Results for 'TOP'

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  1.  6
    The Chief Officer of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of Its Presence in Top Management Teams[REVIEW]Robert Strand - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):721-734.
    I present a review of the top management teams (TMTs) of the largest public corporations in the U.S. and Scandinavia (one thousand in total) to identify (...)corporations that have a TMT position withcorporate social responsibility” (CSR) or aCSR synonymlike sustainability or citizenship explicitly included in the position title. Through this I present three key findings. First, I establish that a number of CSR TMT positions exist and I list all identified corporations and associated position titles. Second, I show that Scandinavian corporations are significantly more likely than U.S. corporations to have such CSR TMT positions. This finding serves as evidence that the U.S. may have been surpassed by a subset of Europe, i.e., Scandinavia, in at least one relevant measure of explicit CSR, whereby this study may serve witness to a noteworthy juncture post Matten and Moons (Academy of Management Review, 33(2):404424, 2008) “Implicit & Explicit CSRarticle. And third, I show that corporations with a CSR TMT position are three times more likely to be included in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) than corporations with none. A range of further research opportunities stemming from these findings include exploring whether explicit attention to CSR by the corporation is indicative of a longer term trend that has to do with attention to responsible business and whether a move away from the expressionCSRtoward the expressionsustainabilityis underway and what this may entail. (shrink)
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  2.  97
    The Impact of Top Management Support for Strategic Planning on Crisis Management: Case Study on UNRWA-Gaza Strip.Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Youssef M. Abu Amuna & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Research and Development 1 (10):20-25.
    The study aims to analyze the impact of top management support for strategic planning on crisis management in UNRWA-Gaza Strip field in Palestine. Several descriptive analytical (...)methods were used for this purpose, and a survey as a tool for data collection. Community size was (881), and the study sample was stratified random (268). The overall findings of the current study show that top management provides needed HR for strategic planning but with no financial support. Also there are shortcomings in the way that organization manages the crises before and after they occur. A crisis management is only practicing during the crisis. The study suggest that top management must provide the financial support for strategic planning, periodic meetings to prepare how to deal with potential crisis in the future, establishing a specialized team and provide them with all sources needed. (shrink)
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  3.  11
    Is Tone at the Top Associated with Financial Reporting Aggressiveness?Lorenzo Patelli & Matteo Pedrini - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):3-19.
    The discussion about the relationship between tone at the top and financial reporting practices has been primarily focused on the oversight role played by the board of (...)
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  4.  11
    Whether Top Executives' Turnover Influences Environmental Responsibility: From the Perspective of Environmental Information Disclosure[REVIEW]X. H. Meng, S. X. Zeng, C. M. Tam & X. D. Xu - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):341-353.
    We have empirically examined the relationship between top executivesturnover and the corporate environmental responsibility by identifying the influence of ten specific turnover reasons resulting in the (...)
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  5.  56
    How to (and How Not to) Think About Top-Down Influences on Visual Perception.Christoph Teufel & Bence Nanay - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 47.
    The question of whether cognition can influence perception has a long history in neuroscience and philosophy. Here, we outline a novel approach to this issue, arguing that (...)
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  6.  19
    Value Congruence and Charismatic Leadership in CEOTop Manager Relationships: An Empirical Investigation[REVIEW]Sefa Hayibor, Bradley R. Agle, Greg J. Sears, Jeffrey A. Sonnenfeld & Andrew Ward - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2):237-254.
    Although charismatic leadership theorists have long argued that leaderfollower value congruence plays a central role in the development of charismatic relationships, few studies have tested this (...)proposition. Using data from two studies involving a total of 329 CEOs and 1807 members of their top management teams, we tested the hypothesis that value congruence between leaders and their followers is empirically linked to follower perceptions of the charisma of their leader. Consistent with a relational perspective on charismatic leadership, strong support was found for the hypothesis that perceived value congruence between leaders (CEOs) and their followers (members of their top management teams) is positively related to follower perceptions of the degree of charisma possessed by the leader. Conversely, only limited support was found for the hypothesis that actual value congruence is linked to perceptions of charismatic leadership. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. (shrink)
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  7.  20
    Measuring and Differentiating Perceptions of Supervisor and Top Leader Ethics.Janet L. Kottke & Kathie L. Pelletier - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (3):415-428.
    We report the results of two studies that evaluated the perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. In our first study, we re-analyzed data from Pelletier (...)and Bligh (J Bus Ethics 67:359374, 2006) and found that the Perceptions of Ethical Leadership Scale from that study could be used to differentiate perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. In a second study with a different sample, we examined the relationships between (1) individual employeesperceptions of top managersand immediate supervisorsethical tendencies, and (2) organizational climate, confidence in top leadership direction, commitment, and citizenship behavior. Results indicated that employee perceptions of top managersand supervisorsethics were significantly related to climate, top leadership direction, organizational commitment and the OCB dimension, civic virtue. (shrink)
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  8.  4
    The Influence of Regulatory Approach on Tone at the Top.Bradley Lail, Jason MacGregor, Martin Stuebs & Timothy Thomasson - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):25-37.
    We discuss how the approach taken by regulators to address financial reporting issues has a significant influence on tone at the top. While tone must ultimately be (...)
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  9.  29
    What Catatonia Can Tell Us AboutTop-Down Modulation”: A Neuropsychiatric Hypothesis.Georg Northoff - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):555-577.
    Differential diagnosis of motor symptoms, for example, akinesia, may be difficult in clinical neuropsychiatry. Symptoms may be either of neurologic origin, for example, Parkinson's disease, or (...)of psychiatric origin, for example, catatonia, leading to a so-calledconflict of paradigms.” Despite their different origins, symptoms may appear more or less clinically similar. Possibility of dissociation between origin and clinical appearance may reflect functional brain organisation in general, and cortical-cortical/subcortical relations in particular. It is therefore hypothesized that similarities and differences between Parkinson's disease and catatonia may be accounted for by distinct kinds of modulation between cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical relations. Catatonia can be characterized by concurrent motor, emotional, and behavioural symptoms. The different symptoms may be accounted for by dysfunction in orbitofrontal-prefrontal/parietal cortical connectivity reflectinghorizontal modulationof cortico-cortical relation. Furthermore, alteration intop-down modulationreflectingvertical modulationof caudate and other basal ganglia by GABA-ergic mediated orbitofrontal cortical deficits may account for motor symptoms in catatonia. Parkinson's disease, in contrast, can be characterized by predominant motor symptoms. Motor symptoms may be accounted for by alteredbottom-up modulationbetween dopaminergic mediated deficits in striatum and premotor/motor cortex. Clinical similarities between Parkinson's disease and catatonia with respect to akinesia may be related with involvement of the basal ganglia in both disorders. Clinical differences with respect to emotional and behavioural symptoms may be related with involvement of different cortical areas, that is, orbitofrontal/parietal and premotor/motor cortex implying distinct kinds of modulation – “verticalandhorizontalmodulation, respectively. Key Words: Bottom-up modulation; catatonia; horizontal modulation; Parkinson's disease; top-down modulation; vertical modulation. (shrink)
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  10.  17
    How Focused Are the World's Top-Rated Business Schools on Educating Women for Global Management?Kevin Ibeh, Sara Carter, Deborah Poff & Jim Hamill - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):65 - 83.
    Persuaded by the observed positive link between the flow of appropriately skilled and trained female talent and female presence at the upper echelons of management (Plitch, Dow (...)
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  11.  19
    Common Characterizations of the Untrapped Set and the Top Cycle.Nicolas Houy - 2011 - Theory and Decision 70 (4):501-509.
    We give some characterizations for both the untrapped set and the top cycle choice functions. We link these characterizations with the well-known characterization of the maximal (...)elements choice function. Our characterizations strongly rely on the notion oftwo-tier domination”. (shrink)
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  12.  5
    The Financial Impact of ISO 14001 Certification: Top-Line, Bottom-Line, or Both?Pieter Jong, Antony Paulraj & Constantin Blome - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (1):131-149.
    It is not easy being green, but it does beg the question: Does being green pay off on the bottom-line? Unfortunately, that question of becoming ISO (...)14001 to reap financial benefit remains widely unanswered. In particular, corporate practice is interested in how environmental management impacts firmsfinance through top-line impact, bottom-line impact, or bothas this paves the way for an investment of environmental management. As current findings are mixed, our study tracks financial performance of publicly traded US firms between 1996 and 2005 to test whether ISO 14001 leads to improved financial performance. Employing a rigorous event-study approach, we compare certified firms to different control groups based on several matching criteria that include industry, size, and/or ROA. In the short run, ISO 14001 certification makes only a minor impact on the bottom-line, according to our results. However, these same results show a significant financial improvement over the long haul with ISO 14001 certification. Additionally, this long-term improvement also makes a significant improvement in top-line performance. Thus, we conclude that environmental management pays off along both dimensions. (shrink)
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  13. Reduced Amygdala Response in Youths With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Psychopathic Traits: Decreased Emotional Response Versus Increased Top-Down Attention to Nonemotional Features.Stuart F. White, Abigail A. Marsh, Katherine A. Fowler, Julia C. Schechter, Christopher Adalio, Kayla Pope, Stephen Sinclair, Daniel S. Pine & R. James R. Blair - 2012 - American Journal of Psychiatry 169 (7):750-758.
    Youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala responses to fearful expressions under low attentional load but no indications of increased recruitment of regions (...)
     
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  14. Top-Down Causation Without Top-Down Causes.Carl F. Craver & William Bechtel - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (4):547-563.
    We argue that intelligible appeals to interlevel causes (top-down and bottom-up) can be understood, without remainder, as appeals to mechanistically mediated effects. Mechanistically mediated effects are (...) hybrids of causal and constitutive relations, where the causal relations are exclusively intralevel. The idea of causation would have to stretch to the breaking point to accommodate interlevel causes. The notion of a mechanistically mediated effect is preferable because it can do all of the required work without appealing to mysterious interlevel causes. When interlevel causes can be translated into mechanistically mediated effects, the posited relationship is intelligible and should raise no special philosophical objections. When they cannot, they are suspect. (shrink)
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  15. Top-Down Attention and Consciousness: Comment on Cohen, Et.Al.Naotsuga Tsuchiya, Ned Block & Christof Koch - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (11):527.
  16.  4
    Networks and Causation Top-Down.Gennaro Auletta - 2016 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 72 (1):171-180.
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  17.  10
    Does Collectivism Affect Environmental Ethics? A Multi-Level Study of Top Management Teams From Chemical Firms in China.Xinran Wang & Michael N. Young - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (3):387-394.
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  18. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Influences on Observation: Evidence From Cognitive Psychology and the History of Science. In A. Raftopoulos (Ed.), Cognitive Penetrability of Perception: Attention, Action, Strategies, and Bottom-Up Constraints.(Pp. 31-47).William F. Brewer & Lester Loschky (eds.) - 2004 - Nova Science Publishers.
  19.  89
    Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Attentional Control: a Failed Theoretical Dichotomy.Edward Awh, Artem V. Belopolsky & Jan Theeuwes - 2012 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (8):437.
    Prominent models of attentional control assert a dichotomy between top-down and bottom-up control, with the former determined by current selection goals and the latter determined by (...) physical salience. This theoretical dichotomy, however, fails to explain a growing number of cases in which neither current goals nor physical salience can account for strong selection biases. For example, equally salient stimuli associated with reward can capture attention, even when this contradicts current selection goals. Thus, although 'top-down' sources of bias are sometimes defined as those that are not due to physical salience, this conception conflates distinct - and sometimes contradictory - sources of selection bias. We describe an alternative framework, in which past selection history is integrated with current goals and physical salience to shape an integrated priority map. (shrink)
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  20.  62
    Sustainability Practices and Corporate Financial Performance: A Study Based on the Top Global Corporations[REVIEW]Rashid Ameer & Radiah Othman - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (1):61-79.
    Sustainability is concerned with the impact of present actions on the ecosystems, societies, and environments of the future. Such concerns should be reflected in the strategic planning (...)
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  21.  28
    Job Satisfaction as a Function of Top Management Support for Ethical Behavior: A Study of Indian Managers[REVIEW]Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Satish P. Deshpande & Jacob Joseph - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (4):365 - 371.
    Based on organizational justice theories and cognitive dissonance theories, the authors hypothesized that: (a) perceived top management support for ethical behaviors will be positively correlated with all (...)
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  22.  16
    Improving the "Leader-Follower" Relationship: Top Manager or Supervisor? The Ethical Leadership Trickle-Down Effect on Follower Job Response[REVIEW]Pablo Ruiz, Carmen Ruiz & Ricardo Martínez - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):587 - 608.
    Since time immemorial, the phenomenon of leadership and its understanding has attracted the attention of the business world because of its important role in human groups. Nevertheless, (...)
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  23.  57
    Tone at the Top: An Ethics Code for Directors?Mark S. Schwartz, Thomas W. Dunfee & Michael J. Kline - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 58 (1-3):79-100.
    . Recent corporate scandals have focused the attention of a broad set of constituencies on reforming corporate governance. Boards of directors play a leading role in corporate governance (...) and any significant reforms must encompass their role. To date, most reform proposals have targeted the legal, rather than the ethical obligations of directors. Legal reforms without proper attention to ethical obligations will likely prove ineffectual. The ethical role of directors is critical. Directors have overall responsibility for the ethics and compliance programs of the corporation. The tone at the top that they set by example and action is central to the overall ethical environment of their firms. This role is reinforced by their legal responsibilities to provide oversight of the financial performance of the firm. Underlying this analysis is the critical assumption that ethical behavior, especially on the part of corporate leaders, leads to the best long-term interests of the corporation. We describe key components of a framework for a code of ethics for corporate boards and individual directors. The proposed code framework is based on six universal core ethical values: (1) honesty; (2) integrity; (3) loyalty; (4) responsibility; (5) fairness; and (6) citizenship. The paper concludes by suggesting critical issues that need to be dealt with in firm-based codes of ethics for directors. (shrink)
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  24.  10
    Top Management Ethical Leadership and Firm Performance: Mediating Role of Ethical and Procedural Justice Climate.Yuhyung Shin, Sun Young Sung, Jin Nam Choi & Min Soo Kim - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (1):43-57.
    Despite the prevailing discourses on the importance of top management ethical leadership, related theoretical and empirical developments are lacking. Drawing on institutional theory, we propose that top (...)
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  25.  34
    Ethical Problems in Public Accounting: The View From the Top[REVIEW]Don W. Finn, Lawrence B. Chonko & Shelby D. Hunt - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (8):605 - 615.
    The authors empirically examine the nature and extent of ethical problems confronting senior level AICPA members (CPAs) and examine the effectiveness of partner actions and codes of (...)
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  26. Conscious Unity From the Top Down: A Brentanian Approach.Anna Giustina - 2017 - The Monist 100 (1):16-37.
    The question of the unity of consciousness is often treated as the question of how different conscious experiences are related to each other in order to be (...)
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  27.  90
    Processing Narrative Coherence: Towards a Top-Down Model of Discourse.Erica Cosentino, Ines Adornetti & Francesco Ferretti - 2013 - Open Access Series in Informatics (OASICS) 32:61-75.
    Models of discourse and narration elaborated within the classical compositional framework have been characterized as bottom-up models, according to which discourse analysis proceeds incrementally, from phrase (...)and sentence local meaning to discourse global meaning. In this paper we will argue against these models. Assuming as a case study the issue of discourse coherence, we suggest that the assessment of coherence is a top-down process, in which the construction of a situational interpretation at the global meaning level guides local meaning analysis. In support of our hypothesis, we explore the role of executive functions (brain functions involved in planning and organization of goal-oriented behaviors) in coherences establishment, discussing the results of several studies on narrative abilities of patients with brain injuries. We suggest that, compared to other models of discourse processing focused on comprehension, our model is a viable candidate for an integrated account of discourse comprehension and production. (shrink)
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  28.  7
    What's at the Top in the Top-Down Control of Action? Script-Sharing and 'Top-Top' Control of Action in Cognitive Experiments.Andreas Roepstorff & Chris Frith - 2004 - Psychological Research 68 (2-3):189--198.
    The distinction between bottom-up and top-down control of action has been central in cognitive psychology, and, subsequently, in functional neuroimaging. While the model has proven successful (...) in describing central mechanisms in cognitive experiments, it has serious shortcomings in explaining how top-down control is established. In particular, questions as to what is at the top in top-down control lead us to a controlling homunculus located in a mythical brain region with outputs and no inputs. Based on a discussion of recent brain imaging experiments, we argue for the need to factor the interaction between the experimenter and the experimental participant into a realistic understanding of top-down control. We suggest these interactions involve asharing of scriptsfor perception and action that may be described astop-top processes.’ We thereby expand the understanding of the homunculus to include elements of social cognition. This conceptual reconfiguration may grant some sort of asylum for anot very omnipotenthomunculus. (shrink)
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  29.  11
    Supervising Unethical Sales Force Behavior: How Strong Is the Tendency to Treat Top Sales Performers Leniently[REVIEW]Joseph A. Bellizzi & Ronald W. Hasty - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):337 - 351.
    Findings from prior research show that there is a general tendency to discipline top sales performers more leniently than poor sales performers for engaging in identical forms (...)
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  30.  29
    Ethics From the Top: Top Management and Ethical Business.Doris Schroeder - 2002 - Business Ethics 11 (3):260–267.
    Codes of ethics and conduct typically demand the highest standard of ethical behaviour from every single employee. This implies a democratic or lobbyist understanding of ethics in (...)
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  31.  24
    Ethics, CSR, and Sustainability Education in the Financial Times Top 50 Global Business Schools: Baseline Data and Future Research Directions.Lisa Jones Christensen, Ellen Peirce, Laura P. Hartman, W. Michael Hoffman & Jamie Carrier - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 73 (4):347-368.
    This paper investigates how deans and directors at the top 50 global MBA programs (as rated by the "Financial Times" in their 2006 Global MBA rankings) respond (...)
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  32.  69
    Constructing the Context Through Goals and Schemata: Top-Down Processes in Comprehension and Beyond.Marco Mazzone - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 1 (13).
    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top- (...)down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunkshere calledschemata”—at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict a likely context for the original item. Since each input activates its own schemata, conflicting schemata compete with (and inhibit) each other, while multiple activations of a schema raise its likelihood to win the competition. There is therefore a double movementwith bottom-up activation of schemata enabling top-down prediction of other contextual componentstriggered by multiple sources. Another claim of the paper is that goals are represented by schemata placed at the highest-levels of the executive hierarchy, in accordance with Fusters model of the brain as a hierarchically organized perception action cycle. This account can be considered, in part at least, a development of ideas contained in Relevance Theory, though it may imply that some other claims of the theory are in need of revision. Therefore, a secondary purpose of the paper is a contribution to the analysis of that theory. (shrink)
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  33. Distinguishing Top-Down From Bottom-Up Effects.Nicholas Shea - 2015 - In D. Stokes, M. Matthen & S. Biggs (eds.), Perception and Its Modalities. Oxford University Press. pp. 73-91.
    The distinction between top-down and bottom-up effects is widely relied on in experimental psychology. However, there is an important problem with the way it is normally (...) defined. Top-down effects are effects of previously-stored information on processing the current input. But on the face of it that includes the information that is implicit in the operation of any psychological processin its dispositions to transition from some types of representational state to others. This paper suggests a way to distinguish information stored in that way from the kind of influence of prior information that psychologists are concerned to classify as a top-down effect. So-drawn, the distinction is not just of service to theoretical psychology. Asking about the extent of top-down processing is one way to pose some of the questions at issue in philosophical debates about cognitive penetrabilityabout the extent of the influence of cognitive states on perception. The existence of a theoretically-useful perception-cognition distinction has come under pressure, but even if it has to be abandoned, some of the concerns addressed in the cognitive penetrability literature can be recaptured by asking about the extent of top-down influences on any given psychological process. That formulation is more general, since it can be applied to any psychological process, not just those that are paradigmatically perceptual. (shrink)
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  34.  56
    Machine Morality: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches for Modelling Human Moral Faculties[REVIEW]Wendell Wallach, Colin Allen & Iva Smit - 2007 - AI and Society 22 (4):565-582.
    The implementation of moral decision making abilities in artificial intelligence (AI) is a natural and necessary extension to the social mechanisms of autonomous software agents and robots. (...)
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  35.  6
    Monads at the Bottom, Monads at the Top, Monads All Over.Nachtomy Ohad - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-11.
    This paper examines a widely accepted reading of monads as the most fundamental elements of reality. Garber [LeibnizBody, Substance, Monad, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009] argues (...) that simple monadsseen as mind-like atoms without parts and extensionreplace the corporeal substance of Leibnizs middle period. Phemister [Leibniz and the Natural WorldActivity, Passivity and Corporeal Substances in Leibnizs Philosophy, Dordrecht: Springer, 2005] argues that monads figure also at the top as complete corporeal substances. Building on Fichant [‘Linvention métaphysiquein G.W. Leibniz, Discours de métaphysique suivi de Monadologie et autres textes, edited by Michel Fichant, Paris: Gallimard, 2004], I argue that, for Leibniz, monads function not only as building blocks at the bottom level of composition but also at the top, as grounding the unity and hence the being of complete substances and organic unities. Since organic unities or living beings are seen by Leibniz as natural machines with a nested structure, and since monads are likened to living beings, this would imply that the use of the conceptmonadholds not only at the bottom, and not only at the top, but all over the range between them. (shrink)
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  36.  23
    Exploring Top Management Language for Signals of Possible Deception: The Words of Satyam's Chair Ramalinga Raju[REVIEW]Russell Craig, Tony Mortensen & Shefali Iyer - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):333-347.
    This paper explores the potential for systematic scrutiny of the language of top management to reveal signals of possible deceptive conduct. The language used in letters signed (...)
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  37.  42
    Why Firms Engage in Corruption: A Top Management Perspective.Jamie D. Collins, Klaus Uhlenbruck & Peter Rodriguez - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):89-108.
    This study builds upon the top management literature to predict and test antecedents to firmsengagement in corruption. Building on a survey of 341 executives in India, (...)
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  38.  23
    Phenomenology Without Conscious Access is a Form of Consciousness Without Top-Down Attention.Christof Koch & Naotsugu Tsuchiya - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):509-510.
    We agree with Block's basic hypothesis postulating the existence of phenomenal consciousness without cognitive access. We explain such states in terms of consciousness without top-down, endogenous (...) attention and speculate that their correlates may be a coalition of neurons that are consigned to the back of cortex, without access to working memory and planning in frontal cortex. (shrink)
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  39.  20
    Top 10 Health Care Ethics Challenges Facing the Public: Views of Toronto Bioethicists[REVIEW]Jonathan Breslin, Susan MacRae, Jennifer Bell & Peter Singer - 2005 - BMC Medical Ethics 6 (1):1-8.
    Background There are numerous ethical challenges that can impact patients and families in the health care setting. This paper reports on the results of a study conducted (...)
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  40.  13
    Developmental Ascendency: From Bottom-Up to Top-Down Control.James A. Coffman - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (2):165-178.
    Development is a process whereby a relatively unspecified system comprised of loosely connected lower level parts becomes organized into a coherent, higher-level agency. Its temporal corollaries (...)are growth, increasingly deterministic behavior, and a progressive reduction of developmental potential. During immature stages with relatively low specification and high potential, development is largely controlled by local interactions from thebottom-up,” whereas during more highly specified stages with reduced potential, emergent autocatalytic processes exerttop-downcontrol. Robert Ulanowicz has shown that this phenomenology of ascendency follows thermodynamic principles and can be described quantitatively using information theory, providing a general theory of development. However, the theory has not found a wide audience among developmental biologists, as genetic determinism encourages the popular reductionistic perception that ontogeny is controlled entirely by molecular mechanisms that exert efficient causality from the bottom-up. Nonetheless, measurements of metabolic rates and mRNA complexity in developing embryos, as well as functional analyses of gene regulatory systems, indicate that ontogeny fits the paradigm of developmental ascendency. Beyond informing biomedical research and the interpretation of large datasets obtained by systems-biological approaches, developmental ascendency helps explain the origin of life, and, being independent of scale, provides an overarching explanation for phylogenetic change that contextualizes Darwinian evolution. (shrink)
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  41.  8
    Organizational Governance and the Production of Academic Quality: Lessons From Two Top U.S. Research Universities.Jean-Claude Thoenig & Catherine Paradeise - 2014 - Minerva 52 (4):381-417.
    Does organizational governance contribute to academic quality? Two top research universities are observed in-depth: Berkeley and the MIT. Three key factors are listed that help generate (...)consistent and lasting high performance. Priority is allocated to self-evaluation and to the development of talent. Values and norms such as community membership, commitment to the affectio societatis, mutual respect and trust strongly regulate the behaviors of the faculty. Complex inner organizational processes are at work making integration and differentiation compatible. Each of these factors contributes to produce top academic quality in a synergetic way. (shrink)
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  42.  24
    Contrasting Corporate Profiles: Women and Minority Representation in Top Management Positions.Gerald E. Fryxell & Linda D. Lerner - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):341 - 352.
    This paper investigates the characteristics of firms which have underrepresented groups in top management positions and those which do not. It is argued that profiles of these (...)
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  43.  49
    Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Learning in Cognitive Skill Acquisition.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper explores the interaction between implicit and explicit processes during skill learning, in terms of top-down learning (that is, learning that goes from explicit to (...)implicit knowledge) versus bottom-up learning (that is, learning that goes from implicit to explicit knowledge). Instead of studying each type of knowledge (implicit or explicit) in isolation, we stress the interaction between the two types, especially in terms of one type giving rise to the other, and its effects on learning. The work presents an integrated model of skill learning that takes into account both implicit and explicit processes and both top-down and bottom-up learning. We examine and simulate human data in the Tower of Hanoi task. The paper shows how the quantitative data in this task may be captured using either top-down or bottom-up approaches, although top-down learning is a more apt explanation of the human data currently available. These results illustrate the two different directions of learning (top-down versus bottom-up), and thereby provide a new perspective on skill learning. Ó 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. (shrink)
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  44.  21
    Supervising the Unethical Selling Behavior of Top Sales Performers: Assessing the Impact of Social Desirability Bias.Joseph A. Bellizzi & Terry Bristol - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):377-388.
    . This study measures social desirability bias (SD bias) by comparing the level of discipline sales managers believe they would administer when supervising unethical selling behavior with the (...) level of discipline they perceive other sales managers would select. Results indicate the presence of SD bias; the sales manager respondents consistently claimed that they would be stricter while their peers would be more lenient. Using an analytical technique that takes social desirability bias into account, it appears that sales managers use of discipline is affected by the sales performance of the salesperson being disciplined resulting in more lenient discipline for top sales performers. In addition, the more lenient treatment for top sales performers persists even when there is a pattern of a prior ethical infraction and the existence of an explicit organizational policy proscribing the act in question. Sales managers believe that, like themselves, others would be stricter when an unethical act is committed for the second time but not as strict as they personally would be. A within-subjects interaction effect indicates more SD bias under the condition of the unethical act being committed for the second time. (shrink)
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  45. Nominal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.Maria Bittner - manuscript
    So far, we have focused on discourse reference to atomic individuals and specific times, events, and states. The basic point of the argument was that all types (...)
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  46.  17
    Emerging Technologies and Ethics: A Race-to-the-Bottom or the Top[REVIEW]Raul Gouvea, Jonathan D. Linton, Manuel Montoya & Steven T. Walsh - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):553-567.
    Does national success with an emerging technology require ethical sacrifices? This question is considered through the simultaneous consideration of ethics, investment, and outcomes in the nine jurisdictions (...)
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  47.  79
    Unified Spin Gauge Model and the Top Quark Mass.J. S. R. Chisholm & R. S. Farwell - 1995 - Foundations of Physics 25 (10):1511-1522.
    Spin gauge models use a real Clifford algebraic structure Rp,q associated with a real manifold of dimension p + q to describe the fundamental interactions of elementary (...)
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    Top Executive Compensation: Equity or Excess? Implications for Regaining American Competitiveness[REVIEW]Bruce Walters, Tim Hardin & James Schick - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (3):227 - 234.
    The debate over compensation packages for top executives is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the decoupling of CEO pay and organizational performance. A contrast is drawn (...)
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  49.  71
    Remarks on the Magnetic Top.Akira Inomata, Georg Junker & Claudia Rosch - 1998 - Foundations of Physics 28 (5):729-739.
    We revisit via a path-integral approach the magnetic top proposed recently by Barut, Božić, and Marić. We point out that the magnetic top has the SU(2 (...)) symmetry and that it can be viewed as a free top seen from a rotating frame. We present an alternative path-integral quantization of the magnetic top on the basis of the symmetry, and show that the magnetic coupling does not participate in altering the spin quantum numbers. (shrink)
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    Gattungen der Prädikate und Gattungen des Seienden bei Aristoteles. Zum Verhältnis von Kat. 4 und Top. I 9.Theodor Ebert - 1985 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 67 (2):113-138.
    The paper starts from a distinction between two terms in Aristotle: kategoroumenon and kategoria. It is argued that the job of the first is to pick out (...)
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