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Alan R. White [198]John White [129]Stephen K. White [93]F. C. White [77]
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Hayden White
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (PhD)
Graham White
Queen Mary University of London
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  1. The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis.Lynn White Jr - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, Belmont: Wadsworth Company.
     
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  2. Epistemic Permissiveness.Roger White - 2005 - Philosophical Perspectives 19 (1):445–459.
    A rational person doesn’t believe just anything. There are limits on what it is rational to believe. How wide are these limits? That’s the main question that interests me here. But a secondary question immediately arises: What factors impose these limits? A first stab is to say that one’s evidence determines what it is epistemically permissible for one to believe. Many will claim that there are further, non-evidentiary factors relevant to the epistemic rationality of belief. I will be ignoring the (...)
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  3. Problems for Dogmatism.Roger White - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 131 (3):525-557.
    I argue that its appearing to you that P does not provide justification for believing that P unless you have independent justification for the denial of skeptical alternatives – hypotheses incompatible with P but such that if they were true, it would still appear to you that P. Thus I challenge the popular view of ‘dogmatism,’ according to which for some contents P, you need only lack reason to suspect that skeptical alternatives are true, in order for an experience as (...)
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  4. You Just Believe That Because….Roger White - 2010 - Philosophical Perspectives 24 (1):573-615.
    I believe that Tom is the proud father of a baby boy. Why do I think his child is a boy? A natural answer might be that I remember that his name is ‘Owen’ which is usually a boy’s name. Here I’ve given information that might be part of a causal explanation of my believing that Tom’s baby is a boy. I do have such a memory and it is largely what sustains my conviction. But I haven’t given you just (...)
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  5. Evidential Symmetry and Mushy Credence.Roger White - 2009 - In T. Szabo Gendler & J. Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 161-186.
    the symmetry of our evidential situation. If our confidence is best modeled by a standard probability function this means that we are to distribute our subjective probability or credence sharply and evenly over possibilities among which our evidence does not discriminate. Once thought to be the central principle of probabilistic reasoning by great..
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  6.  24
    Intersectionality in Clinical Medicine: The Need for a Conceptual Framework.Yolonda Wilson, Amina White, Akilah Jefferson & Marion Danis - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (2):8-19.
    Intersectionality has become a significant intellectual approach for those thinking about the ways that race, gender, and other social identities converge in order to create unique forms of oppression. Although the initial work on intersectionality addressed the unique position of black women relative to both black men and white women, the concept has since been expanded to address a range of social identities. Here we consider how to apply some of the theoretical tools provided by intersectionality to the clinical context. (...)
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  7.  9
    Eliminating Categorical Exclusion Criteria in Crisis Standards of Care Frameworks.Catherine L. Auriemma, Ashli M. Molinero, Amy J. Houtrow, Govind Persad, Douglas B. White & Scott D. Halpern - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):28-36.
    During public health crises including the COVID-19 pandemic, resource scarcity and contagion risks may require health systems to shift—to some degree—from a usual clinical ethic, focused on the wel...
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  8.  46
    How to Overcome Lockdown: Selective Isolation Vs. Contact Tracing.Lucie White & Philippe van Basshuysen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:1-2.
    At this stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, two policy aims are imperative: avoiding the need for a general lockdown of the population, with all its economic, social and health costs, and preventing the healthcare system from being overwhelmed by the unchecked spread of infection. Achieving these two aims requires the consideration of unpalatable measures. Julian Savulescu and James Cameron argue that mandatory isolation of the elderly is justified under these circumstances, as they are at increased risk of becoming severely ill (...)
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  9. Evidence Cannot Be Permissive.Roger White - 2013 - In Matthias Steup & John Turri (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology. Blackwell. pp. 312.
  10.  17
    Were the “Pioneer” Clinical Ethics Consultants “Outsiders”? For Them, Was “Critical Distance” That Critical?Bruce D. White, Wayne N. Shelton & Cassandra J. Rivais - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (6):34-44.
    “Clinical ethics consultants” have been practicing in the United States for about 50 years. Most of the earliest consultants—the “pioneers”—were “outsiders” when they first appeared at patients' bedsides and in the clinic. However, if they were outsiders initially, they acclimated to the clinical setting and became “insiders” very quickly. Moreover, there was some tension between traditional academics and those doing applied ethics about whether there was sufficient “critical distance” for appropriate reflection about the complex medical ethics dilemmas of the day (...)
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  11.  22
    Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism.Marion Danis, Yolonda Wilson & Amina White - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (4):3-12.
    The problems of racism and racially motivated violence in predominantly African American communities in the United States are complex, multifactorial, and historically rooted. While these problems are also deeply morally troubling, bioethicists have not contributed substantially to addressing them. Concern for justice has been one of the core commitments of bioethics. For this and other reasons, bioethicists should contribute to addressing these problems. We consider how bioethicists can offer meaningful contributions to the public discourse, research, teaching, training, policy development, and (...)
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  12. Why General Education? Peters, Hirst and History.John White - 2009 - Philosophy of Education 43 (Supplement s1):123-141.
    Richard Peters argued for a general education based largely on the study of truth-seeking subjects for its own sake. His arguments have long been acknowledged as problematic. There are also difficulties with Paul Hirst's arguments for a liberal education, which in part overlap with Peters'. Where justification fails, can historical explanation illuminate? Peters was influenced by the prevailing idea that a secondary education should be based on traditional, largely knowledge-orientated subjects, pursued for intrinsic as well as practical ends. Does history (...)
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  13. Evidential Symmetry and Mushy Credence.Roger White - 2010 - Oxford Studies in Epistemology 3.
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  14.  11
    Taking Rights Seriously.Alan R. White - 1977 - Philosophical Quarterly 27 (109):379-380.
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  15. Crash Algorithms for Autonomous Cars: How the Trolley Problem Can Move Us Beyond Harm Minimisation.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2018 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 21 (3):685-698.
    The prospective introduction of autonomous cars into public traffic raises the question of how such systems should behave when an accident is inevitable. Due to concerns with self-interest and liberal legitimacy that have become paramount in the emerging debate, a contractarian framework seems to provide a particularly attractive means of approaching this problem. We examine one such attempt, which derives a harm minimisation rule from the assumptions of rational self-interest and ignorance of one’s position in a future accident. We contend, (...)
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  16. Neurosurgery for Psychopaths? An Ethical Analysis.Dietmar Hübner & Lucie White - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (3):140-149.
    Recent developments in neuroscience have inspired proposals to perform deep brain stimulation on psychopathic detainees. We contend that these proposals cannot meet important ethical requirements that hold for both medical research and therapy. After providing a rough overview of key aspects of psychopathy and the prospects of tackling this condition via deep brain stimulation, we proceed to an ethical assessment of such measures, referring closely to the distinctive features of psychopathic personality, particularly the absence of subjective suffering and a lack (...)
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  17. On Treating Oneself and Others as Thermometers.Roger White - 2009 - Episteme 6 (3):233-250.
    I treat you as a thermometer when I use your belief states as more or less reliable indicators of the facts. Should I treat myself in a parallel way? Should I think of the outputs of my faculties and yours as like the readings of two thermometers the way a third party would? I explore some of the difficulties in answering these questions. If I am to treat myself as well as others as thermometers in this way, it would appear (...)
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  18.  42
    Knowledge and Belief: An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions.Alan R. White - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 15 (60):268.
  19.  20
    Freedom and Belief.Stephen L. White - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (1):119.
  20.  88
    Towards a Philosophy of Academic Publishing.Michael A. Peters, Petar Jandrić, Ruth Irwin, Kirsten Locke, Nesta Devine, Richard Heraud, Andrew Gibbons, Tina Besley, Jayne White, Daniella Forster, Liz Jackson, Elizabeth Grierson, Carl Mika, Georgina Stewart, Marek Tesar, Susanne Brighouse, Sonja Arndt, George Lazaroiu, Ramona Mihaila, Catherine Legg & Leon Benade - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (14):1401-1425.
    This article is concerned with developing a philosophical approach to a number of significant changes to academic publishing, and specifically the global journal knowledge system wrought by a range of new digital technologies that herald the third age of the journal as an electronic, interactive and mixed-media form of scientific communication. The paper emerges from an Editors' Collective, a small New Zealand-based organisation comprised of editors and reviewers of academic journals mostly in the fields of education and philosophy. The paper (...)
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  21.  21
    Structuring a Written Examination to Assess ASBH Health Care Ethics Consultation Core Knowledge Competencies.Bruce D. White, Jane B. Jankowski & Wayne N. Shelton - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (1):5-17.
    As clinical ethics consultants move toward professionalization, the process of certifying individual consultants or accrediting programs will be discussed and debated. With certification, some entity must be established or ordained to oversee the standards and procedures. If the process evolves like other professions, it seems plausible that it will eventually include a written examination to evaluate the core knowledge competencies that individual practitioners should possess to meet peer practice standards. The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has published core knowledge (...)
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  22. How Autonomy Can Legitimate Beneficial Coercion.Lucie White - 2017 - In Jakov Gather, Tanja Henking, Alexa Nossek & Jochen Vollmann (eds.), Beneficial Coercion in Psychiatry? Foundations and Challenges. Münster: Mentis. pp. 85-99.
    Respect for autonomy and beneficence are frequently regarded as the two essential principles of medical ethics, and the potential for these two principles to come into conflict is often emphasised as a fundamental problem. On the one hand, we have the value of beneficence, the driving force of medicine, which demands that medical professionals act to protect or promote the wellbeing of patients or research subjects. On the other, we have a principle of respect for autonomy, which demands that we (...)
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  23. The Causal Theory of Perception.H. P. Grice & Alan R. White - 1961 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 35 (1):121-168.
  24. How Can Beliefs Wrong?: A Strawsonian Epistemology.Berislav Marušić & Stephen White - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (1):97-114.
    We take a tremendous interest in how other people think of us. We have certain expectations of others, concerning how we are to figure in their thought and judgment. And we often feel wronged if those are disappointed. But it is puzzling how others’ beliefs could wrong us. On the one hand, moral considerations don’t bear on the truth of a belief and so seem to be the wrong kind of reasons for belief. On the other hand, truth-directed considerations seem (...)
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  25. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe.Hayden V. White - 1973 - Johns Hopkins.
     
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  26. Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence.Robert W. White - 1959 - Psychological Review 66 (5):297-333.
  27. Explanation as a Guide to Induction.Roger White - 2005 - Philosophers' Imprint 5:1-29.
    It is notoriously difficult to spell out the norms of inductive reasoning in a neat set of rules. I explore the idea that explanatory considerations are the key to sorting out the good inductive inferences from the bad. After defending the crucial explanatory virtue of stability, I apply this approach to a range of inductive inferences, puzzles, and principles such as the Raven and Grue problems, and the significance of varied data and random sampling.
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  28.  25
    On Treating Oneself and Others as Thermometers.Roger White - 2009 - Episteme 6 (3):233-250.
    I treat you as a thermometer when I use your belief states as more or less reliable indicators of the facts. Should I treat myself in a parallel way? Should I think of the outputs of my faculties and yours as like the readings of two thermometers the way a third party would? I explore some of the difficulties in answering these questions. If I am to treat myself as well as others as thermometers in this way, it would appear (...)
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  29.  59
    The Civic Minimum: On the Rights and Obligations of Economic Citizenship.Stuart White (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    In this highly relevant and important contribution to the debate on the future of the welfare state, Stuart White reconsiders the principles of economic citizenship appropriate to a democratic society, and explores the radical implications of these principles for public policy.
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  30. Fine-Tuning and Multiple Universes.Roger White - 2000 - Noûs 34 (2):260–276.
    ports the thesis that there exist very many universes. The view has found favor with a number of philosophers such as Derek Parfit ~1998!, J. J. C. Smart ~1989! and Peter van Inwagen ~1993!.1 My purpose is to argue that this is a mistake. First let me set out the issue in more detail.
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  31. Illusory Intelligences?John White - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (3-4):611-630.
    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical perspective. This is provided in the second section, which explores how the theory came to take shape in the course of Gardner's intellectual development. (...)
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  32. Placebo Theory, Research , and Mechanisms.Leonard White, Bernard Tursky & Gary E. Schwartz - 1985
     
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  33.  14
    The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis. White, Jr & Lynn - 1967 - Science 155 (3767):1203--1207.
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  34.  10
    A Systematic Review Into the Psychological Causes and Correlates of Plagiarism.Simon A. Moss, Barbara White & Jim Lee - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (4):261-283.
    Interventions that are designed to stem plagiarism do not always override the motivation of individuals to cheat and, therefore, may not diminish misconduct. To inform more effective approaches, we conducted a systematic review to clarify the psychological causes of plagiarism. This review of 83 empirical papers showed that a specific blend of circumstances may foster plagiarism: an emphasis on competition and success rather than development and cooperation coupled with impaired resilience, limited confidence, impulsive tendencies, and biased cognitions. Fortunately, whenever students (...)
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  35.  32
    Transmission Failures.Stephen White - 2017 - Ethics 127 (3):719-732.
    According to a natural view of instrumental normativity, if you ought to do X, and doing Y is a necessary means for you to do X, then you ought to do Y. In “Instrumental Normativity: In Defense of the Transmission Principle,” Benjamin Kiesewetter defends this principle against certain actualist-inspired counterexamples. In this article I argue that Kiesewetter’s defense of the transmission principle fails. His arguments rely on certain principles—Joint Satisfiability and Reason Transmission--which we should not accept in the unqualified forms (...)
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  36.  17
    Is Conscious Perception a Series of Discrete Temporal Frames?Peter A. White - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 60:98-126.
  37. Exploring Well-Being in Schools: A Guide to Making Children's Lives More Fulfilling.John White - 2011 - Routledge.
     
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  38.  18
    The Authority of Law.Alan R. White & J. Raz - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (120):278.
  39. Oxford Studies in Epistemology.Roger White - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
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  40. The Content of the Form.Hayden V. White - 1987 - Johns Hopkins.
     
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  41.  14
    Doctors’ Perceptions of How Resource Limitations Relate to Futility in End-of-Life Decision Making: A Qualitative Analysis.Eliana Close, Ben P. White, Lindy Willmott, Cindy Gallois, Malcolm Parker, Nicholas Graves & Sarah Winch - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (6):373-379.
    ObjectiveTo increase knowledge of how doctors perceive futile treatments and scarcity of resources at the end of life. In particular, their perceptions about whether and how resource limitations influence end-of-life decision making. This study builds on previous work that found some doctors include resource limitations in their understanding of the concept of futility.SettingThree tertiary hospitals in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia.DesignQualitative study using in-depth, semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Ninety-six doctors were interviewed in 11 medical specialties. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using thematic (...)
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  42. In Defense of Dolphins: The New Moral Frontier.Thomas White - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Have humans been sharing the planet with other intelligent life for millions of years without realizing it? _In Defense of Dolphins_ combines accessible science and philosophy, surveying the latest research on dolphin intelligence and social behavior, to advocate for their ethical treatment. Encourages a reassessment of the human-dolphin relationship, arguing for an end to the inhuman treatment of dolphins Written by an expert philosopher with almost twenty-years of experience studying dolphins Combines up-to-date research supporting the sophisticated cognitive and emotional capacities (...)
     
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  43.  6
    Shame and Necessity.Nicholas White & Bernard Williams - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy 91 (11):619.
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  44.  10
    Respecting Disability Rights — Toward Improved Crisis Standards of Care.Michelle M. Mello, Govind Persad & Douglas B. White - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine:DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2011997.
    We propose six guideposts that states and hospitals should follow to respect disability rights when designing policies for the allocation of scarce, lifesaving medical treatments. Four relate to criteria for decisions. First, do not use categorical exclusions, especially ones based on disability or diagnosis. Second, do not use perceived quality of life. Third, use hospital survival and near-term prognosis (e.g., death expected within a few years despite treatment) but not long-term life expectancy. Fourth, when patients who use ventilators in their (...)
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  45. The Generalized Sleeping Beauty Problem: A Challenge for Thirders.Roger White - 2006 - Analysis 66 (2):114–119.
  46.  6
    Reasons Doctors Provide Futile Treatment at the End of Life: A Qualitative Study.Lindy Willmott, Benjamin White, Cindy Gallois, Malcolm Parker, Nicholas Graves, Sarah Winch, Leonie Kaye Callaway, Nicole Shepherd & Eliana Close - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):496-503.
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  47. Conservation Laws and Interactionist Dualism.Ben White - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):387–405.
    The Exclusion Argument for physicalism maintains that since (1) every physical effect has a sufficient physical cause, and (2) cases of causal overdetermination are rare, it follows that if (3) mental events cause physical events as frequently as they seem to, then (4) mental events must be physical in nature. In defence of (1), it is sometimes said that (1) is supported if not entailed by conservation laws. Against this, I argue that conservation laws do not lend sufficient support to (...)
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  48.  11
    The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy.Nicholas P. White - 1986 - Ethics 99 (1):136-146.
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  49. Political Theory, Social Science, and Real Politics.Adam Swift & Stuart White - 2008 - In David Leopold & Marc Stears (eds.), Political Theory: Methods and Approaches. Oxford University Press.
  50.  5
    The Ethos of a Late-Modern Citizen.Stephen K. White - 2009 - Harvard University Press.
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