Imagining super rich women in the real and fictional world has long been a struggle. Those few depictions that do exist are scattered across time periods and literary genres, reflecting the legal restrictions that, at different points in time, would not allow women to accumulate assets independent of the patriarchal forces in their lives. The scarcity of extremely wealthy women in literature and film is confirmed by Forbes magazine’s list of the fifteen richest fictional characters that (...) features forty different fictional men and only nine women, with never more than two female characters nominated in a single year. This article explores the depiction of three exceptionally wealthy women: Cruella de Vil in The Hundred and One Dalmatians by Dodie Smith, Miss Havisham in Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, and the figure of the stepmother in various adaptations of “Cinderella.” I demonstrate how the protagonists’ wealth allows them to manipulate others and disconnect themselves from patriarchal and societal expectations. Further, I argue that these affluent antagonists are “rogued” by their respective narratives, highlighting their perceived anti-feminine and emasculating behaviour resulting in a mode of narration that greedily gazes at and shames their appearances and supposed unattractiveness. While this genealogy of rich rogues reiterates the narrow scope of imagining wealthy women on the page and on the screen, there are moments in the narratives that disrupt stereotypical depictions of these wealthy characters who defy the labels imposed on them. (shrink)
In this article we attempt to reduce the confusion surrounding the concepts of "sex" and "gender" in the literature of "Women in Corporate Management." We contend that the incorrect usage of these concepts not only creates confusion in the literature, but also casts a shadow over the research findings in this area. We offer specific recommendations for authors as means to reduce the confusion in future research.
The concept of entrepreneurship is widely studied and acknowledged. Over the past three decades, scholarly interest in the field of women entrepreneurship has been expanded. The phenomena of women entrepreneurship are moving towards being more specific for researcher. The purpose of this study is to collate and present a detailed analysis of literature on women entrepreneurs. The paper uses qualitative methodology that is systematic literature review SLR approach in order to critically determine and explore (...) class='Hi'>women entrepreneurs for both emerging and developed market from January 2009 to December 2018 based on five dimensions, i.e. challenges, skills, stereotypes, motivations, and financial stability. This review paper concentrates on studies published in master journal list. The study summarizes the findings of 73 articles out of these all articles, 36 articles were on emerging market and remaining 37 articles were on developed market. Findings of the study suggest that women in developing countries should focus more on consistency in their efforts when they embark on the journey of business, as the challenges and stereotypes are usually manageable. The study provides comparative overview of women entrepreneurship. It brings together coherent research literature on women entrepreneurship from multiple dimensions and thus creates a concise body to knowledge. (shrink)
Very little research into women farmers in developed countries has been produced by economists, but much of what has been studied by scholars in other disciplines has economic implications. This article reviews such research produced by scholars in all disciplines to explore to what extent women farmers are becoming more equal to men farmers and to suggest further contributions to the literature. As examples, topics that has been widely researched in developing countries but have received almost no (...) attention in developed countries include comparisons of men and women farmers’ productivity and their access to and use of resources. Discoveries in these and other areas will be important not only for their insights into the agricultural industry in developed countries, but also because they will inform, and be informed by, research on women farmers in developing countries. (shrink)
“It is important to stress that a variety of positions with respect to feminism, nation, religion and identity are to be found in Anglophone Arab women’s writings. This being the case, it is doubtful whether, in discussing this literary production, much mileage is to be extracted from over emphasis of the notion of its being a conduit of ‘Third World subaltern women.’” Building on Geoffrey Nash’s statement and reflecting on Deleuze and Guattari’s conceptualization of minor literature and (...) Gloria Anzaldua’s Borderland, we will discuss in this paper how the writings of Arab Anglophone women are specific minor and borderland narratives within minor literature through a tentative localization of Arab women’s English literature into distinct and various categories. By referring to various bestselling English works produced by Arab British and Arab American women authors, our aim is to establish a new taxonomy that may fit the specificity of these works. (shrink)
This article is an attempt to examine the significance of folk literature which embodies the history, tradition and culture; implies a socio-cultural corpus specific to a particular ethnic group, and includes folk-behavior or the study of the specific customs and beliefs of a given social group and folk life or the study of folk-traditions. The folk literature of Sindh, like all other folk literature is the result of an interaction of cultural, geographical and religious factors that offers (...) valuable historical evidence of cultural influence. Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai is a celebrated Sufi poet, philosopher and social reformist, who employed folklore as a major segment in his poetry. The collection of Bhitai’s poetry which mostly comprised of the folklore is titled Shah Jo Risalo. This paper deals with a socio-cultural analysis of the folklore as a source for providing an image of the woman in the society. The Sindhi folklore also depicts an interesting picture of the prevailing customs and traditions. This article deals with a critical approach in order to reveal some historical truth in this regard. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to examine, comparatively, women’s place within the political systems of Plato, Aristotle and Hegel from a brief sketch of their conceptions about human nature and feminine nature. It will be intended to indicate to what extent there is a relation, sometimes of tension, sometimes of complementarity, in the way descriptive and prescriptive elements function to circumscribe the space of women from the household private sphere, from Aristotelian and Hegelian perspectives, and how the (...) subordination of descriptive elements to prescriptive elements allow woman to ascend in the public sphere under the Platonic perspective. After tracing this sketch, it will be suggested how this tension, in the political philosophy of Hegel, will result, in a way, in an explicit denial of women's political rights and, in another way, in the possibility of envisioning civil and political equality between men and women from an internal and inherent device of the Hegelian system, the notion of “second nature” as ethical reposition of the natural. (shrink)
Although there are many, mostly male, contemporary writers in Brazil whose narratives of urban violence and social inequality implicitly reflect the impact and legacy of slavery on contemporary society, it is interesting that this shameful period, and shockingly brutal events which seem to prove wrong the myths of gentle colonization and harmonious racial democracy, should be chosen as subject matter by four women writers. While very different novels, Adriana Lisboa’s Os Fios da Memória [The Threads of Memory], Conceição Evaristo's (...) Ponciá Vicêncio, Ana Maria Gonçalves's Um Defeito de Cor [A Defect in Colour] and Tatiana Salem Levy's Paraíso [Paradise] all deal frankly with the horrors of slavery and its aftermaths from the point of view of the most vulnerable member of colonial society: the enslaved African woman. This article analyses the ways in which these writers claim justice for their characters and remind readers that those excluded from official histories had names, faces and voices. (shrink)