Here we provide an analytic framework for understanding a range of contemporary appeals to group minds and cognate notions, such as collective agency, shared intentionality, socially distributed cognition, transactive memory systems, and group-level cognitive adaptations.
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  38.  22
    Authente-Kente: enabling authentication for artisanal economies with deep learning.Kwame Porter Robinson, Ron Eglash, Audrey Bennett, Sansitha Nandakumar & Lionel Robert - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):369-379.
    The economy for artisanal products, such as Navajo rugs or Pashmina shawls are often threatened by mass-produced fakes. We propose the use of AI-based authentication as one part of a larger system that would replace extractive economies with generative circulation. In this case study we examine initial experiments towards the development of a cell phone-based authentication app for kente cloth in West Africa. We describe the context of weavers and cloth sales; an initial test of a machine learning algorithm for (...)
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  39.  34
    Rereading Frankenstein: What If Victor Frankenstein Had Actually Been Evil?Jason Scott Robert - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (6):21-24.
    As we reread Mary Shelley's Frankenstein at two hundred years, it is evident that Victor Frankenstein is both a mad scientist (fevered, obsessive) and a bad scientist (secretive, hubristic, irresponsible). He's also not a very nice person. He's a narcissist, a liar, and a bad “parent.” But he is not genuinely evil. And yet when we reimagine him as evil—as an evil scientist and as an evil person—we can learn some important lessons about science and technology, our contemporary society, and (...)
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  40.  55
    Continuous Deep Sedation in End-of-Life Care: Disentangling Palliation From Physician-Assisted Death.Tito B. Carvalho, Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph L. Verheijde & Jason Scott Robert - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):60 - 62.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 60-62, June 2011.
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  41.  85
    Evolution of Conventional Meaning and Conversational Principles.Van Rooy Robert - 2004 - Synthese 139 (2):331-366.
    In this paper we study language use and language organisation by making use of Lewisean signalling games. Standard game theoretical approaches are contrasted with evolutionary ones to analyze conventional meaning and conversational interpretation strategies. It is argued that analyzing successful communication in terms of standard game theory requires agents to be very rational and fully informed. The main goal of the paper is to show that in terms of evolutionary game theory we can motivate the emergence and self-sustaining force of (...)
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  42. Théories à processus duaux et théories de l’éducation : Le cas de l’enseignement de la pensée critique et de la logique.Guillaume Beaulac & Serge Robert - 2011 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 6 (1):63-77.
    Many theories about the teaching of logic and critical thinking take for granted that theoretical learning, the learning of formal rules for example, and its practical application are sufficient to master the tools taught and to take the habit of using them. However, this way of teaching is not efficient, a conclusion supported by much work in cognitive science. Approaching cognition evolutionarily with dual-process theories allows for an explanation of these insufficiencies and offers clues on how we could teach critical (...)
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  43. Identification, situational constraint, and social cognition : studies in the attribution of moral responsibility.L. Woolfolk Robert, M. Doris John & M. Darley John - 2007 - In Joshua Michael Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    In three experiments we studied lay observers’ attributions of responsibility for an antisocial act (homicide). We systematically varied both the degree to which the action was coerced by external circumstances and the degree to which the actor endorsed and accepted ownership of the act, a psychological state that philosophers have termed ‘identification’. Our findings with respect to identification were highly consistent. The more an actor was identified with an action, the more likely observers were to assign responsibility to the actor, (...)
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  44.  34
    Fondement et fondation.Franck Robert - 2000 - Chiasmi International 2:351-370.
  45.  40
    John of Jandun on Relations and Cambridge Changes†.Aurélien Robert - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (3):490-511.
    The paradigmatic examples of what we call nowadays ‘mere Cambridge changes’ are relational properties. If someone is on the left of a table at t − 1 and on the right of this table at t, the table does not undergo a physical change, but it has nonetheless new relational properties. What kind of relation lies behind this kind of change? Should we abandon the definition of identity as a set of permanent properties through time? This concern with identity and (...)
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  46.  14
    Locus of Control and Leader–Member Exchange: A Dimensional, Contextualized, and Prospective Analysis.Véronique Robert & Christian Vandenberghe - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  47.  14
    Perception and Pluralism: Leibniz’s Theological Derivation of Perception in Connection with Platonism, Rationalism and Substance Monism.Gastón Robert - 2020 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 102 (1):56-101.
    This article discusses Leibniz’s claim that every substance is endowed with the property of perception in connection with Platonism, rationalism and the problem of substance monism. It is argued that Leibniz’s ascription of perception to every substance relies on his Platonic conception of finite things as imitations of God, in whom there is ‘infinite perception’. Leibniz’s Platonism, however, goes beyond the notion of imitation, including also the emanative causal relation and the logical (i.e. definitional) priority of the absolute over the (...)
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  48.  29
    Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “The Ethos and Ethics of Translational Research”.Jason Scott Robert, Mary Sunderland, Rachel A. Ankeny & Jane Maienschein - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (3):1-3.
    Calls for the “translation” of research from bench to bedside are increasingly demanding. What is translation, and why does it matter? We sketch the recent history of outcome-oriented translational research in the United States, with a particular focus on the Roadmap Initiative of the National Institutes of Health. Our main example of contemporary translational research is stem cell research, which has superseded genomics as the translational object of choice. We explore the nature of and obstacles to translational research and assess (...)
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  49.  12
    The Suppression of Taboo Word Spoonerisms Is Associated With Altered Medial Frontal Negativity: An ERP Study.Tobias A. Wagner-Altendorf, Carolin Gottschlich, Carina Robert, Anna Cirkel, Marcus Heldmann & Thomas F. Münte - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
  50.  22
    Systems Bioethics.Jason Scott Robert - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (4):80-82.
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