Results for 'generalization'

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  1.  60
    Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference.Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered (...)
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  2.  44
    The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning.Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  3.  73
    Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization.Daniel J. Navarro, Matthew J. Dry & Michael D. Lee - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (2):187-223.
    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key ‘‘sampling’’ assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous models have considered two extreme possibilities, known as strong and weak sampling. In strong sampling, data are assumed to have been deliberately generated as positive examples of a concept, whereas in (...)
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  4. Determination, Uniformity, and Relevance: Normative Criteria for Generalization and Reasoning by Analogy.Todd R. Davies - 1988 - In David H. Helman (ed.), Analogical Reasoning. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 227-250.
    This paper defines the form of prior knowledge that is required for sound inferences by analogy and single-instance generalizations, in both logical and probabilistic reasoning. In the logical case, the first order determination rule defined in Davies (1985) is shown to solve both the justification and non-redundancy problems for analogical inference. The statistical analogue of determination that is put forward is termed 'uniformity'. Based on the semantics of determination and uniformity, a third notion of "relevance" is defined, both logically and (...)
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  5.  67
    Main Problems of Diagrammatic Reasoning. Part I: The Generalization Problem. [REVIEW]Zenon Kulpa - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):75-96.
    The paper attempts to analyze in some detail the main problems encountered in reasoning using diagrams, which may cause errors in reasoning, produce doubts concerning the reliability of diagrams, and impressions that diagrammatic reasoning lacks the rigour necessary for mathematical reasoning. The paper first argues that such impressions come from long neglect which led to a lack of well-developed, properly tested and reliable reasoning methods, as contrasted with the amount of work generations of mathematicians expended on refining the methods of (...)
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  6.  85
    The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the "Unnatural".Dan López de Sa - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):263 - 272.
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, such (...)
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  7.  20
    Logics for Qualitative Inductive Generalization.Diderik Batens - 2011 - Studia Logica 97 (1):61 - 80.
    The paper contains a survey of (mainly unpublished) adaptive logics of inductive generalization. These defeasible logics are precise formulations of certain methods. Some attention is also paid to ways of handling background knowledge, introducing mere conjectures, and the research guiding capabilities of the logics.
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  8.  5
    The Universal Generalization Problem.Carlo Cellucci - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52.
    The universal generalization problem is the question: What entitles one to conclude that a property established for an individual object holds for any individual object in the domain? This amounts to the question: Why is the rule of universal generalization justified? In the modern and contemporary age Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Mill, Gentzen gave alternative solutions of the universal generalization problem. In this paper I consider Locke’s, Berkeley’s and Gentzen’s solutions and argue that they are problematic. (...)
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  9.  25
    Generalization: A Practice of Situated Categorization in Talk. [REVIEW]Eric Hauser - 2011 - Human Studies 34 (2):183-198.
    This paper analyzes four instances in talk of generalization about people, that is, of using statements about one or more people as the basis of stating something about a category. Generalization can be seen as a categorization practice which involves a reflexive relationship between the generalized-from person or people and the generalized-to category. One thing that is accomplished through generalization is instruction in how to understand the identity of the generalized-from person or people, so in addition to (...)
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  10.  8
    Classifying Generalization: Paradigm War or Abuse of Terminology?John N. Williams & Eric W. K. Tsang - 2015 - Journal of Information Technology 30 (1):18-19.
    Lee and Baskerville (2003) attempted to clarify the concept of generalization and classify it into four types. In Tsang and Williams (2012) we objected to their account of generalization as well as their classification and offered repairs. Then we proposed a classification of induction, within which we distinguished five types of generalization. In their (2012) rejoinder, they argue that their classification is compatible with ours, claiming that theirs offers a ‘new language.’ Insofar as we resist this ‘new (...)
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  11.  8
    Evolution of Signs, Organisms and Artifacts as Phases of Concrete Generalization.Eliseo Fernández - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (1):91-102.
    Expanding on the results of previous contributions I advance several hypotheses on the interaction of physical and semiotic processes, both in organisms and in human artifacts. I then proceed to employ these ideas to formulate a general account of evolutionary processes in terms of concrete generalization, where, in analogy with conceptual generalization, novel creations retain antecedent features as special or restricted cases. I argue the following theses: 1) the main point of intersection of physical and semiotic causation is (...)
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  12.  11
    Mechanism-Based Theorizing and Generalization From Case Studies.Petri Ylikoski - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:14-22.
    Generalization from a case study is a perennial issue in the methodology of the social sciences. The case study is one of the most important research designs in many social scientific fields, but no shared understanding exists of the epistemic import of case studies. This article suggests that the idea of mechanism-based theorizing provides a fruitful basis for understanding how case studies contribute to a general understanding of social phenomena. This approach is illustrated with a re- construction of Espeland (...)
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  13.  35
    Horwich and the Generalization Problem.Klaus Ladstaetter - 2004 - Papers of the 27th International Wittgenstein Symposium:187-189.
    In order to be complete, Horwich’s minimalist theory must be able to deal with generalizations about truth. A logical and an epistemic-explanatory level of the generalization problem are distinguished, and Horwich’s responses to both sides of the problem are examined. Finally some persistent problems for minimalism are pointed out.
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  14.  26
    Geach on Generalization.Charles Sayward - 2002 - Dialogue 41 (2):221-.
    There are plausible objections to substitutional construals of generalization. But these objections do not apply to a substitutional construal of generalization proposed by Peter Geach several years ago. This paper examines Geach’s conception.
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  15. Rationality and the Generalization of Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence.Jonathan Fuller - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):644-647.
    Over the past several decades, we devoted much energy to generating, reviewing and summarizing evidence. We have given far less attention to the issue of how to thoughtfully apply the evidence once we have it. That’s fine if all we care about is that our clinical decisions are evidence-based, but not so good if we also want them to be well-reasoned. Let us not forget that evidence based medicine (EBM) grew out of an interest in making medicine ‘rational’, with the (...)
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  16.  33
    Causal‐Based Property Generalization.Bob Rehder - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (3):301-344.
  17.  19
    Comparison of Decision Learning Models Using the Generalization Criterion Method.Woo‐Young Ahn, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Eric‐Jan Wagenmakers & Julie C. Stout - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1376-1402.
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  18.  29
    Discriminability and Stimulus Generalization.Norman Guttman & Harry I. Kalish - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (1):79.
  19.  31
    Stimulus and Response Generalization: Tests of a Model Relating Generalization to Distance in Psychological Space.Roger N. Shepard - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):509.
  20.  24
    Effect of Discrimination Training on Auditory Generalization.Herbert M. Jenkins & Robert H. Harrison - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (4):246.
  21.  8
    Increase Over Time in the Stimulus Generalization of Acquired Fear.Wallace R. McAllister & Dorothy E. McAllister - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):576.
  22.  9
    Changes in Fear Generalization Gradients as a Function of Delayed Testing.Otello Desiderato, Barrie Butler & Cornelius Meyer - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):678.
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  23.  5
    Incubation of Anxiety: Effect on Generalization Gradients.Otello Desiderato & Merton E. Wassarman - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):506-510.
  24.  20
    Successive Negative Contrast Effect: Intertrial Interval, Type of Shift, and Four Sources of Generalization Decrement.E. J. Capaldi - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):433.
  25.  50
    Object Dependent Thoughts, Perspectival Thoughts, and Psychological Generalization.Max F. Adams, R. Stecker & G. Fuller - 1999 - Dialectica 53 (1):47–59.
  26.  14
    Stimulus Generalization in the Learning of Classifications.Roger N. Shepard & Jih-Jie Chang - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):94.
  27.  13
    Effects of Discrimination Training on Stimulus Generalization.Harley M. Hanson - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):321.
  28.  28
    Feature Selection for Inductive Generalization.Na-Yung Yu, Takashi Yamauchi, Huei-Fang Yang, Yen-Lin Chen & Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1574-1593.
    Judging similarities among objects, events, and experiences is one of the most basic cognitive abilities, allowing us to make predictions and generalizations. The main assumption in similarity judgment is that people selectively attend to salient features of stimuli and judge their similarities on the basis of the common and distinct features of the stimuli. However, it is unclear how people select features from stimuli and how they weigh features. Here, we present a computational method that helps address these questions. Our (...)
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  29.  5
    Effects of Extradimensional Training on Stimulus Generalization.David R. Thomas, Frederick Freeman, John G. Svinicki, D. E. Scott Burr & Joseph Lyons - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p2):1.
  30.  23
    Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task.Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
  31.  26
    Role of Stimulus Labeling in Stimulus Generalization.David R. Thomas & Alberta Decapito - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):913.
  32.  25
    Generalization in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: From Hypothesis to Paradigm. [REVIEW]Kari Vepsäläinen & John R. Spence - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):211-238.
    We argue that broad, simplegeneralizations, not specifically linked tocontingencies, will rarely approach truth in ecologyand evolutionary biology. This is because mostinteresting phenomena have multiple, interactingcauses. Instead of looking for single universaltheories to explain the great diversity of naturalsystems, we suggest that it would be profitable todevelop general explanatory frameworks. A frameworkshould clearly specify focal levels. The process orpattern that we wish to study defines our level offocus. The set of potential and actual states at thefocal level interacts with conditions at (...)
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  33.  9
    The Generalization Gradient in Recognition Memory.Leo Postman - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4):231.
  34.  19
    Stimulus Identity as Related to Response Specificity and Response Generalization.Delos D. Wickens - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (4):389.
  35.  7
    Generalization and Search in Risky Environments.Eric Schulz, Charley M. Wu, Quentin J. M. Huys, Andreas Krause & Maarten Speekenbrink - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2592-2620.
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  36.  14
    Analysis of Stimulus Generalization with a Psychophysical Method.Eric G. Heinemann, Edward Avin, Mary A. Sullivan & Sheila Chase - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (2p1):215.
  37.  13
    Mediated Generalization and the Interpretation of Verbal Behavior: II. Experimental Study of Certain Homophone and Synonym Gradients.J. P. Foley Jr & C. N. Cofer - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):168.
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  38.  31
    Stimulus Generalization as a Function of the Serial Position of the Stimulus During Prior Training.Marvin E. Shaw & F. A. King - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (4):228.
  39.  24
    Prediction of Preference, Transposition, and Transposition-Reversal From the Generalization Gradient.Werner K. Honig - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (3):239.
  40.  28
    Effect of Concurrent Responses on the Evocation and Generalization of the Conditioned Eyeblink.G. Robert Grice & John D. Davis - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (6):391.
  41.  20
    Response Generalization as a Function of Intratask Response Similarity.Merrill E. Noble & Harry P. Bahrick - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (6):405.
  42.  16
    The Generalization of Conditioned Responses. IV. The Effects of Varying Amounts of Reinforcement Upon the Degree of Generalization of Conditioned Responses. [REVIEW]C. I. Hovland - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (3):261.
  43.  10
    Studies of Response Generalization in Conditioning. I. Stimulus Generalization During Response Generalization.D. D. Wickens - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (3):221.
  44.  12
    Generalization Gradients Around Stimuli Associated with Different Reinforcement Schedules.Norman Guttman - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):335.
  45.  27
    Stimulus Generalization of a Positive Conditioned Reinforcer: III. The New Learning Method.Salvatore C. Caronite & David R. Thomas - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (3):385.
  46.  16
    Classical Conditioning Without Discrimination Training: A Test of the Generalization Theory of CS Intensity Effects.G. Robert Grice, Laraine Masters & David L. Kohfeld - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (4):510.
  47.  24
    Gradients in Response Percentages as Indices of Nonspatial Generalization.Bettina Bass - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (3):278.
  48.  24
    Generalization in the Initial Stages of Learning Nonsense Syllables: I. Integral Responses.B. R. Philip & H. E. Peixotto - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (1):50.
  49.  19
    A Study of Concept Formation as a Function of Reinforcement and Stimulus Generalization.Arnold H. Buss - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (4):494.
  50.  18
    Transfer From Classical Conditioning and Extinction to Acquisition, Extinction, and Stimulus Generalization of a Positively Reinforced Instrumental Response.Milton A. Trapold & Stephen Winokur - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (4p1):517.
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