This article argues that the discovery of unconscious elements grounding consciousness and its formation processes has favored since Kant a critical vision of the sense of history and a new comprehension of the role of mythology for human consciousnes. The study of this critical movement of reason begins 1) with some discoveries in German Classical Philosophy about the pressupositions of consciousness, which led the subsequent thought 2) to understand history as a “fall”. Schelling’s analysis of the landmarks of the past (...) – ruins, megaliths, archaic texts – shows thus historical consciousness grounded on an immemorial past from which it frees itself by a revelation. 3) The discussion of mythology as an essential phemomenon for historical consciousness leads, according to Schelling, to a litteral or “tautegorical” interpretation of myths, and 4) to an essentially mythological conception of language and meaning in general. 5) Schelling conceptions are then compared with some philosophical thought about history in the 20th century, viz. Husserl’s thesis about the relation between history and consciousness and 6) Adorno and Horkheimer’s thought about the relation between myth and Aufklärung. As a conclusion, 7) Schelling’s idea of a philosophy of identity is compared with Adorno’s conception of the non-identical, specially regarding the comprehension of historical time and its birth, and the European consciousness of colonization and violence. (shrink)
First of all coexistence describes the peculiarity of the act of the human being. It is a necessary notion to explain the duality of human transcendentals. The article examines the access to God through human dualities according to the thought of L. Polo. It also shows how the intratinitare essence of God is not wholly alien to this philosophical approach: and in this respect it goes beyond cosmologic-metaphysical proof.
The notion of open system has proven useful in its aplication to the living and allows a greater focus on its unity and the resourcefulness of the first operation. From another point of view, this can be complemented with the internal teleology of living organisms, which Polo puts in accordance with other modalities of intrinsical causality. This meaning of living finality exhaust the self-controlled activity in te sensible life, while in the human life it affects only his essence, dependent on (...) the actus essendi. (shrink)
Alejandro Tiana Ferrer es catedrático de historia de los Sistemas Educativos de la UNED. Ha ocupado entre otros cargos los de director del Centro de Investigación y Documentación Educativa (CIDE), creador y primer director del Instituto Nacional de Evaluación Educativa (INCE), presidente de la Asociación Internacional para la Evaluación del Rendimiento Educativo (IEA) y, hasta hace unos meses, Secretario General de Educación del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, donde ha diseñado y empezado a implementar una nueva ley de educación. (...) Es pues, la persona más adecuada para hablar de evaluaciones internacionales y sistemas educativos. Porque tiene una visión global y rigurosa de la educación en el mundo, una experiencia en primera persona, desde la toma de decisiones, de la realidad del sistema educativo español y un conocimiento profundo, desde dentro de las instituciones, de lo que son las evaluaciones internacionales y cuál es su sentido para mejorar la educación. (shrink)
Although it is commonly believed that the concept of brain death was developed to benefit organ transplants, it evolved independently. Transplantation owed its development to advances in surgery and immunosuppressive treatment; BD owed its origin to the development of intensive care. The first autotransplant was achieved in the early 1900s, when studies of increased intracranial pressure causing respiratory arrest with preserved heartbeat were reported. Between 1902 and 1950, the BD concept was supported by the discovery of EEG, Crile’s definition of (...) death, the use of EEG to demonstrate abolition of brain potentials after ischaemia, and Crafoord’s statement that death was due to cessation of blood flow. Transplantation saw the first xenotransplant in humans and the first unsuccessful kidney transplant from a cadaver. In the 1950s, circulatory arrest in coma was identified by angiography, and the death of the nervous system and coma dépassé were described. Murray performed the first successful kidney transplant. In the 1960s, the BD concept and organ transplants were instantly linked when the first kidney transplant using a brain-dead donor was performed; Schwab proposed to use EEG in BD; the Harvard Committee report and the Sydney Declaration appeared; the first successful kidney, lung and pancreas transplants using cadaveric donors were achieved; Barnard performed the first human heart transplant. This historical review demonstrates that the BD concept and organ transplantation arose separately and advanced in parallel, and only began to progress together in the late 1960s. Therefore, the BD concept did not evolve to benefit transplantation. (shrink)
On 5 August 1968, publication of the Harvard Committee’s report on the subject of “irreversible coma” established a standard for diagnosing death on neurological grounds. On the same day, the 22nd World Medical Assembly met in Sydney, Australia, and announced the Declaration of Sydney, a pronouncement on death, which is less often quoted because it was overshadowed by the impact of the Harvard Report. To put those events into present-day perspective, the authors reviewed all papers published on this subject and (...) the World Medical Association web page and documents, and corresponded with Dr A G Romualdez, the son of Dr A Z Romualdez. There was vast neurological expertise among some of the Harvard Committee members, leading to a comprehensible and practical clinical description of the brain death syndrome and the way to diagnose it. This landmark account had a global medical and social impact on the issue of human death, which simultaneously lessened reception of the Declaration of Sydney. Nonetheless, the Declaration of Sydney faced the main conceptual and philosophical issues on human death in a bold and forthright manner. This statement differentiated the meaning of death at the cellular and tissue levels from the death of the person. This was a pioneering view on the discussion of human death, published as early as in 1968, that should be recognised by current and future generations. (shrink)
Presentamos algunas ideas de autores medievales acerca de las oraciones cuyo sujeto carece de referente, y si dichas oraciones. Los autores tratados son nominalistas del siglo xiv: Guillermo de Ockham, Alberto de Sajonia y Juan Buridan; y el realista moderado Vicente Ferrer. Luego abordamos a dos novohispanos, Alonso de la Veracruz y Tomás de Mercado, que están inmersos en la tradición medieval.
Husserl’s concept of subjectivity doesn’t bound to its logical and epistemological aspects, but it extends to its ethic und aesthetic dimensions. The external perception constitutes the original and founding experience of transcendental life. Moreover the perception’s trend to a complete vision of the things moves the whole subject and explains its dynamism. This trend is just an ideal, which any kind of subjective effort could realize. However Husserl considers some experiences, which imply the subject’s “liberation” from the passivity of a (...) tendency to a total intuition of the objects. That’s the case of the aesthetic consideration of the images. Beside she announces a peculiar way of relationship with the world and the others, but in another way as the perception. (shrink)
This paper interprets the character and self-control as the two chief keys of the sistematic unity of human virtues, according to the thought of Saint Josemaria. First, the character is not only forged through acts, but more definitively it amounts to the identity of the heart in a biblical sense. Secondly, self-control by several ways preserves the unity of the person among the plurality of expressions corresponding to each virtue.
Millán-Puelles justifies classic realism on the basis of the human person's dignity, analyzing subjectivity as one of conscience and volition. The author suggests that Millán-Puelles recognize in the relational openness, equally constitutive of the person, the formal reason of the subsistence of its inmanent perfection.