Results for 'biofilm'

17 found
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  1.  37
    Levels of Selection in Biofilms: Multispecies Biofilms Are Not Evolutionary Individuals.Ellen Clarke - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (2):191-212.
    Microbes are generally thought of as unicellular organisms, but we know that many microbes live as parts of biofilms—complex, surface-attached microbial communities numbering millions of cells. Some authors have recently argued in favour of reconceiving biofilms as biological entities in their own right. In particular, some have claimed that multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals : 10126–10132 2015). Against this view, I defend the conservative consensus that selection acts primarily upon microbial cells.
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  2.  91
    Biological Individuality: The Case of Biofilms.Marc Ereshefsky & Makmiller Pedroso - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (2):331-349.
    This paper examines David Hull’s and Peter Godfrey-Smith’s accounts of biological individuality using the case of biofilms. Biofilms fail standard criteria for individuality, such as having reproductive bottlenecks and forming parent-offspring lineages. Nevertheless, biofilms are good candidates for individuals. The nature of biofilms shows that Godfrey-Smith’s account of individuality, with its reliance on reproduction, is too restrictive. Hull’s interactor notion of individuality better captures biofilms, and we argue that it offers a better account of biological individuality. However, Hull’s notion of (...)
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  3.  21
    Inheritance by Recruitment: A Reply to Clarke’s “Levels of Selection in Biofilms”.Makmiller Pedroso - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (1):127-131.
    Doolittle :351–378, 2013) and Ereshefsky and Pedroso argue that selection can act at the level of biofilms and other microbial communities. Clarke is skeptical and argues that selection acts on microbial cells rather than microbial communities. Her main criticism is that biofilms lack one of the ingredients required for selection to operate: heritability. This paper replies to her concern by elaborating how biofilm-level traits can be inheritable.
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  4.  7
    Signal Transduction Pathways Regulating Switching, Mating and Biofilm Formation in Candida Albicans and Related Species.David R. Soll - 2012 - In Witzany (ed.), Biocommunication of Fungi. Springer. pp. 85--102.
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  5.  6
    Barrier Height Enhancement of Metal/Semiconductor Contact by an Enzyme Biofilm Interlayer.Yusuf Selim Ocak, Reyhan Gul Guven, Ahmet Tombak, Tahsin Kilicoglu, Kemal Guven & Mehmet Dogru - 2013 - Philosophical Magazine 93 (17):2172-2181.
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  6.  82
    Functional Integration and Individuality in Prokaryotic Collective Organisations.Guglielmo Militello, Leonardo Bich & Alvaro Moreno - 2020 - Acta Biotheoretica (3):391-415.
    Both physiological and evolutionary criteria of biological individuality are underpinned by the idea that an individual is a functionally integrated whole. However, a precise account of functional integration has not been provided so far, and current notions are not developed in the details, especially in the case of composite systems. To address this issue, this paper focuses on the organisational dimension of two representative associations of prokaryotes: biofilms and the endosymbiosis between prokaryotes. Some critical voices have been raised against the (...)
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  7. It’s the Song, Not the Singer: An Exploration of Holobiosis and Evolutionary Theory.W. Ford Doolittle & Austin Booth - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (1):5-24.
    That holobionts are units of selection squares poorly with the observation that microbes are often recruited from the environment, not passed down vertically from parent to offspring, as required for collective reproduction. The taxonomic makeup of a holobiont’s microbial community may vary over its lifetime and differ from that of conspecifics. In contrast, biochemical functions of the microbiota and contributions to host biology are more conserved, with taxonomically variable but functionally similar microbes recurring across generations and hosts. To save what (...)
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  8.  78
    Size Doesn’T Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):155-191.
    Philosophers of biology, along with everyone else, generally perceive life to fall into two broad categories, the microbes and macrobes, and then pay most of their attention to the latter. ‘Macrobe’ is the word we propose for larger life forms, and we use it as part of an argument for microbial equality. We suggest that taking more notice of microbes – the dominant life form on the planet, both now and throughout evolutionary history – will transform some of the philosophy (...)
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  9. The Great Unifier: Form and the Unity of the Organism.David Oderberg - unknown
    Organisms possess a special unity that biologists have long recognized and that cries out for explanation. Organs and collectives also have their own related kinds of unity, so what distinguishes the unity of the organism? I argue that only substantial form, a central plank of hylemorphic metaphysics, can provide the explanation we need. I set out the idea that whilst organisms possess substantial form, organs abtain the substantial form of the organisms they belong to, and collectives contain the substantial forms (...)
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  10.  27
    Multiscale Analysis of Biological Systems.Annick Lesne - 2013 - Acta Biotheoretica 61 (1):3-19.
    It is argued that multiscale approaches are necessary for an explanatory modeling of biological systems. A first step, besides common to the multiscale modeling of physical and living systems, is a bottom-up integration based on the notions of effective parameters and minimal models. Top-down effects can be accounted for in terms of effective constraints and inputs. Biological systems are essentially characterized by an entanglement of bottom-up and top-down influences following from their evolutionary history. A self-consistent multiscale scheme is proposed to (...)
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  11.  19
    Forming Lineages by Sticking Together.Makmiller Pedroso - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Nature is replete with borderline cases that fall somewhere between organisms and communities, such as lichens, biofilms, and the Portuguese Man-of-War. At first glance, the existence of such borderline cases might suggest that the concept of what constitutes an organism is too fuzzy to be useful in evolutionary biology. Yet, the notion of organisms is entrenched within central debates in evolution, including discussions over how fitness should be measured, what the bearers of adaptations and fitness are, and the status of (...)
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  12. Non-Genetic Inheritance: Evolution Above the Organismal Level.Anton Sukhoverkhov & Nathalie Gontier - 2021 - Biosystems 1 (200):104325.
    The article proposes to further develop the ideas of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis by including into evolutionary research an analysis of phenomena that occur above the organismal level. We demonstrate that the current Extended Synthesis is focused more on individual traits (genetically or non-genetically inherited) and less on community system traits (synergetic/organizational traits) that characterize transgenerational biological, ecological, social, and cultural systems. In this regard, we will consider various communities that are made up of interacting populations, and for which the (...)
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  13.  9
    Adaptive Regeneration Across Scales: Replicators and Interactors From Limbs to Forests.S. Andrew Inkpen & W. Ford Doolittle - 2021 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 13.
    Diverse living systems possess the capacity for regeneration; that is, they can under some circumstances repair, re-produce, and maintain themselves in the face of disturbance or damage. Think of systems as diverse as forests, microbial biofilms, corals, salamanders, hydra, and human skin cells. This capacity is fundamental to life—without it, many biological systems would be too fragile to cope with stress and would frequently collapse—but because it is multiply realized in wildly different living systems at many scales, finding a common (...)
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  14.  13
    The Impact of Population Bottlenecks on the Social Lives of Microbes.Makmiller Pedroso - 2018 - Biological Theory 13 (3):190-198.
    Microbes often live in association with dense multicellular aggregates, especially biofilms, and the construction of these aggregates typically requires microbial cells to produce public goods, such as enzymes and signaling molecules. Public-goods producers are, in turn, vulnerable to exploitation by free-rider cells that consume the public goods without paying for their production costs. The cell population of a biofilm or other microbial aggregates are expected to pass through bottlenecks due to a wide range of factors, such as antibiotic treatments (...)
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  15.  4
    What Are Extremophiles? A Philosophical Perspective.Carlos Mariscal & T. D. P. Brunet - 2020 - In Kelly C. Smith & Carlos Mariscal (eds.), Social and Conceptual Issues in Astrobiology. Oxford, UK: pp. 157-178.
    In the 1970s, R.D. MacElroy coined the term ‘extremophile’ to describe microorganisms that thrive under extreme conditions (MacElroy 1974). This hybrid word transliterates to ‘love of extremes’ and has been studied as a straightforward concept for the past 40 years. In this paper, we discuss several ways the term has been understood in the scientific literature, each of which has different consequences for the distribution and importance of extremophiles. They are, briefly, Human-Centric, at the Edge of life’s habitation of Morphospace, (...)
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  16.  2
    Biopelículas y persistencia microbiana en la industria alimentaria.Paula Fernández-Gómez, Miguel Prieto, Pablo S. Fernández-Escámez, Mercedes López & Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez - 2020 - Arbor 196 (795):538.
    Este artículo de revisión examina la importancia que tienen las comunidades microbianas que colonizan los ambien­tes y equipos de procesado de alimentos formando biopelículas o biofilms en la persistencia microbiana en la industria alimen­taria y consecuentemente, en la seguridad y la calidad de los alimentos. La atención se centra especialmente en biopelículas formadas por microorganismos no deseados, es decir, microor­ganismos alterantes y patógenos. Se presenta información so­bre la variabilidad intraespecífica en la formación, la ecología y la arquitectura de las biopelículas, (...)
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  17.  23
    Multiple Actions of Lucilia Sericata Larvae in Hard‐to‐Heal Wounds.Gwendolyn Cazander, David I. Pritchard, Yamni Nigam, Willi Jung & Peter H. Nibbering - 2013 - Bioessays 35 (12):1083-1092.
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