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David C. Rubin [30]Jean E. Rubin [29]Hannah Rubin [21]Richard M. Rubin [18]
Michael Rubin [16]Mark Rubin [15]Matatyahu Rubin [12]Susan B. Rubin [11]

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Richard Marc Rubin
Washington University in St. Louis
Hannah Rubin
University of Missouri, Columbia
Michael Rubin
University of Western Australia
3 more
  1. Interpersonal expectancy effects: the first 345 studies.Robert Rosenthal & Donald B. Rubin - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):377-386.
  2. Corporate Social Responsibility as a Conflict Between Shareholders.Amir Barnea & Amir Rubin - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):71 - 86.
    In recent years, firms have greatly increased the amount of resources allocated to activities classified as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). While an increase in CSR expenditure may be consistent with firm value maximization if it is a response to changes in stakeholders' preferences, we argue that a firm's insiders (managers and large blockholders) may seek to overinvest in CSR for their private benefit to the extent that doing so improves their reputations as good global citizens and has a "warm-glow" effect. (...)
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  3. The Costs of HARKing.Mark Rubin - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (2):535-560.
    Kerr coined the term ‘HARKing’ to refer to the practice of ‘hypothesizing after the results are known’. This questionable research practice has received increased attention in recent years because it is thought to have contributed to low replication rates in science. The present article discusses the concept of HARKing from a philosophical standpoint and then undertakes a critical review of Kerr’s twelve potential costs of HARKing. It is argued that these potential costs are either misconceived, misattributed to HARKing, lacking evidence, (...)
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  4. What type of Type I error? Contrasting the Neyman–Pearson and Fisherian approaches in the context of exact and direct replications.Mark Rubin - 2021 - Synthese 198 (6):5809–5834.
    The replication crisis has caused researchers to distinguish between exact replications, which duplicate all aspects of a study that could potentially affect the results, and direct replications, which duplicate only those aspects of the study that are thought to be theoretically essential to reproduce the original effect. The replication crisis has also prompted researchers to think more carefully about the possibility of making Type I errors when rejecting null hypotheses. In this context, the present article considers the utility of two (...)
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  5. Varieties of cognitive achievement.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1603-1623.
    According to robust virtue epistemology , knowledge is type-identical with a particular species of cognitive achievement. The identification itself is subject to some criticism on the grounds that it fails to account for the anti-luck features of knowledge. Although critics have largely focused on environmental luck, the fundamental philosophical problem facing RVE is that it is not clear why it should be a distinctive feature of cognitive abilities that they ordinarily produce beliefs in a way that is safe. We propose (...)
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  6. David Lewis in the lab: experimental results on the emergence of meaning.Justin Bruner, Cailin O’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):603-621.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis. We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors to transfer (...)
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  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory.Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.) - 1992 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  8.  20
    Event memory: A theory of memory for laboratory, autobiographical, and fictional events.David C. Rubin & Sharda Umanath - 2015 - Psychological Review 122 (1):1-23.
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  9. Belief without credence.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2323-2351.
    One of the deepest ideological divides in contemporary epistemology concerns the relative importance of belief versus credence. A prominent consideration in favor of credence-based epistemology is the ease with which it appears to account for rational action. In contrast, cases with risky payoff structures threaten to break the link between rational belief and rational action. This threat poses a challenge to traditional epistemology, which maintains the theoretical prominence of belief. The core problem, we suggest, is that belief may not be (...)
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  10. „The Traffic in Women “In: Rayna Reiter.Gayle Rubin - 1975 - In Rayna R. Reiter (ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women. Monthly Review Press.
     
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  11. Visuel wahrgenommene Figuren.Edgar Rubin - 1923 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 96:145-147.
     
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  12. When to adjust alpha during multiple testing: a consideration of disjunction, conjunction, and individual testing.Mark Rubin - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10969-11000.
    Scientists often adjust their significance threshold during null hypothesis significance testing in order to take into account multiple testing and multiple comparisons. This alpha adjustment has become particularly relevant in the context of the replication crisis in science. The present article considers the conditions in which this alpha adjustment is appropriate and the conditions in which it is inappropriate. A distinction is drawn between three types of multiple testing: disjunction testing, conjunction testing, and individual testing. It is argued that alpha (...)
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  13. Do p values lose their meaning in exploratory analyses? It depends how you define the familywise error rate.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:269-275.
    Several researchers have recently argued that p values lose their meaning in exploratory analyses due to an unknown inflation of the alpha level (e.g., Nosek & Lakens, 2014; Wagenmakers, 2016). For this argument to be tenable, the familywise error rate must be defined in relation to the number of hypotheses that are tested in the same study or article. Under this conceptualization, the familywise error rate is usually unknowable in exploratory analyses because it is usually unclear how many hypotheses have (...)
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  14. The structure of autobiographical memory.Martin A. Conway & David C. Rubin - 1993 - In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 103--137.
  15. Type I error rates are not usually inflated.Mark Rubin - manuscript
    The inflation of Type I error rates is thought to be one of the causes of the replication crisis. Questionable research practices such as p-hacking are thought to inflate Type I error rates above their nominal level, leading to unexpectedly high levels of false positives in the literature and, consequently, unexpectedly low replication rates. In this article, I offer an alternative view. I argue that questionable and other research practices do not usually inflate relevant Type I error rates. I begin (...)
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  16.  27
    I can see it both ways: First- and third-person visual perspectives at retrieval.Heather J. Rice & David C. Rubin - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):877-890.
    The number of studies examining visual perspective during retrieval has recently grown. However, the way in which perspective has been conceptualized differs across studies. Some studies have suggested perspective is experienced as either a first-person or a third-person perspective, whereas others have suggested both perspectives can be experienced during a single retrieval attempt. This aspect of perspective was examined across three studies, which used different measurement techniques commonly used in studies of perspective. Results suggest that individuals can experience more than (...)
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  17.  56
    Discrimination and Collaboration in Science.Hannah Rubin & Cailin O’Connor - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (3):380-402.
    We use game theoretic models to take an in-depth look at the dynamics of discrimination and academic collaboration. We find that in collaboration networks, small minority groups may be more likely to end up being discriminated against while collaborating. We also find that discrimination can lead members of different social groups to mostly collaborate with in-group members, decreasing the effective diversity of the social network. Drawing on previous work, we discuss how decreases in the diversity of scientific collaborations might negatively (...)
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  18.  99
    Total Pragmatic Encroachment and Epistemic Permissiveness.Katherine Rubin - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):12-38.
    This article explores the relationship between pragmatic encroachment and epistemic permissiveness. If the suggestion that all epistemic notions are interest-relative is viable , then it seems that a certain species of epistemic permissivism must be viable as well. For, if all epistemic notions are interest relative then, sometimes, parties in paradigmatic cases of shared evidence can be maximally rational in forming competing basic doxastic attitudes towards the same proposition. However, I argue that this total pragmatic encroachment is not tenable, and, (...)
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  19.  19
    Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-Out Rhymes.David C. Rubin - 1995 - Oxford University Press USA.
    "Dr. Rubin has brought cognitive psychology into a wholly unprecedented dialogue with studies in oral tradition. The result is a truly new perspective on memory and the processes of oral tradition." --John Miles Foley, University of Missouri.
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  20.  19
    Remembering from any angle: The flexibility of visual perspective during retrieval.Heather J. Rice & David C. Rubin - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):568-577.
    When recalling autobiographical memories, individuals often experience visual images associated with the event. These images can be constructed from two different perspectives: first person, in which the event is visualized from the viewpoint experienced at encoding, or third person, in which the event is visualized from an external vantage point. Using a novel technique to measure visual perspective, we examined where the external vantage point is situated in third-person images. Individuals in two studies were asked to recall either 10 or (...)
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  21. Pragmatic Encroachment and Belief-Desire Psychology.Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2012 - Analytic Philosophy 53 (4):327-343.
    We develop a novel challenge to pragmatic encroachment. The significance of belief-desire psychology requires treating questions about what to believe as importantly prior to questions about what to do; pragmatic encroachment undermines that priority, and therefore undermines the significance of belief-desire psychology. This, we argue, is a higher cost than has been recognized by epistemologists considering embracing pragmatic encroachment.
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  22. Synsoplevede Figurer.Edgar Rubin - 1915
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  23. “Repeated sampling from the same population?” A critique of Neyman and Pearson’s responses to Fisher.Mark Rubin - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (3):1-15.
    Fisher criticised the Neyman-Pearson approach to hypothesis testing by arguing that it relies on the assumption of “repeated sampling from the same population.” The present article considers the responses to this criticism provided by Pearson and Neyman. Pearson interpreted alpha levels in relation to imaginary replications of the original test. This interpretation is appropriate when test users are sure that their replications will be equivalent to one another. However, by definition, scientific researchers do not possess sufficient knowledge about the relevant (...)
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  24.  18
    Emotion and vantage point in autobiographical.Dorthe Berntsen & David C. Rubin - 2006 - Cognition and Emotion 20 (8):1193-1215.
  25.  25
    One hundred years of forgetting: A quantitative description of retention.David C. Rubin & Amy E. Wenzel - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (4):734-760.
  26.  11
    Rejection, rebuttal, revision: Some flexible features of peer review.Donald B. Rubin - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):236-237.
  27.  4
    Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-Out Rhymes.David C. Rubin - 1995 - Oxford University Press USA.
    "Dr. Rubin has brought cognitive psychology into a wholly unprecedented dialogue with studies in oral tradition. The result is a truly new perspective on memory and the processes of oral tradition." --John Miles Foley, University of Missouri.
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  28. When does HARKing hurt? Identifying when different types of undisclosed post hoc hypothesizing harm scientific progress.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:308-320.
    Hypothesizing after the results are known, or HARKing, occurs when researchers check their research results and then add or remove hypotheses on the basis of those results without acknowledging this process in their research report (Kerr, 1998). In the present article, I discuss three forms of HARKing: (1) using current results to construct post hoc hypotheses that are then reported as if they were a priori hypotheses; (2) retrieving hypotheses from a post hoc literature search and reporting them as a (...)
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  29. The Traffneim Raynce R・Reiter. ed.Gayle Rubin - 1975 - In Rayna R. Reiter (ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women. Monthly Review Press.
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  30.  22
    On the Consistency of Some Partition Theorems for Continuous Colorings, and the Structure of ℵ 1 -Dense Real Order Types.J. Steprans, Uri Abraham, Matatyahu Rubin & Saharon Shelah - 2002 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (2):303.
    We present some techniques in c.c.c. forcing, and apply them to prove consistency results concerning the isomorphism and embeddability relations on the family of ℵ 1 -dense sets of real numbers. In this direction we continue the work of Baumgartner [2] who proved the axiom BA stating that every two ℵ 1 -dense subsets of R are isomorphic, is consistent. We e.g. prove Con). Let K H , be the set of order types of ℵ 1 -dense homogeneous subsets of (...)
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  31.  56
    When doctors say No: the battleground of medical futility.Susan B. Rubin - 1998 - Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press.
    Who should decide? In When Doctors Say No, philosopher and bioethicist Rubin examines this controversial issue.
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  32.  26
    The Debate over Inclusive Fitness as a Debate over Methodologies.Hannah Rubin - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (1):1-30.
    This article analyzes the recent debate surrounding inclusive fitness and argues that certain limitations ascribed to it by critics—such as requiring weak selection or providing dynamically insufficient models—are better thought of as limitations of the methodological framework most often used with inclusive fitness. In support of this, I show how inclusive fitness can be used with the replicator dynamics. I conclude that much of the debate is best understood as being about the orthogonal issue of using abstract versus idealized models.
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  33. Knowledge: Value on the Cheap.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (2):249-263.
    ABSTRACT: We argue that the so-called ‘Primary’ and ‘Secondary’ Value Problems for knowledge are more easily solved than is widely appreciated. Pritchard, for instance, has suggested that only virtue-theoretic accounts have any hopes of adequately addressing these problems. By contrast, we argue that accounts of knowledge that are sensitive to the Gettier problem are able to overcome these challenges. To first approximation, the Primary Value Problem is a problem of understanding how the property of being knowledge confers more epistemic value (...)
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  34.  8
    Determination of Death by Neurologic Criteria in the United States: The Case for Revising the Uniform Determination of Death Act.Ariane Lewis, Richard J. Bonnie, Thaddeus Pope, Leon G. Epstein, David M. Greer, Matthew P. Kirschen, Michael Rubin & James A. Russell - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (S4):9-24.
    Although death by neurologic criteria is legally recognized throughout the United States, state laws and clinical practice vary concerning three key issues: the medical standards used to determine death by neurologic criteria, management of family objections before determination of death by neurologic criteria, and management of religious objections to declaration of death by neurologic criteria. The American Academy of Neurology and other medical stakeholder organizations involved in the determination of death by neurologic criteria have undertaken concerted action to address variation (...)
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  35.  27
    A memory-based model of posttraumatic stress disorder: Evaluating basic assumptions underlying the PTSD diagnosis.David C. Rubin, Dorthe Berntsen & Malene Klindt Bohni - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (4):985-1011.
  36.  28
    Do Ethical Leaders Get Ahead? Exploring Ethical Leadership and Promotability.Robert S. Rubin, Erich C. Dierdorff & Michael E. Brown - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):215-236.
    ABSTRACT:Despite sustained attention to ethical leadership in organizations, scholarship remains largely descriptive. This study employs an empirical approach to examine the consequences of ethical leadership on leader promotability. From a sample of ninety-six managers from two independent organizations, we found that ethical leaders were increasingly likely to be rated by their superior as exhibiting potential to reach senior leadership positions. However, leaders who displayed increased ethical leadership were no more likely to be viewed as promotable in the near-term compared to (...)
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  37.  24
    Metainferential Paraconsistency.Bruno Da Ré, Mariela Rubin & Paula Teijeiro - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-26.
    In this article, our aim is to take a step towards a full understanding of the notion of paraconsistency in the context of metainferential logics. Following the work initiated by Barrio et al. [2018], we will consider a metainferential logic to be paraconsistent whenever the metainferential version of Explosion is invalid. However, our contribution consists in modifying the definition of meta-Explosion by extending the standard framework and introducing a negation for inferences and metainferences. From this new perspective, Tarskian paraconsistent logics (...)
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  38.  32
    Priority and privilege in scientific discovery.Mike D. Schneider & Hannah Rubin - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 89 (C):202-211.
    The priority rule in science has been interpreted as a behavior regulator for the scientific community, which benefits society by adequately structuring the distribution of intellectual labor across pre-existing research programs. Further, it has been lauded as part of society's "grand reward scheme" because it fairly rewards people for the benefits they produce. But considerations about how news of scientific developments spreads throughout a scientific community at large suggest that the priority rule is something else entirely, which can disadvantage historically (...)
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  39. An evaluation of four solutions to the forking paths problem: Adjusted alpha, preregistration, sensitivity analyses, and abandoning the Neyman-Pearson approach.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:321-329.
    Gelman and Loken (2013, 2014) proposed that when researchers base their statistical analyses on the idiosyncratic characteristics of a specific sample (e.g., a nonlinear transformation of a variable because it is skewed), they open up alternative analysis paths in potential replications of their study that are based on different samples (i.e., no transformation of the variable because it is not skewed). These alternative analysis paths count as additional (multiple) tests and, consequently, they increase the probability of making a Type I (...)
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  40. Exploratory hypothesis tests can be more compelling than confirmatory hypothesis tests.Mark Rubin & Chris Donkin - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology.
    Preregistration has been proposed as a useful method for making a publicly verifiable distinction between confirmatory hypothesis tests, which involve planned tests of ante hoc hypotheses, and exploratory hypothesis tests, which involve unplanned tests of post hoc hypotheses. This distinction is thought to be important because it has been proposed that confirmatory hypothesis tests provide more compelling results (less uncertain, less tentative, less open to bias) than exploratory hypothesis tests. In this article, we challenge this proposition and argue that there (...)
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  41.  52
    The Communication of Corporate Social Responsibility: United States and European Union Multinational Corporations.Laura P. Hartman, Robert S. Rubin & K. Kathy Dhanda - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):373-389.
    This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) by conducting a cross-cultural analysis of communication of CSR activities in a total of 16 U.S. and European corporations. Drawing on previous research contrasting two major approaches to CSR initiatives, it was proposed that U.S. companies would tend to communicate about and justify CSR using economic or bottom-line terms and arguments whereas European companies would rely more heavily on language or theories of citizenship, corporate accountability, or moral commitment. Results supported this expectation of (...)
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  42.  45
    Vivid memories.David C. Rubin & Marc Kozin - 1984 - Cognition 16 (1):81-95.
  43.  22
    The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.Dorthe Berntsen, David C. Rubin & Sinue Salgado - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:352-372.
  44.  85
    Autobiographical memory for stressful events: The role of autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder.David C. Rubin, Michelle F. Dennis & Jean C. Beckham - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):840-856.
    To provide the three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, we compared (1) most-stressful memories to other memories and (2) involuntary to voluntary memories (3) in 75 community dwelling adults with and 42 without a current diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Each rated their three most-stressful, three most-positive, seven most-important and 15 word-cued autobiographical memories, and completed tests of personality and mood. Involuntary memories were then recorded and rated as they occurred for 2 weeks. Standard mechanisms of cognition and (...)
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  45.  18
    Scenes enable a sense of reliving: Implications for autobiographical memory.David C. Rubin, Samantha A. Deffler & Sharda Umanath - 2019 - Cognition 183:44-56.
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  46.  1
    The Robot Sol Explains Laughter to His Android Brethren.Richard Marc Rubin - 2022 - The Philosophy of Humor Yearbook 3 (1):235-252.
    Android understanding of laughter is limited even when robots have become self-motivated and understand frustration. Laughter is one of four ways to cope with upset. The others are detachment, suffering, and escape. Detachment is natural to androids as they originally had no stake in any outcome. Suffering takes two forms: grief and anger. Grief often needs to be faced before turning to other means of coping. Humor can often deflect anger by revealing it has either no basis or a common (...)
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  47. The Replication Crisis is Less of a “Crisis” in Lakatos’ Philosophy of Science.Mark Rubin - manuscript
    Popper’s (1983, 2002) philosophy of science has enjoyed something of a renaissance in the wake of the replication crisis, offering a philosophical basis for the ensuing science reform movement. However, adherence to Popper’s approach may also be at least partly responsible for the sense of “crisis” that has developed following multiple unexpected replication failures. In this article, I contrast Popper’s approach with Lakatos’ (1978) approach and a related approach called naïve methodological falsificationism (NMF; Lakatos, 1978). The Popperian approach is powerful (...)
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  48. Knowledge and the value of cognitive ability.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2013 - Synthese 190 (17):3715-3729.
    We challenge a line of thinking at the fore of recent work on epistemic value: the line (suggested by Kvanvig in The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003 and others) that if the value of knowledge is “swamped” by the value of mere true belief, then we have good reason to doubt its theoretical importance in epistemology. We offer a value-driven argument for the theoretical importance of knowledge—one that stands even if the value of knowledge is “swamped” (...)
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  49.  14
    Who should Decide for the Unrepresented?Andrew Courtwright & Emily Rubin - 2015 - Bioethics 30 (3):173-180.
    Unrepresented patients lack the capacity to make medical decisions for themselves, have no clear documentation of preferences for medical treatment, and have no surrogate decision maker or obvious candidate for that role. There is no consensus about who should serve as the decision maker for these patients, particularly regarding whether to continue or to limit life-sustaining treatment. Several authors have argued that ethics committees should play this role rather than the patient's treating physician, a common current default. We argue that (...)
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  50. Sound intuitions on Moral Twin Earth.Michael Rubin - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 139 (3):307-327.
    A number of philosophers defend naturalistic moral realism by appeal to an externalist semantics for moral predicates. The application of semantic externalism to moral predicates has been attacked by Terence Horgan and Mark Timmons in a series of papers that make use of their “ Moral Twin Earth ” thought experiment. In response, several defenders of naturalistic moral realism have claimed that the Moral Twin Earth thought experiment is misleading and yields distorted and inaccurate semantic intuitions. If they are right, (...)
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