Results for 'conditional random quantities'

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  1.  36
    Conditional Random Quantities and Compounds of Conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):709-729.
    In this paper we consider conditional random quantities (c.r.q.’s) in the setting of coherence. Based on betting scheme, a c.r.q. X|H is not looked at as a restriction but, in a more extended way, as \({XH + \mathbb{P}(X|H)H^c}\) ; in particular (the indicator of) a conditional event E|H is looked at as EH + P(E|H)H c . This extended notion of c.r.q. allows algebraic developments among c.r.q.’s even if the conditioning events are different; then, for instance, (...)
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  2. Conjunction, Disjunction and Iterated Conditioning of Conditional Events.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2013 - In R. Kruse (ed.), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer.
    Starting from a recent paper by S. Kaufmann, we introduce a notion of conjunction of two conditional events and then we analyze it in the setting of coherence. We give a representation of the conjoined conditional and we show that this new object is a conditional random quantity, whose set of possible values normally contains the probabilities assessed for the two conditional events. We examine some cases of logical dependencies, where the conjunction is a (...) event; moreover, we give the lower and upper bounds on the conjunction. We also examine an apparent paradox concerning stochastic independence which can actually be explained in terms of uncorrelation. We briefly introduce the notions of disjunction and iterated conditioning and we show that the usual probabilistic properties still hold. (shrink)
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  3.  63
    Efficient, Feature-Based, Conditional Random Field Parsing.Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Discriminative feature-based methods are widely used in natural language processing, but sentence parsing is still dominated by generative methods. While prior feature-based dynamic programming parsers have restricted training and evaluation to artificially short sentences, we present the first general, featurerich discriminative parser, based on a conditional random field model, which has been successfully scaled to the full WSJ parsing data. Our efficiency is primarily due to the use of stochastic optimization techniques, as well as parallelization and chart prefiltering. (...)
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  4.  61
    A Conditional Random Field Word Segmenter.Christopher Manning - unknown
    We present a Chinese word segmentation system submitted to the closed track of Sighan bakeoff 2005. Our segmenter was built using a conditional random field sequence model that provides a framework to use a large number of linguistic features such as character identity, morphological and character reduplication features. Because our morphological features were extracted from the training corpora automatically, our system was not biased toward any particular variety of Mandarin. Thus, our system does not overfit the variety of (...)
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  5.  10
    Regularization, Adaptation, and Non-Independent Features Improve Hidden Conditional Random Fields for Phone Classification.Christopher Manning - unknown
    We show a number of improvements in the use of Hidden Conditional Random Fields for phone classification on the TIMIT and Switchboard corpora. We first show that the use of regularization effectively prevents overfitting, improving over other methods such as early stopping. We then show that HCRFs are able to make use of non-independent features in phone classification, at least with small numbers of mixture components, while HMMs degrade due to their strong independence assumptions. Finally, we successfully apply (...)
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  6.  26
    Smoothing in Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields.Kenta Fukuoka, Masayuki Asahara & Yuji Matsumoto - 2007 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 22 (1):69-77.
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  7.  14
    Quality Control of Ocean Observation Data Using Conditional Random Field条件付確率場を用いた海洋観測データの品質管理.Yosuke Kamikawaji, Haruki Matsuyama, Ken-Ichi Fukui, Shigeki Hosoda & Satoshi Ono - 2018 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 33 (3):G-SGAI05_1-11.
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  8.  28
    Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields のための損失関数スムージング.浅原正幸 福岡健太 & 松本裕治 - 2007 - 人工知能学会論文誌: Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 22:69-77.
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  9.  16
    Automatic Extraction and Evaluation of Human Activity Using Conditional Random Fields and Self-Supervised Learning.Nguyen Minh The, Takahiro Kawamura, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Yasuyuki Tahara & Akihiko Ohsuga - 2011 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 26:166-178.
  10.  6
    Graph-Structured Conditional Random Fields for Named Entity Categorization in Wikipedia.Yotaro Watanabe, Masayuki Asahara & Yuji Matsumoto - 2008 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 23:245-254.
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  11.  23
    Identification of Rhetorical Roles for Segmentation and Summarization of a Legal Judgment.M. Saravanan & B. Ravindran - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (1):45-76.
    Legal judgments are complex in nature and hence a brief summary of the judgment, known as a headnote , is generated by experts to enable quick perusal. Headnote generation is a time consuming process and there have been attempts made at automating the process. The difficulty in interpreting such automatically generated summaries is that they are not coherent and do not convey the relative relevance of the various components of the judgment. A legal judgment can be segmented into coherent chunks (...)
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  12.  54
    Operating on Functions with Variable Domains.Philip G. Calabrese - 2003 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (1):1-18.
    The sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions with different domains are usually defined only on their common domain. This paper extends these definitions so that the sum and other operations are essentially defined anywhere that at least one of the components is defined. This idea is applied to propositions and events, expressed as indicator functions, to define conditional propositions and conditional events as three-valued indicator functions that are undefined when their condition is false. Extended operations of (...)
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  13.  78
    Entailment with Near Surety of Scaled Assertions of High Conditional Probability.Donald Bamber - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (1):1-74.
    An assertion of high conditional probability or, more briefly, an HCP assertion is a statement of the type: The conditional probability of B given A is close to one. The goal of this paper is to construct logics of HCP assertions whose conclusions are highly likely to be correct rather than certain to be correct. Such logics would allow useful conclusions to be drawn when the premises are not strong enough to allow conclusions to be reached with certainty. (...)
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  14.  39
    When Coherent Preferences May Not Preserve Indifference Between Equivalent Random Variables: A Price for Unbounded Utilities.Teddy Seidenfeld, Mark Schervish & Joseph Kadane - unknown
    We extend de Finetti’s (1974) theory of coherence to apply also to unbounded random variables. We show that for random variables with mandated infinite prevision, such as for the St. Petersburg gamble, coherence precludes indifference between equivalent random quantities. That is, we demonstrate when the prevision of the difference between two such equivalent random variables must be positive. This result conflicts with the usual approach to theories of Subjective Expected Utility, where preference is defined over (...)
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  15.  25
    Learning Phonology With Substantive Bias: An Experimental and Computational Study of Velar Palatalization.Colin Wilson - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (5):945-982.
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  16.  41
    General Properties of Bayesian Learning as Statistical Inference Determined by Conditional Expectations.Zalán Gyenis & Miklós Rédei - 2017 - Review of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):719-755.
    We investigate the general properties of general Bayesian learning, where “general Bayesian learning” means inferring a state from another that is regarded as evidence, and where the inference is conditionalizing the evidence using the conditional expectation determined by a reference probability measure representing the background subjective degrees of belief of a Bayesian Agent performing the inference. States are linear functionals that encode probability measures by assigning expectation values to random variables via integrating them with respect to the probability (...)
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  17.  67
    Conditional Predictions.Stefan Kaufmann - 2005 - Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (2):181 - 231.
    The connection between the probabilities of conditionals and the corresponding conditional probabilities has long been explored in the philosophical literature, but its implementation faces both technical obstacles and objections on empirical grounds. In this paper I ?rst outline the motivation for the probabilistic turn and Lewis’ triviality results, which stand in the way of what would seem to be its most straightforward implementation. I then focus on Richard Jeffrey’s ’random-variable’ approach, which circumvents these problems by giving up the (...)
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  18.  7
    On the Intersection Property of Conditional Independence and its Application to Causal Discovery.Jonas Peters - 2015 - Journal of Causal Inference 3 (1).
    This work investigates the intersection property of conditional independence. It states that for random variables A,B,C and X we have that X⊥⊥A|B,C and X⊥⊥B|A,C implies X⊥⊥(A,B)|C. Here, “⊥⊥” stands for statistical independence. Under the assumption that the joint distribution has a density that is continuous in A,B and C, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions under which the intersection property holds. The result has direct applications to causal inference: it leads to strictly weaker conditions under which the graphical (...)
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  19.  8
    Approximate Kernel-Based Conditional Independence Tests for Fast Non-Parametric Causal Discovery.Eric V. Strobl, Kun Zhang & Shyam Visweswaran - 2018 - Journal of Causal Inference 7 (1).
    Constraint-based causal discovery algorithms require fast and accurate conditional independence testing. The Kernel Conditional Independence Test is currently one of the most popular CI tests in the non-parametric setting, but many investigators cannot use KCIT with large datasets because the test scales at least quadratically with sample size. We therefore devise two relaxations called the Randomized Conditional Independence Test and the Randomized conditional Correlation Test which both approximate KCIT by utilizing random Fourier features. In practice, (...)
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  20.  11
    Taking the "Nestor's Cup Inscription" Seriously: Erotic Magic and Conditional Curses in the Earliest Inscribed Hexameters.Christopher A. Faraone - 1996 - Classical Antiquity 15 (1):77-112.
    This essay argues that the Nestor's Cup Inscription is not a joke, but rather a magical spell designed to work as an aphrodisiac. It is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the hexametrical couplet and the second with the opening line. In the first section the author argues that the hexameters comprise a bonafide magical incantation, pointing out that: the two hexameters take the semantic form of a conditional curse well known from oaths and proprietary inscriptions of (...)
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  21. On the Equivalence of Conglomerability and Disintegrability for Unbounded Random Variables.Teddy Seidenfeld - unknown
    We extend a result of Dubins [3] from bounded to unbounded random variables. Dubins [3] showed that a finitely additive expectation over the collection of bounded random variables can be written as an integral of conditional expectations (disintegrability) if and only if the marginal expectation is always within the smallest closed interval containing the conditional expectations (conglomerability). We give a sufficient condition to extend this result to the collection Z of all random variables that have (...)
     
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  22.  9
    Asymmetric Choquet Random Walks and Ambiguity Aversion or Seeking.Rossella Agliardi - 2017 - Theory and Decision 83 (4):591-602.
    Asymmetric Choquet random walks are defined, in the form of dynamically consistent random walks allowing for asymmetric conditional capacities. By revisiting Kast and Lapied and Kast et al. we show that some findings regarding the effects of ambiguity aversion are preserved in the more general framework, which is of interest in several applications to policy making, risk management, corporate decisions, real option valuation of investment/ disinvestment projects, etc. The effect of ambiguity on the higher moments is investigated, (...)
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  23.  16
    Unconditional Quantum Correlations Do Not Violate Bell’s Inequality.Andrei Khrennikov - 2015 - Foundations of Physics 45 (10):1179-1189.
    In this paper I demonstrate that the quantum correlations of polarization observables used in Bell’s argument against local realism have to be interpreted as conditional quantum correlations. By taking into account additional sources of randomness in Bell’s type experiments, i.e., supplementary to source randomness, I calculate the complete quantum correlations. The main message of the quantum theory of measurement is that complete correlations can be essentially smaller than the conditional ones. Additional sources of randomness diminish correlations. One can (...)
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  24.  2
    Preference Orderings Represented by Coherent Upper and Lower Conditional Previsions.Serena Doria - 2019 - Theory and Decision 87 (2):233-252.
    Preference orderings assigned by coherent lower and upper conditional previsions are defined and they are considered to define maximal random variables and Bayes random variables. Sufficient conditions are given such that a random variable is maximal if and only if it is a Bayes random variable. In a metric space preference orderings represented by coherent lower and upper conditional previsions defined by Hausdorff inner and outer measures are given.
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  25. Local Realism and Conditional Probability.Allen Stairs & Jeffrey Bub - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (4):585-601.
    Emilio Santos has argued (Santos, Studies in History and Philosophy of Physics http: //arxiv-org/abs/quant-ph/0410193) that to date, no experiment has provided a loophole-free refutation of Bell’s inequalities. He believes that this provides strong evidence for the principle of local realism, and argues that we should reject this principle only if we have extremely strong evidence. However, recent work by Malley and Fine (Non-commuting observables and local realism, http: //arxiv-org/abs/quant-ph/0505016) appears to suggest that experiments refuting Bell’s inequalities could at most confirm (...)
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  26.  75
    On the Role of Density Matrices in Bohmian Mechanics.Detlef Dürr, Sheldon Goldstein, Roderich Tumulka & Nino Zanghí - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (3):449-467.
    It is well known that density matrices can be used in quantum mechanics to represent the information available to an observer about either a system with a random wave function or a system that is entangled with another system. We point out another role, previously unnoticed in the literature, that a density matrix can play: it can be the “conditional density matrix,” conditional on the configuration of the environment. A precise definition can be given in the context (...)
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  27. Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens for Conditional Probabilities, and Updating on Uncertain Evidence.Jordan Howard Sobel - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (2):103 - 148.
    There are narrowest bounds for P(h) when P(e) = y and P(h/e) = x, which bounds collapse to x as y goes to 1. A theorem for these bounds -- bounds for probable modus ponens -- entails a principle for updating on possibly uncertain evidence subject to these bounds that is a generalization of the principle for updating by conditioning on certain evidence. This way of updating on possibly uncertain evidence is appropriate when updating by ’probability kinematics’ or ’Jeffrey-conditioning’ is, (...)
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  28.  55
    Picturing Classical and Quantum Bayesian Inference.Bob Coecke & Robert W. Spekkens - 2012 - Synthese 186 (3):651 - 696.
    We introduce a graphical framework for Bayesian inference that is sufficiently general to accommodate not just the standard case but also recent proposals for a theory of quantum Bayesian inference wherein one considers density operators rather than probability distributions as representative of degrees of belief. The diagrammatic framework is stated in the graphical language of symmetric monoidal categories and of compact structures and Frobenius structures therein, in which Bayesian inversion boils down to transposition with respect to an appropriate compact structure. (...)
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  29.  55
    Aspects Concerning Entropy and Utility.A. R. Hoseinzadeh, G. R. Mohtashami Borzadaran & G. H. Yari - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (2):273-285.
    Expected utility maximization problem is one of the most useful tools in mathematical finance, decision analysis and economics. Motivated by statistical model selection, via the principle of expected utility maximization, Friedman and Sandow (J Mach Learn Res 4:257–291, 2003a) considered the model performance question from the point of view of an investor who evaluates models based on the performance of the optimal strategies that the models suggest. They interpreted their performance measures in information theoretic terms and provided new generalizations of (...)
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  30.  41
    Parametric Multi-Attribute Utility Functions for Optimal Profit Under Risk Constraints.Babacar Seck, Laetitia Andrieu & Michel De Lara - 2012 - Theory and Decision 72 (2):257-271.
    We provide an economic interpretation of the practice consisting in incorporating risk measures as constraints in an expected prospect maximization problem. For what we call the infimum of expectations class of risk measures, we show that if the decision maker (DM) maximizes the expectation of a random prospect under constraint that the risk measure is bounded above, he then behaves as a “generalized expected utility maximizer” in the following sense. The DM exhibits ambiguity with respect to a family of (...)
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  31.  22
    Imaginary Part of Action, Future Functioning as Hidden Variables.H. B. Nielsen - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (3):608-635.
    Beginning with a review the logically first stages in the project of Random Dynamics, hoping for all laws nature being emergent, we also review what can be considered a consequence of Random Dynamics, a model—by myself and Masao Ninomiya—, which in principle predicts the initial conditions in such a way as to minimize a certain functional of the history of the Universe through both past and future. This functional is indeed the imaginary part of the action, which exists (...)
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  32.  17
    Comparative Expectations.Arthur Paul Pedersen - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):811-848.
    I introduce a mathematical account of expectation based on a qualitative criterion of coherence for qualitative comparisons between gambles (or random quantities). The qualitative comparisons may be interpreted as an agent’s comparative preference judgments over options or more directly as an agent’s comparative expectation judgments over random quantities. The criterion of coherence is reminiscent of de Finetti’s quantitative criterion of coherence for betting, yet it does not impose an Archimedean condition on an agent’s comparative judgments, it (...)
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  33.  36
    Appellate Court Modifications Extraction for Portuguese.William Paulo Ducca Fernandes, Luiz José Schirmer Silva, Isabella Zalcberg Frajhof, Guilherme da Franca Couto Fernandes de Almeida, Carlos Nelson Konder, Rafael Barbosa Nasser, Gustavo Robichez de Carvalho, Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa & Hélio Côrtes Vieira Lopes - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (3):327-360.
    Appellate Court Modifications Extraction consists of, given an Appellate Court decision, identifying the proposed modifications by the upper Court of the lower Court judge’s decision. In this work, we propose a system to extract Appellate Court Modifications for Portuguese. Information extraction for legal texts has been previously addressed using different techniques and for several languages. Our proposal differs from previous work in two ways: our corpus is composed of Brazilian Appellate Court decisions, in which we look for a set of (...)
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  34.  20
    Automatic Semantic Edge Labeling Over Legal Citation Graphs.Ali Sadeghian, Laksshman Sundaram, Daisy Zhe Wang, William F. Hamilton, Karl Branting & Craig Pfeifer - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (2):127-144.
    A large number of cross-references to various bodies of text are used in legal texts, each serving a different purpose. It is often necessary for authorities and companies to look into certain types of these citations. Yet, there is a lack of automatic tools to aid in this process. Recently, citation graphs have been used to improve the intelligibility of complex rule frameworks. We propose an algorithm that builds the citation graph from a document and automatically labels each edge according (...)
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  35.  35
    DeFinettian Consensus.L. G. Esteves, S. Wechsler, J. G. Leite & V. A. González-López - 2000 - Theory and Decision 49 (1):79-96.
    It is always possible to construct a real function f, given random quantities X and Y with continuous distribution functions F and G, respectively, in such a way that f(X) and f(Y), also random quantities, have both the same distribution function, say H. This result of De Finetti introduces an alternative way to somehow describe the `opinion' of a group of experts about a continuous random quantity by the construction of Fields of coincidence of opinions (...)
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  36.  23
    Volume 49, No. 1–August 2000.David W. Hollar, John Hattie, Bert Goldman, James Lancaster, L. G. Esteves, S. Wechsler, J. G. Leite, V. A. González-López, DeFinettian Consensus & Broad Sense’Environments - 2000 - Theory and Decision 49 (1):395-396.
    It is always possible to construct a real function φ, given random quantities X and Y with continuous distribution functions F and G, respectively, in such a way that φ and φ, also random quantities, have both the same distribution function, say H. This result of De Finetti introduces an alternative way to somehow describe the `opinion' of a group of experts about a continuous random quantity by the construction of Fields of coincidence of opinions. (...)
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  37.  8
    Deep Learning-Based Language Identification in English-Hindi-Bengali Code-Mixed Social Media Corpora.Anupam Jamatia, Amitava Das & Björn Gambäck - 2019 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 28 (3):399-408.
    This article addresses language identification at the word level in Indian social media corpora taken from Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp posts that exhibit code-mixing between English-Hindi, English-Bengali, as well as a blend of both language pairs. Code-mixing is a fusion of multiple languages previously mainly associated with spoken language, but which social media users also deploy when communicating in ways that tend to be rather casual. The coarse nature of code-mixed social media text makes language identification challenging. Here, the performance (...)
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  38.  20
    NP Subject Detection in Verb-Initial Arabic Clauses.Spence Green & Christopher D. Manning - unknown
    Phrase re-ordering is a well-known obstacle to robust machine translation for language pairs with significantly different word orderings. For Arabic-English, two languages that usually differ in the ordering of subject and verb, the subject and its modifiers must be accurately moved to produce a grammatical translation. This operation requires more than base phrase chunking and often defies current phrase-based statistical decoders. We present a conditional random field sequence classi- fier that detects the full scope of Arabic noun phrase (...)
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  39.  8
    Template Sampling for Leveraging Domain Knowledge in Information Extraction.Christopher Cox, Christopher Manning & Pat Langley - unknown
    We initially describe a feature-rich discriminative Conditional Random Field (CRF) model for Information Extraction in the workshop announcements domain, which offers good baseline performance in the PASCAL shared task. We then propose a method for leveraging domain knowledge in Information Extraction tasks, scoring candidate document labellings as one-value-per-field templates according to domain feasibility after generating sample labellings from a trained sequence classifier. Our relational models evaluate these templates according to our intuitions about agreement in the domain: workshop acronyms (...)
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  40. If Counterfactuals Were Neg-Raisers, Conditional Excluded Middle Wouldn’T Be Valid.Patrick Todd & Brian Rabern - manuscript
    The principle of Conditional Excluded Middle has been a matter of longstanding controversy in both semantics and metaphysics. According to this principle, we are, inter alia, committed to claims like the following: If the coin had been flipped, it would have landed heads, or if the coin had been flipped, it would not have landed heads. In favour of the principle, theorists have appealed, primarily, to linguistic data such as that we tend to hear ¬(A > B) as equivalent (...)
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  41. Betting on Conditionals.Jean Baratgin, David E. Over & Guy Politzer - 2010 - Thinking and Reasoning 16 (3):172-197.
    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B , and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B . The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional— true , false , or void for indicative (...)
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  42. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.Niels Skovgaard-Olsen - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (4):848-880.
    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a (...)
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  43. How People Interpret Conditionals: Shifts Towards the Conditional Event.A. J. B. Fugard, Niki Pfeifer, B. Mayerhofer & Gernot D. Kleiter - 2011 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (3):635-648.
    We investigated how people interpret conditionals and how stable their interpretation is over a long series of trials. Participants were shown the colored patterns on each side of a six-sided die, and were asked how sure they were that a conditional holds of the side landing upwards when the die is randomly thrown. Participants were presented with 71 trials consisting of all combinations of binary dimensions of shape (e.g., circles and squares) and color (e.g., blue and red) painted onto (...)
     
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  44.  54
    Resolving the Raven Paradox: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, and Inference to the Best Explanation.Barry Ward - manuscript
    We object to standard, simple random sampling resolutions of the raven paradox on the grounds that they relevantly diverge from scientific practice. In response, we develop a stratified random sampling model. It provides a better fit and apparently rehabilitates simple random sampling resolutions as legitimate idealizations of that practice. However, neither simple nor stratified models fare well with a second concern, the objection from potential bias. In response, we develop a third model on which we systematically check (...)
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  45.  97
    Deliberation, Cognitive Diversity, and Democratic Inclusiveness: An Epistemic Argument for the Random Selection of Representatives.Hélène Landemore - 2013 - Synthese 190 (7):1209-1231.
    This paper argues in favor of the epistemic properties of inclusiveness in the context of democratic deliberative assemblies and derives the implications of this argument in terms of the epistemically superior mode of selection of representatives. The paper makes the general case that, all other things being equal and under some reasonable assumptions, more is smarter. When applied to deliberative assemblies of representatives, where there is an upper limit to the number of people that can be included in the group, (...)
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  46. The Logic of Conditional Belief.Benjamin Eva - 2020 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (281):759-779.
    The logic of indicative conditionals remains the topic of deep and intractable philosophical disagreement. I show that two influential epistemic norms—the Lockean theory of belief and the Ramsey test for conditional belief—are jointly sufficient to ground a powerful new argument for a particular conception of the logic of indicative conditionals. Specifically, the argument demonstrates, contrary to the received historical narrative, that there is a real sense in which Stalnaker’s semantics for the indicative did succeed in capturing the logic of (...)
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  47. What Are Conditional Intentions?Kirk Ludwig - 2015 - Methode: Analytic Perspectives 4 (6):30-60.
    The main thesis of this paper is that, whereas an intention simpliciter is a commitment to a plan of action, a conditional intention is a commitment to a contingency plan, a commitment about what to do upon (learning of) a certain contingency relevant to one’s interests obtaining. In unconditional intending, our commitment to acting is not contingent on finding out that some condition obtains. In conditional intending, we intend to undertake an action on some condition, impinging on our (...)
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  48. A Geo-Logical Solution to the Lottery Paradox, with Applications to Conditional Logic.Hanti Lin & Kevin Kelly - 2012 - Synthese 186 (2):531-575.
    We defend a set of acceptance rules that avoids the lottery paradox, that is closed under classical entailment, and that accepts uncertain propositions without ad hoc restrictions. We show that the rules we recommend provide a semantics that validates exactly Adams’ conditional logic and are exactly the rules that preserve a natural, logical structure over probabilistic credal states that we call probalogic. To motivate probalogic, we first expand classical logic to geo-logic, which fills the entire unit cube, and then (...)
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    Conditional Probability in the Light of Qualitative Belief Change.David C. Makinson - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (2):121 - 153.
    We explore ways in which purely qualitative belief change in the AGM tradition throws light on options in the treatment of conditional probability. First, by helping see why it can be useful to go beyond the ratio rule defining conditional from one-place probability. Second, by clarifying what is at stake in different ways of doing that. Third, by suggesting novel forms of conditional probability corresponding to familiar variants of qualitative belief change, and conversely. Likewise, we explain how (...)
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  50. Conditional Preferences and Practical Conditionals.Nate Charlow - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (6):463-511.
    I argue that taking the Practical Conditionals Thesis seriously demands a new understanding of the semantics of such conditionals. Practical Conditionals Thesis: A practical conditional [if A][ought] expresses B’s conditional preferability given A Paul Weirich has argued that the conditional utility of a state of affairs B on A is to be identified as the degree to which it is desired under indicative supposition that A. Similarly, exploiting the PCT, I will argue that the proper analysis of (...)
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