Results for 'rats'

956 found
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  1.  5
    On the Question of the Fundamental and the Applied in Science and Education.M. V. Rats - 1997 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 36 (3):42-57.
    It may be that one of the most important criteria of the fundamental nature of research is precisely its apparent nonobviousness, its seeming uselessness, and evident contradictoriness to common sense.
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  2.  15
    "[A]Re Norway Rats... Things?": Diversity Versus Generality in the Use of Albino Rats in Experiments on Development and Sexuality. [REVIEW]Cheryl A. Logan - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):287 - 314.
    In America by the 1930s, albino rats had become a kind of generic standard in research on physiology and behavior that de-emphasized diversity across species. However, prior to about 1915, the early work of many of the pioneer rat researchers in America and in central Europe reflected a strong interest in species differences and a deep regard for diversity. These scientists sought broad, often medical, generality, but their quest for generality using a standard animal did not entail a de-emphasis (...)
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  3.  21
    Secondary Reinforcement in Rats as a Function of Information Value and Reliability of the Stimulus.M. David Egger & Neal E. Miller - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (2):97.
  4.  6
    Successive Brightness Discrimination in Rats Following Regular Versus Random Intermittent Reinforcement.Charles F. Flaherty & John W. Davenport - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):1.
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  5.  17
    Maze Learning of Mature-Young and Aged Rats as a Function of Distribution of Practice.Charles L. Goodrick - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (2):344.
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  6.  14
    The Effect of Delayed Reinforcement Upon the Differentiation of Bar Responses in White Rats.C. T. Perin - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (2):95.
  7.  5
    Effects of Previous Body Weight Level on Rats' Straight-Alley Performance.Elizabeth D. Capaldi & John R. Hovancik - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):93.
  8.  10
    Effect of Amount of Interpolated Learning and Time Interval Before Test on Retention in Rats.Judith P. Frankmann - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (6):462.
  9.  8
    Anticipatory Errors in Rats as a Function of Delayed Reward.William R. Gamboni - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (1):98.
  10.  9
    The Effects of Inactivity Produced by Sodium Amytal on the Retention of the Maze Habit in Albino Rats.R. W. Russell & W. S. Hunter - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (5):426.
  11.  7
    The Ability of Rats to Learn the Location of Food When Motivated by Thirst—an Experimental Reply to Leeper.Howard H. Kendler & Helen Chamberlain Mencher - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (1):82-88.
  12.  8
    The Effect of Endocrine Feeding Upon the Learning Performance of White Rats.W. E. Biatz & W. T. Heron - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (4):291.
  13.  6
    The Effect of Variation in the Dose of Benzedrine Sulphate on the Activity of White Rats.C. W. Brown & L. V. Searle - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (6):555.
  14.  6
    Cortical Localization of Symbolic Processes in the Rat: III. Impairment of Anticipatory Functions in Prefrontal Lobectomy in Rats.Marvin A. Epstein & Clifford T. Morgan - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (6):453.
  15.  6
    Reversal Learning in Rats as a Function of Percentage of Reinforcement and Degree of Learning.Albert Erlebacher - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (1):84.
  16.  5
    Studies in Motivation and Learning: II. Thirsty Rats Trained in a Maze with Food but No Water; Then Run Hungry.Henry Gleitman - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (2):169.
  17.  6
    Reversal Performance by Rats Following Overlearning with and Without Irrelevant Stimuli.Keith N. Clayton - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 66 (3):255.
  18.  4
    The Effect of Subcutaneous Injections of Benzedrine Sulphate on the Activity of White Rats.L. V. Searle & C. W. Brown - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (5):480.
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  19.  3
    The Effect of Some Early Experiences in the Latent Learning of Adult Rats.Richard Christie - 1952 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (4):281.
  20.  3
    Running Speed in Rats as a Function of Drive Level and Presence or Absence of Competing Response Trials.George A. Cicala - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (4):329.
  21.  3
    A Further Test of the Ability of Rats to Learn the Location of Food When Motivated by Thirst.Howard H. Kendler & Joseph H. Kanner - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (6):762.
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  22.  3
    Supplementary Report: Discrimination Learning in Rats as a Function of Highly Distributed Trials.Dempsey F. Pennington & Robert Thompson - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (1):94.
  23.  2
    Sugar as a Reward for Hungry and Nonhungry Rats.Moncrieff Smith & Glenn C. Kinney - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (5):348.
  24.  78
    Can Rats Reason?Savanah Stephane - 2015 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 2 (4):404-429.
    Since at least the mid-1980s claims have been made for rationality in rats. For example, that rats are capable of inferential reasoning (Blaisdell, Sawa, Leising, & Waldmann, 2006; Bunsey & Eichenbaum, 1996), or that they can make adaptive decisions about future behavior (Foote & Crystal, 2007), or that they are capable of knowledge in propositional-like form (Dickinson, 1985). The stakes are rather high, because these capacities imply concept possession and on some views (e.g., Rödl, 2007; Savanah, 2012) rationality (...)
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  25.  29
    Overheated Rats, Race, and the Double Gland: Paul Kammerer, Endocrinology and the Problem of Somatic Induction. [REVIEW]Cheryl A. Logan - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (4):683 - 725.
    In 1920, Eugen Steinach and Paul Kammerer reported experiments showing that exposure to high temperatures altered the structure of the gonad and produced hyper-sexuality in "heat rats," presumably as a result of the increased production of sex hormones. Using Steinach's evidence that the gonad is a double gland with distinct sexual and generative functions, they used their findings to explain "racial" differences in the sexuality of indigenous tropical peoples and Europeans. The authors also reported that heat induced anatomical changes (...)
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  26.  28
    Rats and Infants as Propositional Reasoners: A Plausible Possibility?Leyre Castro & Edward A. Wasserman - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):203-204.
    Mitchell et al. contemplate the possibility of rats being capable of propositional reasoning. We suggest that this is an unlikely and unsubstantiated possibility. Nonhuman animals and human infants do learn about the contingencies in the world; however, such learning seems not to be based on propositional reasoning, but on more elementary associative processes.
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  27.  29
    The Injustice of Excluding Laboratory Rats, Mice, and Birds From the Animal Welfare Act.F. Barbara Orlans - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (3):229-238.
    : A major shortcoming of the Animal Welfare Act is its exclusion of the species most-used in experimentation-rats, mice, and birds. Considerations of justice dictate that extension of the law to these three species is the morally right thing to do. A brief history of how these species came to be excluded from the laws protecting laboratory animals is also provided, as well as discussion of the implications and significance of expanding the law.
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  28.  7
    The Effect of Stressor Level Grading on the Stimulus Seeking Behavior of Rats Differing in Emotional Reactivity1.Jan Matysiak & Dominika Farley - 2008 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 39 (2):98-103.
    The Effect of Stressor Level Grading on the Stimulus Seeking Behavior of Rats Differing in Emotional Reactivity1 A natural disaster — such as a flood — is a sequence of events: swollen water level leading to the flooding of homesteads — primary stressor and later environmental consequences — secondary stressor syndrome. In order to be valid, an experimental model must ensure similarity of the stress-evoked behavioral symptoms. The most frequently administered behavioral tests measure exploratory behavior in the broad sense. (...)
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  29.  16
    Of Rats and Women: Fetal Sexuality and Hybrid Agency.Alice Adams - 2004 - Journal of Medical Humanities 25 (3):205-221.
    This paper investigates the way in which the sexuality of women has been posited in relation to rats as experimental subjects, exploring the stakes of a scientific debate that takes the social world of female sexuality as its focus and as a political problem. Studies that purport to understand female sexuality by investigating rat behavior rely on problematic assumptions about sovereign agents motivating sexual behavior. Such studies also aim to do away with so-called deviant sexual behaviors and, as a (...)
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  30.  4
    Warsaw Wild Captive Pisula Stryjek Rats - Establishing a Breeding Colony of Norway Rat in Captivity.Wojciech Pisula & Rafał Stryjek - 2008 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 39 (2):67-70.
    Warsaw Wild Captive Pisula Stryjek rats - Establishing a breeding colony of Norway Rat in captivity It is believed that the history of laboratory rat dates back to 1820-ies, which is about 300 generations. This relatively short evolutionary distance, drastically different environment and selective breeding could have caused differences in behaviour between the laboratory rat and his wild counterpart - Norway rat. The vast majority of research concerning differences between wild and laboratory rats was conducted over 30 years (...)
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  31.  3
    The Effects of Handling on the Exploratory Activity of Rats in Settings Varying in Level of Sensory Stimulation1.Jan Matysiak & Jerzy Osiński - 2008 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 39 (2):89-97.
    The effects of handling on the exploratory activity of rats in settings varying in level of sensory stimulation1 This study tests the assumptions of need for stimulation theory. According the main hypothesis of this theory, the stimulus seeking activity of an organism in an unfamiliar environment is affected by two main temperamental traits: emotional reactivity and need for stimulation. In a familiar setting, the influence of emotional reactivity disappears, while the need for stimulation persists. Two experiments were run in (...)
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  32.  2
    Response to Novelty in Rats Tested in Isolation and in Pairs: Focus on Exploration and Play.Rafał Stryjek & Łukasz Tanaś - 2008 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 39 (2):81-88.
    Response to novelty in rats tested in isolation and in pairs: focus on exploration and play The main goal of the study was to compare investigatory responses towards novelty in 20 Wistar rats divided into two experimental groups. Additionally, relationship between novelty and social play/interaction was analyzed in the dyad group. Procedure involved placing animals in an experimental chamber during fifteen, six minute trials on successive days of the study. On the eleventh session a new object was introduced. (...)
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  33.  1
    Response to Spatial and Nonspatial Change in Wild and Wistar Rats.Wojciech Pisula, Klaudia Modlińska & Rafał Stryjek - 2012 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 43 (2):124-131.
    Response to spatial and nonspatial change in wild and Wistar rats The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the effects of domestication on exploration in rats. The comparison was made between wild Warsaw-Wild-Captive-Pisula-Stryjek rats and Wistar laboratory rats. The study used a purpose-built maze divided into zones connected with a corridor. Objects were placed in two out of four zones. Their location and shape were subject to experimental manipulation. Transporter used to move rats to (...)
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  34. Hypocretin Regulates Brain Reward Function and Cocaine Consumption in Rats.Benjamin Boutrel, Paul J. Kenny, Cory Wright, R. Winsky, S. Specio, George Koob, Athina Markou & L. De Lecea - 2003 - Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 29:879.7.
    Hypocretin regulates brain reward function and cocaine consumption in rats. The hypocretinergic (Hcrt) system is implicated in energy homeostasis, feeding and sleep regulation. Hypocretinergic cell bodies are located in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and project throughout the brain. The aim of the present studies was to investigate the role of the Hcrt system in regulating brain reward function and the reinforcing properties of cocaine in rats. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds provide an accurate measure of brain reward function in (...)
     
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  35. Stimulation of mGluR2/3 Receptors Precipitates Nicotine Withdrawal in Rats: Role of mGluR5 and NMDA Receptors.Paul J. Kenny, Cory Wright, Fabrizio Gasparini & Athina Markou - 2001 - Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27:376.2.
    Elevations in brain stimulation reward (BSR) thresholds have been observed in rats undergoing nicotine withdrawal and have been proposed as a sensitive measure of the negative affective state associated with nicotine withdrawal. mGluR are presynaptic autoreceptors that decrease glutamate release when stimulated. The aim of this study was to examine the role of glutamate neurotransmission in nicotine dependence. The mGluR agonist LY314582 (2.5–7.5 mg/kg) precipitated nicotine withdrawal as measured by elevations in BSR thresholds in nicotine-treated rats but not (...)
     
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  36.  12
    Memory and the Hippocampus: A Synthesis From Findings with Rats, Monkeys, and Humans.Larry R. Squire - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (2):195-231.
  37. Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men.Edward C. Tolman - 1948 - Psychological Review 55 (4):189-208.
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  38.  6
    Corpses, Maggots, Poodles and Rats: Emotional Selection Operating in Three Phases of Cultural Transmission of Urban Legends.Kimmo Eriksson & Julie C. Coultas - 2014 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 14 (1-2):1-26.
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  39.  3
    "Memory and the Hippocampus: A Synthesis From Findings with Rats, Monkeys, and Humans": Correction.Larry R. Squire - 1992 - Psychological Review 99 (3):582-582.
  40.  3
    Reasoning Rats: Forward Blocking in Pavlovian Animal Conditioning Is Sensitive to Constraints of Causal Inference.Tom Beckers, Ralph R. Miller, Jan De Houwer & Kouji Urushihara - 2006 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 135 (1):92-102.
  41.  4
    The Metabolic Basis of Dual Periodicity of Feeding in Rats.Jacques Le Magnen - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):561-575.
  42.  5
    Failure to Transfer or Train a Numerical Discrimination Using Sequential Visual Stimuli in Rats.Hank Davis & Melody Albert - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (6):472-474.
  43.  5
    Simultaneous Numerical Discriminations by Rats.Hank Davis & Sheree Anne Bradford - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (2):113-116.
  44.  9
    Psychophysical Similarities Between Rats and Humans.Hannes Eisler - 1980 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (2):125-127.
  45.  6
    Operant Performance of Rats Selectively Bred for Strong or Weak Acquisition of Conditioned Taste Aversions.Stephen H. Hobbs & Ralph L. Elkins - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (4):303-306.
  46.  6
    Rotation-Induced Taste Aversions in Strains of Rats Selectively Bred for Strong or Weak Acquisition of Drug-Induced Taste Aversions.Ralph L. Elkins & William Harrison - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (1):57-60.
  47.  7
    "Hypotheses" in Rats.I. Krechevsky - 1932 - Psychological Review 39 (6):516-532.
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  48. The Interrelationship Between Contextual and Cued Fear in Rats: A Cross-Species Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).J. Dawson & J. Homewood - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology.
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  49.  10
    Taste Aversion Proneness: A Modulator of Conditioned Consummatory Aversions in Rats.Ralph L. Elkins & Stephen H. Hobbs - 1982 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 20 (5):257-260.
  50.  6
    Abolition of Cyclic Activity Changes Following Amygdaloid Lesions in Rats.Steven G. Barta, Ernest D. Kemble & Eric Klinger - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (3):236-238.
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