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David C. Rubin [34]Jean E. Rubin [29]Richard M. Rubin [14]Michael Rubin [14]
Hannah Rubin [12]Matatyahu Rubin [11]Susan B. Rubin [10]Simon Shimshon Rubin [9]

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Richard Marc Rubin
Washington University in St. Louis
Michael Rubin
University of Western Australia
Hannah Rubin
University of Notre Dame
3 more
  1. Corporate Social Responsibility as a Conflict Between Shareholders.Amir Barnea & Amir Rubin - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (1):71 - 86.
    In recent years, firms have greatly increased the amount of resources allocated to activities classified as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). While an increase in CSR expenditure may be consistent with firm value maximization if it is a response to changes in stakeholders' preferences, we argue that a firm's insiders (managers and large blockholders) may seek to overinvest in CSR for their private benefit to the extent that doing so improves their reputations as good global citizens and has a "warm-glow" effect. (...)
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  2. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: The First 345 Studies.Robert Rosenthal & Donald B. Rubin - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):377-386.
  3. The Costs of HARKing.Mark Rubin - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Kerr coined the term ‘HARKing’ to refer to the practice of ‘hypothesizing after the results are known’. This questionable research practice has received increased attention in recent years because it is thought to have contributed to low replication rates in science. The present article discusses the concept of HARKing from a philosophical standpoint and then undertakes a critical review of Kerr’s twelve potential costs of HARKing. It is argued that these potential costs are either misconceived, misattributed to HARKing, lacking evidence, (...)
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  4.  79
    Do P Values Lose Their Meaning in Exploratory Analyses? It Depends How You Define the Familywise Error Rate.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:269-275.
    Several researchers have recently argued that p values lose their meaning in exploratory analyses due to an unknown inflation of the alpha level (e.g., Nosek & Lakens, 2014; Wagenmakers, 2016). For this argument to be tenable, the familywise error rate must be defined in relation to the number of hypotheses that are tested in the same study or article. Under this conceptualization, the familywise error rate is usually unknowable in exploratory analyses because it is usually unclear how many hypotheses have (...)
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  5. Belief Without Credence.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2323-2351.
    One of the deepest ideological divides in contemporary epistemology concerns the relative importance of belief versus credence. A prominent consideration in favor of credence-based epistemology is the ease with which it appears to account for rational action. In contrast, cases with risky payoff structures threaten to break the link between rational belief and rational action. This threat poses a challenge to traditional epistemology, which maintains the theoretical prominence of belief. The core problem, we suggest, is that belief may not be (...)
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  6. Non-Naturalistic Moral Explanation.Samuel Baron, Mark Colyvan, Kristie Miller & Michael Rubin - forthcoming - Synthese.
    This paper focuses on a particular kind of non-naturalism: moral non-naturalism. Our primary aim is to argue that the moral non-naturalist places herself in an invidious position if she simply accepts that the non-natural moral facts that she posits are not explanatory. This has, hitherto, been the route that moral non-naturalists have taken. They have attempted to make their position more palatable by pointing out that there is reason to be suspicious of the explanatory criterion of ontological commitment. That is (...)
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  7.  4
    Event Memory: A Theory of Memory for Laboratory, Autobiographical, and Fictional Events.David C. Rubin & Sharda Umanath - 2015 - Psychological Review 122 (1):1-23.
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  8. Varieties of Cognitive Achievement.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1603-1623.
    According to robust virtue epistemology , knowledge is type-identical with a particular species of cognitive achievement. The identification itself is subject to some criticism on the grounds that it fails to account for the anti-luck features of knowledge. Although critics have largely focused on environmental luck, the fundamental philosophical problem facing RVE is that it is not clear why it should be a distinctive feature of cognitive abilities that they ordinarily produce beliefs in a way that is safe. We propose (...)
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  9.  73
    What Type of Type I Error? Contrasting the Neyman–Pearson and Fisherian Approaches in the Context of Exact and Direct Replications.Mark Rubin - forthcoming - Synthese:1-26.
    The replication crisis has caused researchers to distinguish between exact replications, which duplicate all aspects of a study that could potentially affect the results, and direct replications, which duplicate only those aspects of the study that are thought to be theoretically essential to reproduce the original effect. The replication crisis has also prompted researchers to think more carefully about the possibility of making Type I errors when rejecting null hypotheses. In this context, the present article considers the utility of two (...)
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  10.  68
    When Does HARKing Hurt? Identifying When Different Types of Undisclosed Post Hoc Hypothesizing Harm Scientific Progress.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:308-320.
    Hypothesizing after the results are known, or HARKing, occurs when researchers check their research results and then add or remove hypotheses on the basis of those results without acknowledging this process in their research report (Kerr, 1998). In the present article, I discuss three forms of HARKing: (1) using current results to construct post hoc hypotheses that are then reported as if they were a priori hypotheses; (2) retrieving hypotheses from a post hoc literature search and reporting them as a (...)
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  11.  64
    Total Pragmatic Encroachment and Epistemic Permissiveness.Katherine Rubin - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (1):12-38.
    This article explores the relationship between pragmatic encroachment and epistemic permissiveness. If the suggestion that all epistemic notions are interest-relative is viable , then it seems that a certain species of epistemic permissivism must be viable as well. For, if all epistemic notions are interest relative then, sometimes, parties in paradigmatic cases of shared evidence can be maximally rational in forming competing basic doxastic attitudes towards the same proposition. However, I argue that this total pragmatic encroachment is not tenable, and, (...)
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  12. Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory.Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.) - 1992 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  13. Should Environmental Ethicists Fear Moral Anti-Realism?Anne Schwenkenbecher & Michael Rubin - 2019 - Environmental Values 28 (4):405-427.
    Environmental ethicists have been arguing for decades that swift action to protect our natural environment is morally paramount, and that our concern for the environment should go beyond its importance for human welfare. It might be thought that the widespread acceptance of moral anti-realism would undermine the aims of environmental ethicists. One reason is that recent empirical studies purport to show that moral realists are more likely to act on the basis of their ethical convictions than anti-realists. In addition, it (...)
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  14. David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning.Justin Bruner, Cailin O’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):603-621.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis. We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors to transfer (...)
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  15.  96
    The Structure of Autobiographical Memory.Martin A. Conway & David C. Rubin - 1993 - In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 103--137.
  16.  17
    I Can See It Both Ways: First- and Third-Person Visual Perspectives at Retrieval.Heather J. Rice & David C. Rubin - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):877-890.
    The number of studies examining visual perspective during retrieval has recently grown. However, the way in which perspective has been conceptualized differs across studies. Some studies have suggested perspective is experienced as either a first-person or a third-person perspective, whereas others have suggested both perspectives can be experienced during a single retrieval attempt. This aspect of perspective was examined across three studies, which used different measurement techniques commonly used in studies of perspective. Results suggest that individuals can experience more than (...)
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  17. Knowledge and the Value of Cognitive Ability.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2013 - Synthese 190 (17):3715-3729.
    We challenge a line of thinking at the fore of recent work on epistemic value: the line (suggested by Kvanvig in The value of knowledge and the pursuit of understanding, 2003 and others) that if the value of knowledge is “swamped” by the value of mere true belief, then we have good reason to doubt its theoretical importance in epistemology. We offer a value-driven argument for the theoretical importance of knowledge—one that stands even if the value of knowledge is “swamped” (...)
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  18.  7
    Belief Without Credence.Katherine Rubin, Benjamin Jarvis & J. Adam Carter - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8):2323-2351.
    One of the deepest ideological divides in contemporary epistemology concerns the relative importance of belief versus credence. A prominent consideration in favor of credence-based epistemology is the ease with which it appears to account for rational action. In contrast, cases with risky payoff structures threaten to break the link between rational belief and rational action. This threat poses a challenge to traditional epistemology, which maintains the theoretical prominence of belief. The core problem, we suggest, is that belief may not be (...)
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  19. Knowledge: Value on the Cheap.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2013 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (2):249-263.
    ABSTRACT: We argue that the so-called ‘Primary’ and ‘Secondary’ Value Problems for knowledge are more easily solved than is widely appreciated. Pritchard, for instance, has suggested that only virtue-theoretic accounts have any hopes of adequately addressing these problems. By contrast, we argue that accounts of knowledge that are sensitive to the Gettier problem are able to overcome these challenges. To first approximation, the Primary Value Problem is a problem of understanding how the property of being knowledge confers more epistemic value (...)
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  20.  31
    Discrimination and Collaboration in Science.Hannah Rubin & Cailin O’Connor - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (3):380-402.
    We use game theoretic models to take an in-depth look at the dynamics of discrimination and academic collaboration. We find that in collaboration networks, small minority groups may be more likely to end up being discriminated against while collaborating. We also find that discrimination can lead members of different social groups to mostly collaborate with in-group members, decreasing the effective diversity of the social network. Drawing on previous work, we discuss how decreases in the diversity of scientific collaborations might negatively (...)
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  21. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicine Through Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge.Daniel L. Rubin, Suzanna E. Lewis, Chris J. Mungall, Misra Sima, Westerfield Monte, Ashburner Michael, Christopher G. Chute, Ida Sim, Harold Solbrig, M. A. Storey, Barry Smith, John D. Richter, Natasha Noy & Mark A. Musen - 2006 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 10 (2):185-198.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create (...)
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  22.  18
    Does Ethical Leadership Make a Difference? Exploring Leader and Follower Consequences of Ethical Leader Behavior.Robert S. Rubin, Erich C. Dierdorff & Michael E. Brown - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):215-235.
    Despite sustained attention to ethical leadership in organizations, scholarship remains largely descriptive. This study employs an empirical approach to examine the consequences of ethical leadership on leader promotability. From a sample of ninety-six managers from two independent organizations, we found that ethical leaders were increasingly likely to be rated by their superior as exhibiting potential to reach senior leadership positions. However, leaders who displayed increased ethical leadership were no more likely to be viewed as promotable in the near-term compared to (...)
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  23.  56
    An Evaluation of Four Solutions to the Forking Paths Problem: Adjusted Alpha, Preregistration, Sensitivity Analyses, and Abandoning the Neyman-Pearson Approach.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:321-329.
    Gelman and Loken (2013, 2014) proposed that when researchers base their statistical analyses on the idiosyncratic characteristics of a specific sample (e.g., a nonlinear transformation of a variable because it is skewed), they open up alternative analysis paths in potential replications of their study that are based on different samples (i.e., no transformation of the variable because it is not skewed). These alternative analysis paths count as additional (multiple) tests and, consequently, they increase the probability of making a Type I (...)
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  24.  14
    Emotion and Vantage Point in Autobiographical.Dorthe Berntsen & David C. Rubin - 2006 - Cognition and Emotion 20 (8):1193-1215.
  25.  10
    Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Properties of Voluntary and Involuntary, Traumatic and Nontraumatic Autobiographical Memories in People with and Without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.David C. Rubin, Adriel Boals & Dorthe Berntsen - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (4):591-614.
  26. „The Traffic in Women “In: Rayna Reiter.Gayle Rubin - 1975 - In Rayna R. Reiter (ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women. Monthly Review Press.
     
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  27.  13
    A Memory-Based Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evaluating Basic Assumptions Underlying the PTSD Diagnosis.David C. Rubin, Dorthe Berntsen & Malene Klindt Bohni - 2008 - Psychological Review 115 (4):985-1011.
  28.  18
    Remembering From Any Angle: The Flexibility of Visual Perspective During Retrieval.Heather J. Rice & David C. Rubin - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):568-577.
    When recalling autobiographical memories, individuals often experience visual images associated with the event. These images can be constructed from two different perspectives: first person, in which the event is visualized from the viewpoint experienced at encoding, or third person, in which the event is visualized from an external vantage point. Using a novel technique to measure visual perspective, we examined where the external vantage point is situated in third-person images. Individuals in two studies were asked to recall either 10 or (...)
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  29.  18
    On the Consistency of Some Partition Theorems for Continuous Colorings, and the Structure of ℵ 1 -Dense Real Order Types.J. Steprans, Uri Abraham, Matatyahu Rubin & Saharon Shelah - 2002 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 8 (2):303.
    We present some techniques in c.c.c. forcing, and apply them to prove consistency results concerning the isomorphism and embeddability relations on the family of ℵ 1 -dense sets of real numbers. In this direction we continue the work of Baumgartner [2] who proved the axiom BA stating that every two ℵ 1 -dense subsets of R are isomorphic, is consistent. We e.g. prove Con). Let K H , be the set of order types of ℵ 1 -dense homogeneous subsets of (...)
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  30.  43
    The Communication of Corporate Social Responsibility: United States and European Union Multinational Corporations.Laura P. Hartman, Robert S. Rubin & K. Kathy Dhanda - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (4):373-389.
    This study explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) by conducting a cross-cultural analysis of communication of CSR activities in a total of 16 U.S. and European corporations. Drawing on previous research contrasting two major approaches to CSR initiatives, it was proposed that U.S. companies would tend to communicate about and justify CSR using economic or bottom-line terms and arguments whereas European companies would rely more heavily on language or theories of citizenship, corporate accountability, or moral commitment. Results supported this expectation of (...)
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  31. Pragmatic Encroachment and Belief-Desire Psychology.Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa, Benjamin Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2012 - Analytic Philosophy 53 (4):327-343.
    We develop a novel challenge to pragmatic encroachment. The significance of belief-desire psychology requires treating questions about what to believe as importantly prior to questions about what to do; pragmatic encroachment undermines that priority, and therefore undermines the significance of belief-desire psychology. This, we argue, is a higher cost than has been recognized by epistemologists considering embracing pragmatic encroachment.
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  32. Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-Out Rhymes.David C. Rubin - 1995 - Oxford University Press USA.
    "Dr. Rubin has brought cognitive psychology into a wholly unprecedented dialogue with studies in oral tradition. The result is a truly new perspective on memory and the processes of oral tradition." --John Miles Foley, University of Missouri.
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  33.  17
    Schema-Driven Construction of Future Autobiographical Traumatic Events: The Future is Much More Troubling Than the Past.David C. Rubin - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (2):612-630.
  34.  51
    When Doctors Say No: The Battleground of Medical Futility.Susan B. Rubin - 1998 - Indiana University Press.
    Who should decide? In When Doctors Say No, philosopher and bioethicist Rubin examines this controversial issue.
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  35.  14
    One Hundred Years of Forgetting: A Quantitative Description of Retention.David C. Rubin & Amy E. Wenzel - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (4):734-760.
  36. Sound Intuitions on Moral Twin Earth.Michael Rubin - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 139 (3):307-327.
    A number of philosophers defend naturalistic moral realism by appeal to an externalist semantics for moral predicates. The application of semantic externalism to moral predicates has been attacked by Terence Horgan and Mark Timmons in a series of papers that make use of their “ Moral Twin Earth ” thought experiment. In response, several defenders of naturalistic moral realism have claimed that the Moral Twin Earth thought experiment is misleading and yields distorted and inaccurate semantic intuitions. If they are right, (...)
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  37.  11
    Priority and Privilege in Scientific Discovery.Mike D. Schneider & Hannah Rubin - unknown
    The priority rule in science has been interpreted as a behavior regulator for the scientific community, which benefits society by adequately structuring the distribution of intellectual labor across pre-existing research programs. Further, it has been lauded as part of society's "grand reward scheme" because it fairly rewards people for the benefits they produce. But considerations about how news of scientific developments spreads throughout a scientific community at large suggest that the priority rule is something else entirely, which can disadvantage historically (...)
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  38.  69
    Autobiographical Memory for Stressful Events: The Role of Autobiographical Memory in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.David C. Rubin, Michelle F. Dennis & Jean C. Beckham - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):840-856.
    To provide the three-way comparisons needed to test existing theories, we compared (1) most-stressful memories to other memories and (2) involuntary to voluntary memories (3) in 75 community dwelling adults with and 42 without a current diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Each rated their three most-stressful, three most-positive, seven most-important and 15 word-cued autobiographical memories, and completed tests of personality and mood. Involuntary memories were then recorded and rated as they occurred for 2 weeks. Standard mechanisms of cognition and (...)
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  39. Memory in Oral Traditions: The Cognitive Psychology of Epic, Ballads, and Counting-Out Rhymes.David C. Rubin - 1998 - Oxford University Press USA.
    "Dr. Rubin has brought cognitive psychology into a wholly unprecedented dialogue with studies in oral tradition. The result is a truly new perspective on memory and the processes of oral tradition." --John Miles Foley, University of Missouri.
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  40.  12
    Who Should Decide for the Unrepresented?Andrew Courtwright & Emily Rubin - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (3):173-180.
    Unrepresented patients lack the capacity to make medical decisions for themselves, have no clear documentation of preferences for medical treatment, and have no surrogate decision maker or obvious candidate for that role. There is no consensus about who should serve as the decision maker for these patients, particularly regarding whether to continue or to limit life-sustaining treatment. Several authors have argued that ethics committees should play this role rather than the patient's treating physician, a common current default. We argue that (...)
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  41.  9
    Rejection, Rebuttal, Revision: Some Flexible Features of Peer Review.Donald B. Rubin - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):236-237.
  42. On the Emergence of Minority Disadvantage: Testing the Cultural Red King Hypothesis.Aydin Mohseni, Cailin O'Connor & Hannah Rubin - forthcoming - Synthese.
    The study of social justice asks: what sorts of social arrangements are equitable ones? But also: how do we derive the inequitable arrangements we often observe in human societies? In particular, in spite of explicitly stated equity norms, categorical inequity tends to be the rule rather than the excep- tion. The cultural Red King hypothesis predicts that differentials in group size may lead to inequitable outcomes for minority groups even in the absence of explicit or implicit bias. We test this (...)
     
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  43.  19
    The Role of the Hippocampus in Flexible Cognition and Social Behavior.Rachael D. Rubin, Patrick D. Watson, Melissa C. Duff & Neal J. Cohen - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  44.  11
    Positive Emotions Enhance Recall of Peripheral Details.Jennifer M. Talarico, Dorthe Berntsen & David C. Rubin - 2009 - Cognition and Emotion 23 (2):380-398.
  45.  34
    Inclusive Fitness and the Problem of Honest Communication.Justin P. Bruner & Hannah Rubin - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):115-137.
    Inclusive fitness has been under intense scrutiny in recent years, with many critics claiming the framework leads to incorrect predictions. We consider one particularly influential heuristic for estimating inclusive fitness in the context of the very case that motivated reliance on it to begin with: the Sir Philip Sidney signalling game played with relatives. Using a neighbour-modulated fitness model, we show when and why this heuristic is problematic. We argue that reliance on the heuristic rests on a misunderstanding of what (...)
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  46.  9
    What Keeps Cells in Tissues Behaving Normally in the Face of Myriad Mutations?Harry Rubin - 2006 - Bioessays 28 (5):515-524.
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  47.  39
    Social Contexts Influence Ethical Considerations of Research.Robert J. Levine, Carolyn M. Mazure, Philip E. Rubin, Barry R. Schaller, John L. Young & Judith B. Gordon - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (5):24-30.
    This article argues that we could improve the design of research protocols by developing an awareness of and a responsiveness to the social contexts of all the actors in the research enterprise, including subjects, investigators, sponsors, and members of the community in which the research will be conducted. ?Social context? refers to the settings in which the actors are situated, including, but not limited to, their social, economic, political, cultural, and technological features. The utility of thinking about social contexts is (...)
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  48.  34
    Automata Presenting Structures: A Survey of the Finite String Case.Sasha Rubin - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (2):169-209.
    A structure has a (finite-string) automatic presentation if the elements of its domain can be named by finite strings in such a way that the coded domain and the coded atomic operations are recognised by synchronous multitape automata. Consequently, every structure with an automatic presentation has a decidable first-order theory. The problems surveyed here include the classification of classes of structures with automatic presentations, the complexity of the isomorphism problem, and the relationship between definability and recognisability.
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  49.  11
    From the Cellular Standpoint: Is DNA Sequence Genetic ‘Information’?Steven S. D. C. Rubin - 2017 - Biosemiotics 10 (2):247-264.
    Constructivist biosemiotics foundations imply the first-person basis of cognition. CBF are developed by the biology of cognition, relational biology, enactive approach, ecology of mind, second order cybernetics, genetic epistemology, gestalt, ecological perception and affordances, and active inference by minimization of free energy. CBF reject the idea of an objective independent reality to be represented by information processing in order to be the fittest. CBF assumes that perception is the behavioral configuration of an object and objects are tokens for eigen-behaviors. Cognition (...)
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  50.  8
    Against a Metaphysical Understanding of Rejection.Mariela Rubin & Ariel Roffé - 2018 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 22 (1):189-202.
    In this article, we defend that incorporating a rejection operator into a paraconsistent language involves fully specifying its inferential characteristics within the logic. To do this, we examine a recent proposal by Berto for a paraconsistent rejection, which — according to him — avoids paradox, even when introduced into a language that contains self-reference and a transparent truth predicate. We will show that this proposal is inadequate because it is too incomplete. We argue that the reason it avoids trouble is (...)
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