Results for 'placebo'

448 found
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  1. Placebo Effects and Informed Consent.Mark Alfano - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):3-12.
    The concepts of placebos and placebo effects refer to extremely diverse phenomena. I recommend dissolving the concepts of placebos and placebo effects into loosely related groups of specific mechanisms, including expectation-fulfillment, classical conditioning, and attentional-somatic feedback loops. If this approach is on the right track, it has three main implications for the ethics of informed consent. First, because of the expectation-fulfillment mechanism, the process of informing cannot be considered independently from the potential effects of treatment. Obtaining informed consent (...)
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  2. The Placebo Phenomenon and Medical Ethics: Rethinking the Relationship Between Informed Consent and Risk–Benefit Assessment.Franklin G. Miller & Luana Colloca - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (4):229-243.
    It has been presumed within bioethics that the benefits and risks of treatments can be assessed independently of information disclosure to patients as part of the informed consent process. Research on placebo and nocebo effects indicates that this is not true for symptomatic treatments. The benefits and risks that patients experience from symptomatic treatments can be shaped powerfully by information about these treatments provided by clinicians. In this paper we discuss the implications of placebo and nocebo research for (...)
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  3. Placebo Use in the United Kingdom: Results From a National Survey of Primary Care Practitioners.Jeremy Howick - 2013 - PLoS 8 (3).
    Objectives -/- Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe ‘placebos’ in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. Methods -/- We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into ‘pure’ and ‘impure’. ‘Impure’ placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for (...)
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  4. The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials: Methodological Justifications.Joseph Millum & Christine Grady - 2013 - Contemporary Clinical Trials 36 (2):510-14.
    The use of placebo controls in clinical trials remains controversial. Ethical analysis and international ethical guidance permit the use of placebo controls in randomized trials when scientifically indicated in four cases: (1) when there is no proven effective treatment for the condition under study; (2) when withholding treatment poses negligible risks to participants; (3) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and withholding treatment does not pose a risk of serious harm to participants; and, more (...)
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  5.  32
    An Enactive Account of Placebo Effects.Giulio Ongaro & Dave Ward - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (4):507-533.
    Placebos are commonly defined as ineffective treatments. They are treatments that lack a known mechanism linking their properties to the properties of the condition on which treatment aims to intervene. Given this, the fact that placebos can have substantial therapeutic effects looks puzzling. The puzzle, we argue, arises from the relationship placebos present between culturally meaningful entities, our intentional relationship to the environment and bodily effects. How can a mere attitude toward a treatment result in appropriate bodily changes? We argue (...)
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  6.  61
    Ravines and Sugar Pills: Defending Deceptive Placebo Use.Jonathan Pugh - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):83-101.
    In this paper, I argue that deceptive placebo use can be morally permissible, on the grounds that the deception involved in the prescription of deceptive placebos can differ in kind to the sorts of deception that undermine personal autonomy. In order to argue this, I shall first delineate two accounts of why deception is inimical to autonomy. On these accounts, deception is understood to be inimical to the deceived agent’s autonomy because it either involves subjugating the deceived agent’s will (...)
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  7.  33
    Electroconvulsive Therapy, the Placebo Effect and Informed Consent.C. R. Blease - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (3):166-170.
    Major depressive disorder is not only the most widespread mental disorder in the world, it is a disorder on the rise. In cases of particularly severe forms of depression, when all other treatment options have failed, the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a recommended treatment option for patients. ECT has been in use in psychiatric practice for over 70 years and is now undergoing something of a restricted renaissance following a sharp decline in its use in the 1970s. Despite (...)
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  8.  35
    Placebo Orthodoxy and the Double Standard of Care in Multinational Clinical Research.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):7-23.
    It has been almost 20 years since the field of bioethics was galvanized by a controversial series of multinational AZT trials employing placebo controls on pregnant HIV-positive women in the developing world even though a standard of care existed in the sponsor countries. The trove of ethical investigations that followed was thoughtful and challenging, yet an important and problematic methodological assumption was left unexplored. In this article, I revisit the famous “double standard of care” case study in order to (...)
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  9. Applying Evidence to Support Ethical Decisions: Is the Placebo Really Powerless?Prof Dr Franz Porzsolt, Nicole Scholtz-Gorton, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Anke Thim, Karin Meissner, Irmgard Roeckl-Wiedmann, Barbara Herzberger, Renatus Ziegler, Wilhelm Gaus & Ernst Pöppel - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):119-132.
    Using placebos in day-to-day practice is an ethical problem. This paper summarises the available epidemiological evidence to support this difficult decision. Based on these data we propose to differentiate between placebo and “knowledge framing”. While the use of placebo should be confined to experimental settings in clinical trials, knowledge framing — which is only conceptually different from placebo — is a desired, expected and necessary component of any doctor-patient encounter. Examples from daily practice demonstrate both, the need (...)
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  10. Reexamination of the Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Practice.Atsushi Asai & Yasuhiro Kadooka - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (4):186-193.
    A placebo is a substance or intervention believed to be inactive, but is administered by the healthcare professional as if it was an active medication. Unlike standard treatments, clinical use of placebo usually involves deception and is therefore ethically problematic. Our attitudes toward the clinical use of placebo, which inevitably includes deception or withholding information, have a tremendous effect on our practice regarding truth-telling and informed consent. A casual attitude towards it weakens the current practice based on (...)
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  11.  33
    Placebo Effects and Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Unjust and Underexplored Connection.Phoebe Friesen & Charlotte Blease - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (11):774-781.
    While a significant body of bioethical literature considers how the placebo effect might introduce a conflict between autonomy and beneficence, the link between justice and the placebo effect has been neglected. Here, we bring together disparate evidence from the field of placebo studies and research on health inequalities related to race and ethnicity, and argue that, collectively, this evidence may provide the basis for an unacknowledged route by which health disparities are exacerbated. This route is constituted by (...)
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  12. The Use of the Placebo Effect in Clinical Medicine — Ethical Blunder or Ethical Imperative?Nikola Biller-Andorno - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):43-50.
    The current debate in medical ethics on placebos focuses mainly on their use in health research. Whereas this is certainly an important topic the discussion tends to overlook another longstanding but nevertheless highly relevant question, namely if and how the placebo effect should be employed in clinical practice. This paper describes the way the placebo effect is perceived in modern medicine and offers some historical reflections on how these perceptions have developed; discusses elements of a definition of the (...)
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  13.  18
    Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials: How Trial Documents Justify the Use of Randomisation and Placebo.Tapani Keränen, Arja Halkoaho, Emmi Itkonen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):2.
    Randomised clinical trials involve procedures such as randomisation, blinding, and placebo use, which are not part of standard medical care. Patients asked to participate in RCTs often experience difficulties in understanding the meaning of these and their justification.
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  14.  70
    The Placebo Effect: How the Subconscious Fits In.J. L. Mommaerts & Dirk Devroey - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1):43-58.
    A much-cited definition of placebo is from Shapiro and Shapiro :"any therapy that is intentionally or knowingly used for its nonspecific, psychological, or psychophysiological, therapeutic effect, or that is used for a presumed specific therapeutic effect on a patient, symptom, or illness but is without specific activity for the condition being treated". What nonspecific means and how it relates to the psyche has been written about extensively yet inconclusively. In the end, the term nonspecific doesn't say anything about the (...)
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  15.  15
    Strengthening the Ethical Assessment of Placebo-Controlled Surgical Trials: Three Proposals.Wendy Rogers, Katrina Hutchison, Zoë C. Skea & Marion K. Campbell - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):78.
    Placebo-controlled surgical trials can provide important information about the efficacy of surgical interventions. However, they are ethically contentious as placebo surgery entails the risk of harms to recipients, such as pain, scarring or anaesthetic misadventure. This has led to claims that placebo-controlled surgical trials are inherently unethical. On the other hand, without placebo-controlled surgical trials, it may be impossible to know whether an apparent benefit from surgery is due to the intervention itself or to the (...) effect. (shrink)
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  16.  39
    The Biochemical Bases of the Placebo Effect.Dr Raúl de la Fuente-Fernández & A. Jon Stoessl - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):143-150.
    A great variety of medical conditions are subject to the placebo effect. Although there is mounting evidence to suggest that the placebo effect is related to the expectation of clinical benefit, little is still known about the biochemical bases underlying placebo responses. Positron emission tomography studies have recently shown that the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease, pain, and depression is related to the activation of the limbic circuitry. The observation that placebo administration induces the release (...)
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  17.  50
    The CIOMS View on the Use of Placebo in Clinical Trials.Juhana E. Idänpään-Heikkilä & Sev Fluss - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):23-28.
    Based on worldwide consultations with experts in science and ethics the revised CIOMS 2002 International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects provide guidance on when the use of placebo as a comparator in clinical research is ethically acceptable. The article reviews the main points of the CIOMS Guidelines and commentaries including the use of placebo in situations where the best current method is available and the relation of placebo to established effective intervention. It discusses the (...)
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  18.  64
    Paradoxical Drug Response and the Placebo Effect: A Discussion of Grunbaum's Definitional Scheme.Duff Waring - 2003 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (1):5-17.
    Grunbaum claims that the remedial failure of atreatment's characteristic factors is thegeneric, objective property of a placebo. Hestipulates that a treatment is placebic if thisremedial failure exacerbates the targetdisorder. This stipulation can subsume asplacebic effects that might be solelypharmacological, e.g., paradoxical reactions tocertain psychiatric drugs. If that exacerbationcan be explained pharmacologically, then wemight question whether Grunbaum's definitionalscheme captures the core identity of what weusually intend by the placebo concept. Ipropose that this core identity is bestcaptured by a symbolic (...)
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  19.  47
    Clinical Trials: Active Control Vs Placebo — What is Ethical?Jacek Spławiński & Jerzy Kuźniar - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):73-79.
    The quest for effective medicines is very old. In modern times two important tools have been developed to evaluate efficacy of drugs: superiority and non-inferiority types of clinical trials. The former tests the null hypothesis of μ (the difference between a tested drug and comparator) ≤ 0 against μ > 0; the latter tests the null hypothesis of μ ≤ - Δ against, μ > - Δ, where Δ is the clinical difference from the comparator. In a superiority trial, a (...)
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  20.  22
    Exploiting Placebo Effects for Therapeutic Benefit.Colin Cheyne - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (3):177-188.
    It is widely believed that medically inert treatments (“placebos”) can bring about therapeutic benefits. There is also evidence that medically active treatments may also have “placebo” effects. Since anything that has the potential to benefit patients ought to be exploited, subject to appropriate ethical standards, it has been suggested that more should be done to investigate and exploit the power of the placebo for therapeutic benefit. I explore the acute epistemic and ethical constraints that such exploitation is likely (...)
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  21.  15
    La ricerca scientifica sugli effetti placebo e nocebo: criticità metodologiche, rilevanza filosofica e prospettive sull’elaborazione predittiva.Alessio Bucci - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (3):280-285.
    ENG: In this brief commentary on Sara Palermo’s article, I highlight several methodological criticisms of the data analysis and hypotheses proposed by the author. I then focus on the relevance of nocebo/placebo studies for the contemporary debate on the mind/body problem. In particular, I show how these phenomena raise questions for dualistic and neurocentric approaches that are still prevalent in philosophy. Finally, I stress the role of expectations in nocebo/placebo models, with reference to a promising theoretical framework: the (...)
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  22.  23
    Placebo Treatment is Effective Differently in Different Diseases — but is It Also Harmless? A Brief Synopsis.Prof Dr Thomas R. Weihrauch - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):151-155.
    The placebo drug reactions from controlled trials were studied for the first time systematically for efficacy and the safety in drug data pooled from randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre studies. Results: The efficacy of placebo on clinical symptoms and outcome varied between the therapeutic indications. However, no placebo effects on laboratory values, as e.g. blood glucose or Hb1c in diabetics, were noted. The frequency and type of placebo-induced adverse reactions also varied between indication groups. The placebo (...)
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  23.  33
    The Concept of Placebo.Professor Zbigniew Szawarski - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):57-64.
    This paper attempts to define the concept of placebo as it is used in the clinical context The author claims that X is a placebo if and only if X has such a property dp, that whenever in a therapeutic situation T a stimulus S appears, then in attending conditions A, it will cause a beneficial reaction R in the patient. Formally, the same structure may be used to define any pharmacologically active drug. The main difference between the (...)
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  24.  34
    Informed Consent and the Use of Placebo in Poland: Ethical and Legal Aspects. [REVIEW]Prof Piotr Zaborowski & Adam Górski - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):167-178.
    The concept of informed consent was one of the most fruitful ideas that deeply changed the relationships between physicians and their patients from paternalism to respect for the personal autonomy of subjects needing professional medical care. The great progress in medicine, also involving the pharmaceutical industry, has created an increasing need to perform different clinical and experimental trials. The evolution of clinical research in the last decades has influenced strongly the design of these studies. One of the most important changes (...)
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  25.  42
    Applying Evidence to Support Ethical Decisions: Is the Placebo Really Powerless?Franz Porzsolt, Nicole Scholtz-Gorton, Nikola Biller-Andorno, Anke Thim, Karin Meissner, Irmgard Roeckl-Wiedmann, Barbara Herzberger, Renatus Ziegler, Wilhelm Gaus & Ernst Pöppel - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):119-132.
    Using placebos in day-to-day practice is an ethical problem. This paper summarises the available epidemiological evidence to support this difficult decision. Based on these data we propose to differentiate between placebo and “knowledge framing”. While the use of placebo should be confined to experimental settings in clinical trials, knowledge framing — which is only conceptually different from placebo — is a desired, expected and necessary component of any doctor-patient encounter. Examples from daily practice demonstrate both, the need (...)
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  26.  37
    Placebo and Criminal Law.Jan C. Joerden - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):65-72.
    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits (...)
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  27.  18
    The Necessity and the Value of Placebo.Dr Ernst A. Singer - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):51-56.
    The use of placebo in clinical trials has been repeatedly challenged as being unacceptable from an ethical point of view. The present paper responds to this criticism by taking up the issue in the light of the pertinent provisions of the Helsinki Declaration. Examples from different therapeutic areas are given that highlight the importance of placebo in situations in which its use is acceptable according to the Declaration. Particular emphasis is given to the question of active control trials, (...)
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  28.  12
    Placebo: Its Action and Place in Health Research Today. [REVIEW]Dr Randolph Smoak Jr - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):9-13.
    The place for the placebo in human clinical research is addressed in this paper. The World Medical Association which is comprised of some 80 National Medical Associations uses much of its resources to address medical ethics and human rights issues. It adopted the Declaration of Helsinki in June 1964 which addressed the protection of individuals in clinical trials. The use of placebos assumes an important role in this document. Five Revisions of the Declaration of Helsinki have occurred and the (...)
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  29.  22
    Homeopathic Remedies as Placebo Alternatives — Verification on the Example of Treatment of Menopause-Related Vegetative and Emotional Disturbances.Bohdan W. Wasilewski - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):179-188.
    With the example of treatment of menopause-related vegetative and emotional disturbances, the author verifies the effectiveness of the use of Ignatia amara containing complex homeopathic remedies (IACCHR) as an alternative to placebo. Substantial improvement in psychological and psychosomatic symptoms was observed. Climacteric complaints diminished or disappeared completely in the majority of women (95.7% by patient evaluation and 96.2% by physician evaluation). Compared to standard pharmaceuticals, IACCHR treatment was tolerated better and lower risk of side effects was observed. The results (...)
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  30.  10
    Placebo: Deception and the Notion of Autonomy.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2018 - In George Arabatzis & Evangelos D. Protopapadakis (eds.), Thinking in Action. Athens, Greece: pp. 103-115.
    In this short essay I intent to discuss the moral standing of autonomy in the field of Medical Ethics and the way it affects individual decision making as well as health care policies. To this purpose I will employ a real life scenario, namely administering placebo medication to a patient without letting him know, by means of which I will challenge not only the effectiveness and the feasibility of autonomy in the Kantian sense, but also its desirability. I will (...)
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  31.  11
    Placebo and the Helsinki Declaration — What to Do?Professor Bozidar Vrhovac - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):81-93.
    The Helsinki Declaration is the ‘gold standard’ — a directive, not a law, on how to conduct controlled studies in humans in conformity with ethical principles. In spite of many discussions about their unsuitability some articles have remained unchanged in the most recent (sixth) revision of the Declaration. The demand to use “the best treatment” excludes use of placebo in the control group and presents an obstacle to the scientific evaluation of a number of drugs and treatments in general. (...)
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  32.  32
    Impure Placebo is a Useless Concept.Pekka Louhiala, Harri Hemilä & Raimo Puustinen - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (4):279-289.
    Placebos are allegedly used widely in general practice. Surveys reporting high level usage, however, have combined two categories, ‘pure’ and ‘impure’ placebos. The wide use of placebos is explained by the high level usage of impure placebos. In contrast, the prevalence of the use of pure placebos has been low. Traditional pure placebos are clinically ineffective treatments, whereas impure placebos form an ambiguous group of diverse treatments that are not always ineffective. In this paper, we focus on the impure (...) concept and demonstrate problems related to it. We also show that the common examples of impure placebos are not meaningful from the point of view of clinical practice. We conclude that the impure placebo is a scientifically misleading concept and should not be used in scientific or medical literature. The issues behind the concept, however, deserve serious attention in future research. (shrink)
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  33.  6
    Analgesia da placebo, anticipazione dolorifica e i possibili correlati neurali dell’effetto nocebo.Sara Palermo - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (3):259-279.
    Riassunto : L’ effetto nocebo è l’effetto psicobiologico dovuto al contesto psicosociale negativo che accompagna una terapia. Dal momento che lo studio dell’ anticipazione dolorifica prende in considerazione la fase temporale della “attesa dell’iperalgesia”, e considerando che – proprio come il nocebo – è possibile elicitarla con il solo uso di verbalizzazioni negative, questo modello può permettere di studiare la risposta nocebo. Ad oggi infatti non si dispone di dati univoci circa le aree coinvolte in questi processi e circa il (...)
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  34.  55
    The Placebo Effect in Popular Culture.Mary Faith Marshall - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):37-42.
    This paper gives an overview of the placebo effect in popular culture, especially as it pertains to the work of authors Patrick O’Brian and Sinclair Lewis. The beloved physician as placebo, and the clinician scientist as villain are themes that respectively inform the novels, The Hundred Days and Arrowsmith. Excerpts from the novels, and from film show how the placebo effect, and the randomized clinical trial, have emerged into popular culture, and evolved over time.
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  35.  20
    The Placebo Effect and Its Implications.Dawson Hedges & Colin Burchfield - 2005 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (3):161-180.
    Often regarded simply as a nuisance in clinical drug trials in which the aim is to separate drug response from placebo response in a statistically significant manner, the placebo response has important implications. These implications relate to the nature of illness, the study of non-specific factors in the treatment setting that are related to clinical improvement, methods of enhancing these non-specific sources of benefit, and the neurobiology that is associated with the placebo response. Specific sources of clinical (...)
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  36.  21
    Placebo in the Investigation of Psychotropic Drugs, Especially Antidepressants.Stanisław Pużyński - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):135-142.
    The paper presents major ethical, legal and methodological problems related to the use of placebo in mental disorders, especially in depression. It is pointed out that although authoritative groups of experts and numerous publications in the field of psychopharmacology indicate advisability of the double blind design with placebo in clinical trials of antidepressants, in recent years there have been more and more voices questioning legitimacy of this method. Objections of an ethical nature are raised, and reliability of this (...)
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  37.  23
    Placebo: Its Action and Place in Health Research Today* — Summary and Conclusions.Raymond E. Spier - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):189-197.
    The material presented at this conference pointed to a new dimension in the prosecution of activities that seek to relieve people of disease. While the simple instrument of the placebo may show those interested in the efficacy of physiologically active chemicals the extent to which the chemical of interest is actually active, the surprising outcome of such studies is that the placebo per se is worthy of more general study. This, when taken further, points to the ways in (...)
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  38.  17
    What Does the Public Think of Placebo Use? The Canadian Experience.Patricia Huston - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):103-117.
    Part of the National Placebo Initiative in Canada included public consultations, based on the belief that the views of the public should inform Canadian policy development on what constitutes appropriate placebo use. Public consultations took place nationally in 2003. A deliberative dialogue approach was used, or a structured discussion format designed to facilitate the consideration of complex issues and build consensus. The placebo debate was characterized as having 3 distinct approaches and each were explored. The first approach (...)
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  39.  11
    The Placebo Effect.Emrys Westacott - 2006 - Philosophy Now 55:50-54.
    A humorous short story about a company that tries marketing a placebo as a more expensive drug on the grounds that doing this will both maximize their profits and benefit the greatest number, since research shows the placebo to be highly effective if marketed as something else.
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  40. The Placebo Effect.Jennifer Corns - forthcoming - In The Philosophy of Pain. Routledge.
    Despite the conceptual problems in identifying the placebo effect, an increasing number of multidisciplinary inquiries rest on the assumption that there is a distinct class of effects, placebo effects. In this chapter, I argue against this assumption. I present cases and characterizations of the placebo effect as offered in the literature, and argue that the latter are subject to insurmountable problems. Moreover, I argue that identification of placebo effects as such is not useful for the three (...)
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  41. Placebo Theory, Research , and Mechanisms.Leonard White, Bernard Tursky & Gary E. Schwartz - 1985
     
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  42.  20
    An Analysis of Psychotherapy Versus Placebo Studies.Leslie Prioleau, Martha Murdock & Nathan Brody - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):275-285.
  43. What You Don't Know Can Help You: The Ethics of Placebo Treatment.Daniel Groll - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (2):188-202.
  44.  44
    The Placebo Effect: Illness and Interpersonal Healing.Franklin G. Miller, Luana Colloca & Ted J. Kaptchuk - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (4):518-539.
  45.  80
    The Placebo Concept in Medicine and Psychiatry.A. Grunbaum - 1986 - Psychological Medicine 16 (1):19-38.
  46.  29
    International Ethical Regulations on Placebo-Use in Clinical Trials: A Comparative Analysis.Hans-jörg Ehni & Urban Wiesing - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (1):64–74.
  47.  15
    Patient Expectations in Placebo‐Controlled Randomized Clinical Trials.David A. Stone, Catherine E. Kerr, Eric Jacobson, Lisa A. Conboy ScD & Ted J. Kaptchuk - 2005 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (1):77-84.
  48.  24
    Placebo Use in Council of Europe Biomedical Research Instruments.Pēteris Zilgalvis - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):15-22.
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  49.  17
    The Impact of Psychological Factors on Placebo Responses in a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Sham Device to Dummy Pill.Suzanne M. Bertisch, Anna R. T. Legedza, Russell S. Phillips, Roger B. Davis, William B. Stason, Rose H. Goldman & Ted J. Kaptchuk - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (1):14-19.
  50.  15
    Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Placebo Effects That Exist Only in the Eye of the Beholder.John M. Kelley, Patrick R. Boulos, Peter A. D. Rubin & Ted J. Kaptchuk - 2009 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 15 (2):292-298.
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