Results for 'cortex'

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  1. Minority Reports: Consciousness and the Prefrontal Cortex.Matthias Michel & Jorge Morales - 2019 - Mind and Language:1-21.
    Whether the prefrontal cortex is part of the neural substrates of consciousness is currently debated. Against prefrontal theories of consciousness, many have argued that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex does not correlate with consciousness but with subjective reports. We defend prefrontal theories of consciousness against this argument. We surmise that the requirement for reports is not a satisfying explanation of the difference in neural activity between conscious and unconscious trials, and that prefrontal theories of consciousness come out (...)
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  2. Consciousness Without a Cerbral Cortex: A Challenge for Neuroscience and Medicine.Bjorn Merker - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):63-81.
    A broad range of evidence regarding the functional organization of the vertebrate brain – spanning from comparative neurology to experimental psychology and neurophysiology to clinical data – is reviewed for its bearing on conceptions of the neural organization of consciousness. A novel principle relating target selection, action selection, and motivation to one another, as a means to optimize integration for action in real time, is introduced. With its help, the principal macrosystems of the vertebrate brain can be seen to form (...)
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  3.  8
    Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Judgment of Harmful Intent.Liane Young, Antoine Bechara, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2010 - Neuron 65 (6):845-851.
    Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events, as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would (...)
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  4.  28
    Domain-General and Domain-Specific Patterns of Activity Support Metacognition in Human Prefrontal Cortex.Jorge Morales, Hakwan Lau & Stephen M. Fleming - 2018 - The Journal of Neuroscience 38 (14):3534-3546.
    Metacognition is the capacity to evaluate the success of one's own cognitive processes in various domains; for example, memory and perception. It remains controversial whether metacognition relies on a domain-general resource that is applied to different tasks or if self-evaluative processes are domain specific. Here, we investigated this issue directly by examining the neural substrates engaged when metacognitive judgments were made by human participants of both sexes during perceptual and memory tasks matched for stimulus and performance characteristics. By comparing patterns (...)
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  5.  80
    Striate Cortex (V1) Activity Gates Awareness of Motion.Juha Silvanto, Alan Cowey, Nilli Lavie & Vincent Walsh - 2005 - Nature Neuroscience 8 (2):143-144.
    A key question in understanding visual awareness is whether any single cortical area is indispensable. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment, we show that observers' awareness of activity in extrastriate area VS depends on the amount of activity in striate cortex (Vl). From the timing and pattern of effects, we infer that back-projections from extrastriate cortex influence information content in Vl, but it is Vl that determines whether that information reaches awareness.
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  6.  25
    The Role of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Prediction Error and Signaling Surprise.William H. Alexander & Joshua W. Brown - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (1):119-135.
    In the past two decades, reinforcement learning has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty (...)
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  7.  18
    Activation of Sensory Cortex by Imagined Genital Stimulation: An fMRI Analysis.Nan J. Wise, Eleni Frangos & Barry R. Komisaruk - 2016 - Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 6.
    BackgroundDuring the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation.ObjectiveThis study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical ‘touch’ stimulation and ‘imagined’ stimulation.DesignEleven healthy women participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris. Two additional conditions – imagined (...)
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  8.  55
    Mechanisms of Visual Perceptual Learning in Macaque Visual Cortex.Rufin Vogels - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (2):239-250.
    The neural mechanisms underlying behavioral improvement in the detection or discrimination of visual stimuli following learning are still ill understood. Studies in nonhuman primates have shown relatively small and, across studies, variable effects of fine discrimination learning in primary visual cortex when tested outside the context of the learned task. At later stages, such as extrastriate area V4, extensive practice in fine discrimination produces more consistent effects upon responses and neural tuning. In V1 and V4, the effects of learning (...)
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  9.  38
    The Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Akinetic Mutism, and Human Volition.Paul E. Tibbetts - 2001 - Brain and Mind 2 (3):323-341.
    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)has been identified as part of a supervisoryattentional network for selecting alternativemotor programs in response to top-down corticalprocessing, particularly in situationsinvolving conflicting cognitive tasks.Bilateral lesions to the ACC may be causallyassociated with akinetic mutism, where patientsare unable to voluntarily initiate responses.The clinical and neuroanatomical evidence forthis presumed causal association is examined atlength. However, given the many reciprocalprojections between cerebral, motor, limbic andparalimbic structures within the executivesupervisory network, the association ofvoluntary behavior with a particular structure(the ACC) (...)
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  10.  33
    Insensitivity to Future Consequences Following Damage to Human Prefrontal Cortex.Antoine Bechara, Antonio R. Damasio, Hanna Damasio & Steven W. Anderson - 1993 - Cognition 50 (1-3):7-15.
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  11.  84
    Emotional Processing in Anterior Cingulate and Medial Prefrontal Cortex.Amit Etkin, Tobias Egner & Raffael Kalisch - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (2):85-93.
  12.  65
    Inhibition and the Right Inferior Frontal Cortex.Adam R. Aron, Trevor W. Robbins & Russell A. Poldrack - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):170-177.
  13.  27
    An Integrative Theory of Prefrontal Cortex Function.Earl K. Miller & Jonathan D. Cohen - 2001 - Annual Review of Neuroscience 24 (1):167-202.
    The prefrontal cortex has long been suspected to play an important role in cognitive control, in the ability to orchestrate thought and action in accordance with internal goals. Its neural basis, however, has remained a mystery. Here, we propose that cognitive control stems from the active maintenance of patterns of activity in the prefrontal cortex that represent goals and the means to achieve them. They provide bias signals to other brain structures whose net effect is to guide the (...)
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  14.  22
    The Functional Organization of Posterior Parietal Association Cortex.James C. Lynch - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (4):485-499.
  15.  22
    The Representation of Egocentric Space in the Posterior Parietal Cortex.J. F. Stein - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (4):691-700.
  16.  93
    Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgements.Michael Koenigs, Liane Young, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2007 - Nature 446 (7138):908-911.
    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions12–14, produce an abnor- mally ‘utilitarian’ pattern (...)
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  17. Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Awareness.Frank Tong - 2003 - Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (3):219-229.
  18. The Role of Cingulate Cortex in the Detection of Errors with and Without Awareness: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study.Redmond G. O'Connell, Paul M. Dockree, Mark A. Bellgrove, Simon P. Kelly, Robert Hester, Hugh Garavan, Ian H. Robertson & John J. Foxe - 2007 - European Journal of Neuroscience 25 (8):2571-2579.
  19.  27
    Feedback Contributions to Visual Awareness in Human Occipital Cortex.Tony Ro, Bruno Breitmeyer, Philip Burton, Neel S. Singhal & David Lane - 2003 - Current Biology 13 (12):1038-1041.
  20.  32
    Awareness of the Functioning of One's Own Limbs Mediated by the Insular Cortex?Hans-Otto Karnath, Bernhard Baier & Thomas Nägele - 2005 - Journal of Neuroscience 25 (31):7134-7138.
  21.  19
    Sensory Cortex and the Mind-Brain Problem.Roland Puccetti & Robert W. Dykes - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):337-344.
  22.  12
    Dissociating the Roles of Right Ventral Lateral and Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Generation and Maintenance of Hypotheses in Set-Shift Problems.Vinod Goel & Oshin Vartanian - 2005 - Cerebral Cortex 15 (8):1170-1177.
    Although patient data have traditionally implicated the left prefrontal cortex in hypothesis generation, recent lesion data implicate right PFC in hypothesis generation tasks that involve set shifts. To test the involvement of the right prefrontal cortex in a hypothesis generation task involving set shifts, we scanned 13 normal subjects with fMRI as they completed Match Problems and a baseline task. In Match Problems subjects determined the number of possible solutions for each trial. Successful solutions are indicative of set (...)
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  23.  38
    The Role of Primary Visual Cortex (V1) in Visual Awareness.Victor A. F. Lamme, H. Landman Super, P. R. R. Roelfsema & H. Spekreijse - 2000 - Vision Research 40 (10):1507-21.
  24.  18
    The Role of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Visual Change Awareness.Massimo Turatto, Marco Sandrini & Carlo Miniussi - 2004 - Neuroreport 15 (16):2549-2552.
  25.  79
    Parietal Somatosensory Association Cortex Mediates Affective Blindsight.Silke Anders, Niels Birbaumer, Bettina Sadowski, Michael Erb, Irina Mader, Wolfgang Grodd & Martin Lotze - 2004 - Nature Neuroscience 7 (4):339-340.
  26.  11
    Evidence for a Close Relationship Between Conscious Effort and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity.Christoph Mulert, Elisabeth Menzinger, Gregor Leicht, Oliver Pogarell & Ulrich Hegerl - 2005 - International Journal of Psychophysiology 56 (1):65-80.
  27.  20
    No Representation Without Awareness in the Lateral Occipital Cortex.Thomas A. Carlson, Robert Rauschenberger & Frans A. J. Verstraten - 2007 - Psychological Science 18 (4):298-302.
  28.  21
    The Role of Inferior Frontal Cortex in Phonological Processing.Martha W. Burton - 2001 - Cognitive Science 25 (5):695-709.
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  29. Modulation of Right Motor Cortex Excitability Without Awareness Following Presentation of Masked Self-Images.Hugo Théoret, Masahito Kobayashi, Lotfi Merabet, Tim Wagner, Jose M. Tormos & Alvaro Pascual-Leone - 2004 - Cognitive Brain Research 20 (1):54-57.
  30. Antecedents and Correlates of Visual Detectoin and Awareness in Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.K. G. Thompson & Jeffrey D. Schall - 2000 - Vision Research 40 (10):1523-38.
  31.  7
    The Role of Dorsal Premotor Cortex in Resolving Abstract Motor Rules: Converging Evidence From Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Cognitive Modeling.Patrick Rice & Andrea Stocco - 2019 - Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (1):240-260.
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  32.  46
    Reciprocity Between the Cerebellum and the Cerebral Cortex: Nonlinear Dynamics in Microscopic Modules for Generating Voluntary Motor Commands.Jun Wang, Gregory Dam, Sule Yildirim, William Rand, Uri Wilensky & James C. Houk - 2008 - Complexity 14 (2):29-45.
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  33.  16
    Conditioning of the Electrical Response of the Cortex.Lee Edward Travis & James P. Egan - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (6):524.
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  34.  26
    Activation in Visual Cortex Correlates with the Awareness of Stereoscopic Depth.Gijs J. Brouwer, Raymond van Ee & Jens Schwarzbach - 2005 - Journal of Neuroscience 25 (45):10403-10413.
  35.  13
    Bilateral Integrative Action of the Cerebral Cortex in Man in Verbal Association and Sensori-Motor Coordination.Karl U. Smith - 1947 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (5):367.
  36.  13
    Some Effects of 'Mental Set' on the Electrophysiological Processes of the Human Cerebral Cortex.J. R. Knott - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 24 (4):384.
  37.  5
    The Role of the Optic Cortex in the Dog in the Determination of the Functional Properties of Conditioned Reactions to Light.K. G. Wing & K. U. Smith - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (6):478.
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  38. Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex: An Update.Matthew M. Botvinick, Jonathan D. Cohen & Cameron S. Carter - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):539-546.
    One hypothesis concerning the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is that it functions, in part, to signal the occurrence of conflicts in information processing, thereby triggering compensatory adjustments in cognitive control. Since this idea was first proposed, a great deal of relevant empirical evidence has accrued. This evidence has largely corroborated the conflict-monitoring hypothesis, and some very recent work has provided striking new support for the theory. At the same time, other findings have posed specific challenges, especially concerning (...)
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  39. Cognitive and Emotional Influences in Anterior Cingulate Cortex.George Bush, Phan Luu & Michael I. Posner - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (6):215-222.
    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lesion studies in humans and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The findings from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scalp electrodes following an error response led to the idea that ACC might be the brain's error detection and correction device. (...)
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  40.  42
    Is Blindsight an Effect of Scattered Light, Spared Cortex, and Near-Threshold Vision?John Campion, Richard Latto & Y. M. Smith - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):423-86.
    Blindsight is the term commonly used to describe visually guided behaviour elicited by a stimulus falling within the scotoma (blind area) caused by a lesion of the striate cortex. Such is normally held to be unconscious and to be mediated by subcortical pathways involving the superior colliculus. Blindsight is of considerable theoretical importance since it suggests that destriate man is more like destriate monkey than had been previously believed and also because it supports the classical notion of two visual (...)
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  41.  61
    Value, Pleasure and Choice in the Ventral Prefrontal Cortex.Fabian Grabenhorst & Edmund T. Rolls - 2011 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (2):56-67.
    Rapid advances have recently been made in understanding how value-based decision-making processes are implemented in the brain. We integrate neuroeconomic and computational approaches with evidence on the neural correlates of value and experienced pleasure to describe how systems for valuation and decision-making are organized in the prefrontal cortex of humans and other primates. We show that the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal (VMPFC) cortices compute expected value, reward outcome and experienced pleasure for different stimuli on a common value scale. Attractor (...)
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  42. A Role for the Anterior Insular Cortex in the Global Neuronal Workspace Model of Consciousness.Matthias Michel - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 49:333-346.
    According to the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, consciousness results from the global broadcast of information throughout the brain. The global neuronal workspace is mainly constituted by a fronto-parietal network. The anterior insular cortex is part of this global neuronal workspace, but the function of this region has not yet been defined within the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness. In this review, I hypothesize that the anterior insular cortex implements a cross-modal priority map, the function of (...)
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  43. Cold or Calculating? Reduced Activity in the Subgenual Cingulate Cortex Reflects Decreased Emotional Aversion to Harming in Counterintuitive Utilitarian Judgment.Katja Wiech, Guy Kahane, Nicholas Shackel, Miguel Farias, Julian Savulescu & Irene Tracey - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):364-372.
    Recent research on moral decision-making has suggested that many common moral judgments are based on immediate intuitions. However, some individuals arrive at highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions about when it is permissible to harm other individuals. Such utilitarian judgments have been attributed to effortful reasoning that has overcome our natural emotional aversion to harming others. Recent studies, however, suggest that such utilitarian judgments might also result from a decreased aversion to harming others, due to a deficit in empathic concern and social (...)
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  44. The Search of “Canonical” Explanations for the Cerebral Cortex.Alessio Plebe - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (3):40.
    This paper addresses a fundamental line of research in neuroscience: the identification of a putative neural processing core of the cerebral cortex, often claimed to be “canonical”. This “canonical” core would be shared by the entire cortex, and would explain why it is so powerful and diversified in tasks and functions, yet so uniform in architecture. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the search for canonical explanations over the past 40 years, discussing the theoretical frameworks informing (...)
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  45.  75
    Space and the Parietal Cortex.Masud Husain & Parashkev Nachev - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):30-36.
    Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events embedded (...)
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  46.  42
    Contrasting Roles for Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Decisions and Social Behaviour.M. F. S. Rushworth, T. E. J. Behrens, P. H. Rudebeck & M. E. Walton - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (4):168-176.
    There is general acknowledgement that both the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex are implicated in reinforcement-guided decision making, and emotion and social behaviour. Despite the interest that these areas generate in both the cognitive neuroscience laboratory and the psychiatric clinic, ideas about the distinctive contributions made by each have only recently begun to emerge. This reflects an increasing understanding of the component processes that underlie reinforcement- guided decision making, such as the representation of reinforcement expectations, the exploration, updating and (...)
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  47. The New Associationism: A Neural Explanation of the Predictive Powers of the Cerebral Cortex[REVIEW]Dan Ryder & Oleg Favorov - 2001 - Brain and Mind 2 (2):161-194.
    The ability to predict is the most importantability of the brain. Somehow, the cortex isable to extract regularities from theenvironment and use those regularities as abasis for prediction. This is a most remarkableskill, considering that behaviourallysignificant environmental regularities are noteasy to discern: they operate not only betweenpairs of simple environmental conditions, astraditional associationism has assumed, butamong complex functions of conditions that areorders of complexity removed from raw sensoryinputs. We propose that the brain's basicmechanism for discovering such complexregularities is implemented (...)
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  48.  60
    Cognitive Neurobiology: A Computational Hypothesis for Laminar Cortex[REVIEW]Paul M. Churchland - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):25-51.
    This paper outlines the functional capacities of a novel scheme for cognitive representation and computation, and it explores the possible implementation of this scheme in the massively parallel organization of the empirical brain. The suggestion is that the brain represents reality by means of positions in suitably constitutes phase spaces; and the brain performs computations on these representations by means of coordinate transformations from one phase space to another. This scheme may be implemented in the brain in two distinct forms: (...)
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  49.  74
    Essential Functions of the Human Self Model Are Implemented in the Prefrontal Cortex.Kai Vogeley, Martin Kurthen, Peter Falkai & Wolfgang Maier - 1999 - Consciousness and Cognition 8 (3):343-363.
    The human self model comprises essential features such as the experiences of ownership, of body-centered spatial perspectivity, and of a long-term unity of beliefs and attitudes. In the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, it is suggested that clinical subsyndromes like cognitive disorganization and derealization syndromes reflect disorders of this self model. These features are neurobiologically instantiated as an episodically active complex neural activation pattern and can be mapped to the brain, given adequate operationalizations of self model features. In its unique capability of (...)
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  50. Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys With Psychopathic Tendencies?R. J. R. Blair, E. Colledge & D. G. V. Mitchell - 2001 - Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29 (6):499-511.
    This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex func- tioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the (...)
     
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