Since its presumed origin by the big bang, about 14 pasts billion years, the Universe is composed of entities, or objects, that produce movements that produce new objects that produce new movements, in an endless sequence.The human mind is one of these entities, whose movements are capable to produce many objects, materialized or as ideas. Those objects in their turn will interact with the mind and new movements will be produced. This process had composed the history of mankind.The Nature presents (...) a world of movements, originated from its first movement—the explosion of the Singularity. The Universe continues in its expansion, while the Earth rotates and the animals move on its surface. So are the humans, who continue to reproduce by natural movements, biologically, but are capable to fly to the Moon. The entire Universe is composed by the same particles, forming a multitude of objects, inserted in the primary objects, participating in the primary movements, and introducing new ones. It is a World of an infinite number of movements derived from the first one, disposed in levels. The upper levels are constituted by the social movements.Thus, history is a development of the producing of material and ideal objects and of their related movements. To produce it mankind have been using the natural environment, offered by the earth’s surface, and the social products already produced during their times of history.Among the last, the social products, one recognizes: a) the knowledge, or information; b) the social relations between men and their social structures, and c) the spatial shaping of their social life, or geography.Thus, in this paper one tries to develop the idea of relating the terms Civilization, Mode of Production and Ages of History to the above three-legged composition.An example is given here: the invention of the caravel, that had conduced to the large discoveries (technology, information, knowledge). It intensified commercial activities, geographical interactions, accelerating the replacing of the feudal society in Europe by the mercantile society (social relations, social structure). The geography also changed with the higher development of the commercial sea port urban centers (spatial shaping geography).The current age of globalization is being an age of a new geography and of new forms in the urbanization process. (shrink)
Marx's concept of production is not only in the sense of understanding of historical materialism, but should be placed in the entire history of Western philosophy to dialysis. The theory of commodity fetishism by the specific analysis, we believe that the duality of Marx's labor theory of sublimation of Kant's thing-in theory, the relations of production areas to expose the history of Western philosophy is the pursuit of the illusion of certainty of abstract identity, revealing the dialectic essence (...) of the historical circumstances and human relations. Relations of production within the context of a critical attitude towards both the change in the basic formulation of the question of philosophy, but also reshape the basic position of philosophy, history of philosophy to achieve great change. Marx's category of mode of production should not only be interpreted in sense of historical materialism but also be melted into the integration of western philosophy history. By the concrete analyzing on Marx's theory of commodity fetishism, we come to the conclusion that not only was the theory of duality of labor as sublimation on Kant's theory of object in itself, but also Marx's category of relationship of production uncovered the abstract identity vision in which western philosophy have been in pursuit of the certitude from Enlightenment on, furthermore revealed the relation between core spirit of dialectic and human being 'historical circumstances. The critical attitude rooted into the theory of mode of production has changed the question mode as remolded the basic standpoint of philosophy and achieved the great transformation in philosophy history. (shrink)
The new mode of knowledge production is seen as a distinct form of economic organisation used for exchanging and creating knowledge. The emphasis is laid on the role of business services in innovative networks as carriers of knowledge and intermediates between science (knowledge creator) and their customers (knowledge user). The empirical analysis shows that knowledge-intensive business services are able to make existing knowledge useful for, their customers, improving the customer's performance and productivity and contributing to technological and structural change.
The traditional researcher-driven environment of medical knowledge production is losing its dominance with the expansion of, for instance, community-based participatory or participant-led medical research. Over the past few decades, sociologists of science have debated a shift in the production of knowledge from traditional discipline-based to more socially embedded and transdisciplinary frameworks. Recently, scholars have tried to show the relevance of Mode 2 knowledge production to medical research. However, the existing literature lacks detailed clarifications on how a model (...) of Mode 2 knowledge production can be constructed in the context of medical research. This paper calls for such further clarifications. As a heuristic means, the advocacy for a controversial experimental stem cell therapy is examined. It is discussed that the example cannot be considered a step towards Mode 2 medical knowledge production. Nonetheless, the example brings to the fore some complexities of medical knowledge production that need to be further examined including: the shifting landscape of defining and addressing vulnerability of research participants, the emerging overlap between research and practice, and public health implications of revising the standard notions of quality control and accountability. (shrink)
The application of a `Foucaultism' to contemporary critical analysis is by no means an easy task and Poster's book contains many valuable insights into the functioning of Foucault's work — particularly as it relates to modern Marxisms — within critical theory. Yet there remain a number of important themes which Poster appears merely to gloss over providing no solution to the dilemmas thrown up by grounded theory attempting to work within the field of a discursive analysis. The aim of this (...) paper is to shed some light on the particular nature of `history' as it appears in Marx and in Foucault and to indicate some of the main characteristics of Foucault's analytical tools. The logic of the paper follows the logic of Poster's book, dealing with Marx first, Foucault second, and closes with an examination of some analytical implications of adopting a discursive/genealogical approach to the study of contemporary social phenomena. (shrink)
Interactive media need their own idioms that exploit the characteristics of the computer based sign. The fact that the reader can physically influence the course of events in the system changes the author's role, since he no longer creates a linear text but anarrative space that the reader can use to generate stories. Although stories are not simulations of the real world, they must still contain recognizable parts where everyday constraints of time and space hold. AI-techniques can be used to (...) implement these constraints. In fact, we suggest that AI is probably best seen as an aesthetic phenomenon. (shrink)
At a council meeting in 1985 of the Faculty of Philosophy of Moscow State University, a discussion took place on the monographs of Professor A. M. Kovalev entitled Dialectics of the Mode of Production of the Life of Society [Dialektika sposoba proizvodstva obshchestvennoi zhizni] and Socialism and the Laws of Social Development [Sotsializm i zakonomernosti obshchestvennogo razvitiia]. The dean of the faculty and chairman of the council, Professor A. D. Kosichev, said that the work schedule of the faculty provided (...) for discussion of current philosophical publications. This is important both for raising the intellectual and scholarly level of teaching and for the scholarly investigations themselves. The party committee of Moscow State University directed the attention of the faculty during the report of the Department of Scientific Communism to the necessity for an active discussion of the scholarly output of instructors in the faculty. The discussion of A. M. Kovalev's books, observed Kosichev, must be creative, objective, and principled, and it must take place in a spirit of comradely congeniality and constructive scholarly criticism. (shrink)
This paper adopts Deleuze’s reading of Spinoza’s expressionism and pure semiotics to argue that Spinoza’s Ethics offers an alternative notion of freedom of speech that is based on the potentia of the individual. Its aim is to show how freedom of thought is connected to the problem of individuation that connects our mode of being with our power to speak and think. Rather than treating freedom of speech as an enlightened idea that is in opposition to, for example, religious authority, (...) or the suppression of human rights, this paper argues that freedom of speech should be understood by what Spinoza calls ‘an adequate idea’: an idea that explains the cause of its own production. What is to be considered is: who wants this freedom, in what situation, why, what is at stake? No freedom in itself is ever given. This paper argues for speech as an assembled body that is always in connection with other bodies. It is argued that to understand the power and value of the freedom of speech, we should study the praxis of the utterance as an assembled body, its causal dimensions, and its affective immanent relations with other bodies, and other modes of speaking. (shrink)
Alfred Sohn-Rethel did not just elaborate a materialist theory of knowledge, he also introduced the term ‘real abstraction’ into Marxist debate. However, he locates the origin of commodity abstraction solely in the sphere of circulation, conceiving of production itself as a mere metabolism with nature. This conception, in which the critique of capitalism aims exclusively at distribution, and which rejects the Marxian concept of ‘abstract labour’, remains widespread. It is our express intention here to undertake a critique of such (...) a conception for the benefit of a critique of the very mode of capitalist production. (shrink)
As we approach the end of the twentieth century, the ways in which knowledge--scientific, social, and cultural--is produced are undergoing fundamental changes. In The New Production of Knowledge, a distinguished group of authors analyze these changes as marking the transition from established institutions, disciplines, practices, and policies to a new mode of knowledge production. Identifying such elements as reflexivity, transdisciplinarity, and heterogeneity within this new mode, the authors consider their impact and interplay with the role of knowledge in (...) social relations. While the knowledge produced by research and development in science and technology is accorded central focus, the authors also outline the changing dimensions of social scientific and humanities knowledge and the relations between the production of knowledge and its dissemination through education. Placing science policy and scientific knowledge within the broader context of contemporary society, this book will be essential reading for all those concerned with the changing nature of knowledge, with the social study of science, with educational systems, and with the correlation between research and development and social, economic, and technological development. "Thought-provoking in its identification of issues that are global in scope; for policy makers in higher education, government, or the commercial sector." --Choice "By their insightful identification of the recent social transformation of knowledge production, the authors have been able to assert new imperatives for policy institutions. The lessons of the book are deep." --Alexis Jacquemin, Universite Catholique de Louvain and Advisor, Foreign Studies Unit, European Commission "Should we celebrate the emergence of a 'post-academic' mode of postmodern knowledge production of the post-industrial society of the 21st Century? Or should we turn away from it with increasing fear and loathing as we also uncover its contradictions. A generation of enthusiasts and/or critics will be indebted to the team of authors for exposing so forcefully the intimate connections between all the cognitive, educational, organizational, and commercial changes that are together revolutionizing the sciences, the technologies, and the humanities. This book will surely spark off a vigorous and fruitful debate about the meaning and purpose of knowledge in our culture." --Professor John Ziman, (Wendy, Janey at Ltd. is going to provide affiliation. Contact if you don't hear from her.) "Jointly authored by a team of distinguished scholars spanning a number of disciplines, The New Production of Knowledge maps the changes in the mode of knowledge production and the global impact of such transformations. . . . The authors succeed . . . at sketching out, in very large strokes, the emerging trends in knowledge production and their implications for future society. The macro focus of the book is a welcome change from the micro obsession of most sociologists of science, who have pretty much deconstructed institutions and even scientific knowledge out of existence." --Contemporary Sociology "This book is a timely contribution to current discussion on the breakdown of and need to renegotiate the social contract between science and society that Vannevar Bush and likeminded architects of science policy constructed immediately after World War II. It goes far beyond the usual scattering of fragmentary insights into changing institutional landscapes, cognitive structures, or quality control mechanisms of present day science, and their linkages with society at large. Tapping a wide variety of sources, the authors provide a coherent picture of important new characteristics that, taken altogether, fundamentally challenge our traditional notions of what academic research is all about. This well-founded analysis of the social redistribution of knowledge and its associated power patterns helps articulate what otherwise tends to remain an--albeit widespread--intuition. Unless they adapt to the new situation, universities in the future will find the centers of gravity of knowledge production moving even further beyond their ken. Knowledge of the social and cognitive dynamics of science in research is much needed as a basis of science and technology policymaking. The New Production of Knowledge does a lot to fill this gap. Another unique feature is its discussion of the humanities, which are usually left out in works coming out of the social studies of science." --Aant Elzinga, University od Goteborg. (shrink)
The Dynamics of Modes of Production and Social Orders Marx’s conceptualization of history emphasizes the succession of modes of production. However the dynamics of productive forces and relations of production are continuous. Central to this analysis is the “socialization of production” and the rise of the managerial class. These trends require the adjustment of institutions, notably those in which the ownership of the means of production is expressed, an adjustment that is often implemented under the (...) pressure of structural crises. The article illustrates these dynamics in the United States since the late 19th century, in particular in relation to the tripolar class patterns, capitalists, popular classes and managerial class. What is involved is the gradual emergence of a new mode of production whose dominant class is intended to be the managerial class. A “social order” is a shorter period marked by the configuration of class dominations and alliances: the hegemony of capitalist classes during the first third of the 20th century, the alliance between managers and popular classes after the Great Depression and World War II, and neoliberalism as a new hegemony of capitalists in alliance with managers. The approach in terms of social orders allows for the interpretation of the state as the institutional “locus” in which social orders are formed, rather than as the exclusive domination of a ruling class. (shrink)
This paper presents a case study of a psychiatric intervention as an example of an institutional ethnography of psychiatric work. Institutional ethnography, a mode of inquiry outlined by Dorothy Smith (1987), is conceived here as an approach to the analysis of work in institutions as the contingent, local and context-bound insertion of a particular "case" - a patron, a pupil, a client, a patient - into both institutional and other social (e. g. gender, class) relations. The case presented in this (...) paper, shows how a psychiatric factual account is the outcome of a process of the recognition, and/or the production, of "mentionables," followed by the documentary interpretation of mentionables as symptoms. Subsequently it is demonstrated that, and how, the recognition of mentionables depends on non-professional interpretations which by their nature express other social (such as gender, class, etc.) relations. This description of psychiatric diagnostic work is produced by means of a method of discourse analysis that consists of the juxtaposition of the various institutional texts (the two reports) with the transcript of the interview. An analysis of only the interview data would undoubtedly have resulted in some insights about psychiatric interviewing but would have shown neither how the interview functioned as a stage in the institutional process of (re)writing reports nor how ideological evaluations entered the diagnostic process. On the other hand, an analysis of only the two reports would have resulted in some insights about psychiatric reporting but would not have shown how these reports were produced. (shrink)
Elias G. Carayannis and David F. J. Campbell, Mode 3 Knowledge Production in Quadruple Helix Innovation Systems: 21st-Century Democracy, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship for Development Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 139-142 DOI 10.1007/s11024-012-9194-6 Authors Barbara Prainsack, Department of Sociology and Communications, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK Journal Minerva Online ISSN 1573-1871 Print ISSN 0026-4695 Journal Volume Volume 50 Journal Issue Volume 50, Number 1.
The `co-productions' of science and society have undergone dramatic changes in recent decades. However, contrasts between `Mode 1' and `Mode 2' are not compelling inhistorical terms. This essay will argue that, in fact, they offer too naturalistic and a-political a picture.
This article presents a new interpretation of the concept of social relations of production in Marx. Against G.A. Cohen, it argues that social relations of production are relations of interaction between persons, not relations of de facto control between persons and means of production. It argues further that these relations are relations of 'de facto recognition', that is, relations constituted by actions in which individuals treat each other as if they recognised each other in certain ways, whether (...) or not the relevant recognitional attitudes are present. (shrink)
Activities of product design and manufacturing are carried out on a worldwide scale. Operations like outsourcing and fabless manufacturing occur frequently in both design and manufacturing processes to stimulate outbreaks of the abovementioned phenomena. In this situation, manufacturing knowledge data, that have been collected and used only by the same enterprise in the same place and within the same ethnic group up to now, are not sufficient or precise enough for making a plan of ongoing manufacturing. This paper tries to (...) suggest an example of manufacturing knowledge data containing an element of production culture and to estimate a risk of manufacturing trouble that could happen between each production culture. (shrink)
When the Chinese Communist Party gained control of the entire country in 1949, it faced a country that had been long plagued by civil and foreign wars, [and] was politically disintegrated and economically in shambles. During the civil war, the corrupt Guomindang regime brought the country to the brink of destruction and ruins rarely seen in China's history. In terms of economic formation, the Four Big Families [Jiang, Song, Chen, and Kong] of the Guomindang represented the interests of the major (...) bureaucrat-comprador bourgeoisie and seriously hindered the growth of the national bourgeoisie. Right after liberation, industry accounted for less than 10 percent of the gross national product, while the remaining 90 percent was composed of either an enormous small peasant economy or a feudal-patriarchal economy. In the old liberated areas in the North, the land reform led by the Chinese Communist Party freed the peasants from the feudal-patriarchal economy and enabled the emergence of groups of small private owners. However, in the newly liberated areas in the South, land reform had not yet been carried out. Therefore, whether in the urban or rural areas, complete transformations of a capitalist nature must take place to clear the way for the development of the capitalist mode of production. The period of recovery of the national economy during the three years after the founding of the People's Republic of China happened to be the same period when capitalism was fully developing. As described by Liu Shaoqi, China during that time was in an early stage of capitalist development. All reform measures of a capitalist nature had been successful, and indeed greatly helped with the recovery of the national economy. The Movement to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries and the Movement to Eliminate Counterrevolutionaries were both highly necessary and correct in wiping out the destructive elements of the surviving forces of the Guomindang and consolidating the political basis of the new society. The divisive activities of Gao Gang and Rao Shushi1 did not affect the general historical situation. (shrink)