Results for 'scientific method'

999 found
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  1.  95
    A Selective Survey of Theories of Scientific Method.Howard Sankey & Robert Nola - 2000 - In Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.), After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 1-65.
    This is a survey of theories of scientific method which opens the book "After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method".
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  2. Scientific Method.Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific (...)” in science education and as seen by scientists 6.2 Privileged methods and ‘gold standards’ 6.3 Scientific method in the court room 6.4 Deviating practices 7. Conclusion Bibliography Academic Tools Other Internet Resources Related Entries . (shrink)
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  3. Dynamical Systems and Scientific Method.John T. Sanders - manuscript
    Progress in the last few decades in what is widely known as “Chaos Theory” has plainly advanced understanding in the several sciences it has been applied to. But the manner in which such progress has been achieved raises important questions about scientific method and, indeed, about the very objectives and character of science. In this presentation, I hope to engage my audience in a discussion of several of these important new topics.
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  4. Is There a Scientific Method? The Analytic Model of Science.Cellucci Carlo - 2016 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Studies in Applied Philosophy, Epistemology and Rational Ethics volume 25. Cham: Springer. pp. 489-505.
    The nature of the scientific method has been a main concern of philosophy from Plato to Mill. In that period logic has been considered to be a part of the methodology of science. Since Mill, however, the situation has completely changed. Logic has ceased to be a part of the methodology of science, and no Discourse on method has been written. Both logic and the methodology of science have stopped dealing with the process of discovery, and generally (...)
     
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  5.  75
    Scientific Method in Brief, by Hugh G. Gauch, Jr. [REVIEW]Kevin McCain - 2013 - Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):310-313.
  6.  25
    Of Children, Fools and Madmen: Spinoza’s Scientific Method and the Constraint of Fact.Debra Nails - 1985 - Southwest Philosophy Review 2:30-42.
    "Of Children, Fools, and Madmen: Spinoza's Scientific Method and the Constraints of Fact" Spinoza has been largely ignored in the history of the scientific method in the seventeenth century. Such neglect is unjustified insofar as Spinoza deliberately circumscribed with scientific method both Biblical hermeneutics (TTP), a field which he deserves credit for founding, and political theory (TP). Although he wrote no discrete discourse on method, he wove his scientific methodological principles into the (...)
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  7.  85
    Computational Science and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
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  8. Can Scientific Method Help Us Create a Wiser World?Nicholas Maxwell - 2016 - In N. Dalal, A. Intezari & M. Heitz (eds.), Practical Wisdom in the Age of Technology: Insights, Issues and Questions for a New Millennium. Routledge. pp. 147-161.
    Two great problems of learning confront humanity: (1) learning about the universe, and about ourselves as a part of the universe, and (2) learning how to make progress towards as good a world as possible. We solved the first problem when we created modern science in the 17th century, but we have not yet solved the second problem. This puts us in a situation of unprecedented danger. Modern science and technology enormously increase our power to act, but not our power (...)
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  9. Scientific Method and the Concept of Emergence.A. Campbell Garnett - 1942 - Journal of Philosophy 39 (August):477-86.
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  10.  35
    Scientific Method in Current Psychology.H. Rogosin - 1942 - Philosophy of Science 9 (April):183-188.
  11. Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Computational methods have become the dominant technique in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of these new methods and their consequences for scientific method. This book will be of interest to philosophers of science and to anyone interested in the role played by computers in modern science.
     
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  12. Scientific Method.Howard Sankey - 2008 - In Stathis Psillos & Martin Curd (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 248-258.
    This is an introductory overview of theories of scientific method.
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  13. John Dewey and the Role of Scientific Method in Aesthetic Experience.Johnston James Scott - 2002 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):1-15.
    In this paper I examine a controversy ongoingwithin current Deweyan philosophy of educationscholarship regarding the proper role and scopeof science in Dewey's concept of inquiry. Theside I take is nuanced. It is one that issensitive to the importance that Dewey attachesto science as the best method of solvingproblems, while also sensitive to thosestatements in Dewey that counter a wholesalereductivism of inquiry to scientific method. Iutilize Dewey's statements regarding the placeaccorded to inquiry in aesthetic experiences ascharacteristic of his (...)
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  14.  9
    Towards Descartes’ Scientific Method: A Posteriori Evidence and the Rhetoric of Les Météores.Patrick Brissey - 2018 - In James Lancaster & Richard Raiswell (eds.), Evidence in the Age of the New Sciences. Springer. pp. pp. 77-99.
    I argue that Descartes uses his method as evidence in the Discours and Les Météores. I begin by establishing there is a single method in Descartes’ works, using his meteorology as a case study. First, I hold that the method of the Regulae is best explained by two examples: one scientific, his proof of the anaclastic curve (1626), and one metaphysical, his question of the essence and scope of human knowledge (1628). Based on this account, I (...)
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  15. Experimental Design: Ethics, Integrity and the Scientific Method.Jonathan Lewis - 2019 - In Ron Iphofen (ed.), Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 1-16.
    Experimental design is one aspect of a scientific method. A well-designed, properly conducted experiment aims to control variables in order to isolate and manipulate causal effects and thereby maximize internal validity, support causal inferences, and guarantee reliable results. Traditionally employed in the natural sciences, experimental design has become an important part of research in the social and behavioral sciences. Experimental methods are also endorsed as the most reliable guides to policy effectiveness. Through a discussion of some of the (...)
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  16. Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology.William L. Harper - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, (...)
     
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  17.  17
    Newton on Islandworld: Ontic-Driven Explanations of Scientific Method.Adrian Currie & Kirsten Walsh - 2018 - Perspectives on Science 26 (1):119-156.
    As philosophers, we are often in the business of explaining scientific method. That is, we ask why such-and-such investigation was carried out as it was, what worked and what didn't, and why. Here, we introduce a framework for understanding "ontic-driven" responses to these kinds of questions. Explanations of method are ontic-driven when they appeal to properties of the systems under investigation. We shall use our framework to develop a fruitful and plausible hypothesis: that several methodological differences between (...)
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  18. Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey - 2007 - Acumen Publishing.
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible (...)
     
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  19. Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology.William L. Harper - 2011 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method examines Newton's argument for universal gravity and his application of it to resolve the problem of deciding between geocentric and heliocentric world systems by measuring masses of the sun and planets. William L. Harper suggests that Newton's inferences from phenomena realize an ideal of empirical success that is richer than prediction. Any theory that can achieve this rich sort of empirical success must not only be able to predict the phenomena it purports to explain, (...)
     
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  20. A Critique of Popper's Views on Scientific Method.Nicholas Maxwell - 1972 - Philosophy of Science 39 (2):131-152.
    This paper considers objections to Popper's views on scientific method. It is argued that criticism of Popper's views, developed by Kuhn, Feyerabend, and Lakatos, are not too damaging, although they do require that Popper's views be modified somewhat. It is argued that a much more serious criticism is that Popper has failed to provide us with any reason for holding that the methodological rules he advocates give us a better hope of realizing the aims of science than any (...)
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  21. After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.) - 2000 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Some think that issues to do with scientific method are last century's stale debate; Popper was an advocate of methodology, but Kuhn, Feyerabend, and others are alleged to have brought the debate about its status to an end. The papers in this volume show that issues in methodology are still very much alive. Some of the papers reinvestigate issues in the debate over methodology, while others set out new ways in which the debate has developed in the last (...)
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  22. Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 2012 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: (...)
     
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  23.  70
    Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction.Barry Gower - 1996 - Routledge.
    The central theme running throughout this outstanding new survey is the nature of the philosophical debate created by modern science's foundation in experimental and mathematical method. More recently, recognition that reasoning in science is probabilistic generated intense debate about whether and how it should be constrained so as to ensure the practical certainty of the conclusions drawn. These debates brought to light issues of a philosophical nature which form the core of many scientific controversies today. _Scientific Method: (...)
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  24. How Science Textbooks Treat Scientific Method: A Philosopher's Perspective.James Blachowicz - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):303--344.
    This paper examines, from the point of view of a philosopher of science, what it is that introductory science textbooks say and do not say about 'scientific method'. Seventy introductory texts in a variety of natural and social sciences provided the material for this study. The inadequacy of these textbook accounts is apparent in three general areas: (a) the simple empiricist view of science that tends to predominate; (b) the demarcation between scientific and non-scientific inquiry and (...)
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  25. The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research.Darrell Patrick Rowbottom & Sarah Jane Aiston - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):137–156.
    Whether educational research should employ the ‘scientific method’ has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: ‘positivist’ or ‘interpretivist’. In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research methods textbooks on the market—namely Research Methods in Education by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison—this paper demonstrates the misconception of science in operation and the perversely false dichotomy that has (...)
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  26.  64
    The Art of Memory and the Growth of the Scientific Method.Gopal P. Sarma - 2015 - Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 13 (3):373-396.
    I argue that European schools of thought on memory and memorization were critical in enabling growth of the scientific method. After giving a historical overview of the development of the memory arts from ancient Greece through 17th century Europe, I describe how the Baconian viewpoint on the scientific method was fundamentally part of a culture and a broader dialogue that conceived of memorization as a foundational methodology for structuring knowledge and for developing symbolic means for representing (...)
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  27.  36
    The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method.Peter Kosso - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (1):33-42.
    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of scientific method can reveal the global interconnectedness of scientific knowledge that is an essential part of what makes science scientific. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media (...)
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  28. Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method.Donald Gillies - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Method examines the remarkable advances made in the field of AI over the past twenty years, discussing their profound implications for philosophy. Taking a clear, non-technical approach, Donald Gillies shows how current views on scientific method are challenged by this recent research, and suggests a new framework for the study of logic. Finally, he draws on work by such seminal thinkers as Bacon, Gdel, Popper, Penrose, and Lucas, to address the hotly-contested question (...)
     
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  29.  6
    The Myth of 'Scientific Method' in Contemporary Educational Research.Darrell Patrick Rowbottom & Sarah Jane Aiston - 2006 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (2):137-156.
    Whether educational research should employ the ‘scientific method’ has been a recurring issue in its history. Hence, textbooks on research methods continue to perpetuate the idea that research students ought to choose between competing camps: ‘positivist’ or ‘interpretivist’. In reference to one of the most widely referred to educational research methods textbooks on the market—namely Research Methods in Education by Cohen, Manion, and Morrison—this paper demonstrates the misconception of science in operation and the perversely false dichotomy that has (...)
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  30.  70
    Hobbes's Logic: Language and Scientific Method.Willem R. de Jong - 1986 - History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (2):123-142.
    This paper analyses the relationship between Hobbes's theory of language and his theory of science and method. It is shown that Hobbes, at least in his Computatio sive Logica (1655), deviates in some measure from the traditional (Aristotelian) model of language. In this model speech is considered to be a fairly unproblematic expression of thought, which itself is independent of language. Basing himself on a nominalist account of universals, Hobbes states that the demonstration or assertion of universal propositions presupposes (...)
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  31. Husserl on Scientific Method and Conceptual Change: A Realist Appraisal.Darrin W. Belousek - 1998 - Synthese 115 (1):71-98.
    Husserl claimed that all theoretical scientific concepts originate in and are valid in reference to 'life-world' experience and that scientific traditions preserve the sense and validity of such concepts through unitary and cumulative change. Each of these claims will, in turn, be sympathetically laid out and assessed in comparison with more standard characterizations of scientific method and conceptual change as well as the history of physics, concerning particularly the challenge they may pose for scientific realism. (...)
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  32.  48
    The Ghost of Wittgenstein: Forms of Life, Scientific Method, and Cultural Critique.William T. Lynch - 2005 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35 (2):139-174.
    In developing an "internal" sociology of science, the sociology of scientific knowledge drew on Wittgenstein’s later philosophy to reinterpret traditional epistemological topics in sociological terms. By construing scientific reasoning as rule following within a collective, sociologists David Bloor and Harry Collins effectively blocked outside criticism of a scientific field, whether scientific, philosophical, or political. Ethnomethodologist Michael Lynch developed an alternative, Wittgensteinian reading that similarly blocked philosophical or political critique, while also disallowing analytical appeals to historical or (...)
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  33. Scientific Method in Ptolemy's Harmonics.Andrew Barker - 2001 - Cambridge University Press.
    The science called 'harmonics' was one of the major intellectual enterprises of Greek antiquity. Ptolemy's treatise seeks to invest it with new scientific rigour; its consistently sophisticated procedural self-awareness marks it as a key text in the history of science. This book is a sustained methodological exploration of Ptolemy's project. After an analysis of his explicit pronouncements on the science's aims and the methods appropriate to it, it examines Ptolemy's conduct of his investigation in detail, concluding that despite occasional (...)
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  34.  92
    Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology by William L. Harper (Review).Katherine Dunlop - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (3):489-491.
    Not a full treatment of Newton’s scientific method, this book discusses his optical research only in passing (342–43). Its subtitle better indicates its scope: it focuses narrowly on the argument for universal gravitation in Book III of the Principia. The philosophical project is to set out an “ideal of empirical success” realized by the argument. Newton claims his method is to “deduce” propositions “from phenomena.” On Harper’s interpretation Newton’s phenomena are patterns of data, which are used to (...)
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  35.  12
    Machiavelli's Scientific Method: A Common Understanding of His Novelty in the Sixteenth Century.Gábor Almási - 2018 - History of European Ideas 44 (8):1019-1045.
    ABSTRACTThis paper argues that Machiavelli's method, his inductive and comparative use of history and experience for political analysis, and his fashioning of historical-political analysis as ‘science’, played an important and still unrecognised role in his reception in the sixteenth century. It makes the case that Machiavelli's inductive reasoning and stress on historia and experientia offered a model for scientific method that open-minded sixteenth-century scholars, eager to understand, organise and augment human knowledge, could fit to their own epistemology. (...)
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  36. Kant, Naturphilosophie, and Scientific Method.L. Pearce Williams - 1973 - In Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.), Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 3--22.
  37.  24
    What Exactly is the Scientific Method and Why Do so Many People Get It Wrong?Peter Ellerton - 2017 - Australian Humanist, The 125:14.
    Ellerton, Peter So what is the scientific method, and why do so many people, sometimes including those trained in science, get it so wrong? The first thing to understand is that there is no one method in science, no one way of doing things. This is intimately connected with how we reason in general.
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  38.  34
    Scientific Method in Meteorology IV.Tiberiu Popa - 2014 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 4 (2):306-34.
    This article explores the main aspects of Aristotle’s scientific method in Meteorology IV. Dispositional properties such as solidifiability or combustibility play a dominant role in Meteor. IV (a) in virtue of their central place in the generic division of homoeomers, based on successive differentiation and multiple differentiae, and (b) in virtue of their role in revealing otherwise undetectable characteristics of uniform materials (composition and physical structure). While Aristotle often starts with accounts of ingredients and their ratio (e.g., solids (...)
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  39. The Conduct of Inquiry: An Introduction of Logic and Scientific Method.Richard Kitchener - 1999 - Upa.
    The Conduct of Inquiry is a practical introduction to logic and scientific method. It provides a comprehensive and current discussion of the logic of scientific method and scientific reasoning. The author places consistent stress on the evaluation of actual scientific reasoning and the development of critical thinking skills by employing numerous examples that require the application of the principles discussed in the text. Each chapter lays out basic, underlying principles of logic and scientific (...)
     
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  40. Foundations of Scientific Method: The Nineteenth Century. Edited by Ronald N. Giere and Richard S. Westfall. --.Ronald N. Giere & Richard S. Westfall (eds.) - 1973 - Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  41. On Scientific Method As a Method for Testing the Legitimacy of Concepts.Abraham D. Stone - unknown
    Traditional attempts to delineate the distinctive rationality of modern science have taken it for granted that the purpose of empirical research is to test judgments. The choice of concepts to use in those judgments is therefore seen either a matter of indifference (Popper) or as important choice which must be made, so to speak, in advance of all empirical research (Carnap). I argue that scientific method aims precisely at empirical testing of concepts, and that even the simplest (...) ex- periment or observation results in conceptual change. (shrink)
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  42.  17
    Popper on Scientific Method.S. C. Thakur - 1970 - Philosophical Studies 19:71-82.
    SIR KARL POPPER is a thinker and writer of some distinction, and it is extremely difficult to state the numerous strands of his thought in a short article. But there is one fundamental theme which seems to run through all his works relating to scientific method, and it is impossible to miss this theme if only because it is so forcefully stated. This article attempts to analyse the basic elements of this theme in order to assess its significance (...)
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  43.  15
    Religious Experience and Scientific Method[REVIEW]M. V. J. - 1972 - Review of Metaphysics 26 (1):178-179.
    In this, his first book, originally published in 1926, Henry Nelson Wieman sets forth a view on the relationship of religious experience and scientific method which in substance he has maintained ever since. According to Wieman, our knowledge of the concrete world consists of immediate sensuous experience as interpreted through some set of concepts. Religious experience is the richest form of immediate sensuous experience. It is our awareness of God, who is as much an object of experience as (...)
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  44.  11
    The Heuristics of War: Scientific Method and the Founders of Operations Research.William Thomas - 2007 - British Journal for the History of Science 40 (2):251-274.
    This paper explores the relationship between operations research as practised during the Second World War and the claims of many of its proponents that it constituted an application of scientific method. It begins with an examination of the pre-war work of two of the most notable leaders in wartime OR, the British experimental physicist Patrick Blackett and the American theoretical physicist Philip Morse. Despite differences in their scientific work, each saw science as an essentially creative act relying (...)
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  45.  16
    Charles Peirce’s Theory of Scientific Method.W. A. F. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 26 (3):544-545.
    Reilly approaches his topic by presenting the spirit of science and the phases of scientific inquiry as Peirce saw it, keeping before the reader, at all times, Peirce’s overarching view of man and the universe. The two prevailing themes guiding Peirce’s thought are 1) that there is a special conformity of the human mind to nature and of nature to God, and 2) that there is an architectonic qualifying all the various types and levels of treatment which occupy the (...)
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  46.  8
    Charles Peirce’s Theory of Scientific Method[REVIEW]A. F. W. - 1973 - Review of Metaphysics 26 (3):544-545.
    Reilly approaches his topic by presenting the spirit of science and the phases of scientific inquiry as Peirce saw it, keeping before the reader, at all times, Peirce’s overarching view of man and the universe. The two prevailing themes guiding Peirce’s thought are 1) that there is a special conformity of the human mind to nature and of nature to God, and 2) that there is an architectonic qualifying all the various types and levels of treatment which occupy the (...)
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  47.  6
    Scientific Method as a Stage Process.Donald S. Lee Donald S. Lee - 1968 - Dialectica 22 (1):28-44.
    . — The scientific method can be understood as a sequence of stages of types of activity undertaken to construct explanatory hypotheses which are verifiable. These stages, origination, deduction, experimentation, and confirmation, are each subdivided into several phases. The stages and phases are related by an order of precedence in which any given phase has to be preceded by the one before it but does not necessarily lead to the one after it. Such a dynamic outline of the (...)
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  48.  11
    Scientific Method in Social Studies.A. D. Ritchie - 1945 - Philosophy 20 (75):3 - 16.
    There is a short answer to the question, whether scientific method can be applied to the study of the social relations of men, or, whether social sciences are possible; it is that these sciences exist and are in fact among the most ancient. Their success has perhaps been less startling than that of the physical sciences and they have perhaps been pursued with less enthusiasm. But there are reasons for this inherent in the nature of the social sciences, (...)
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  49.  5
    Peirce’s Philosophy of Science: Critical Studies in His Theory of Induction and Scientific Method[REVIEW]B. R. S. - 1979 - Review of Metaphysics 32 (3):565-566.
    Rescher examines Peirce’s view of science in terms of four major topics, each of which forms one of the four chapters of the book: the self-correctiveness of science, scientific progress and completability, the efficiency of scientific inquiry, and the economy of research. In the first chapter, Rescher defends Peirce’s position against the attack that though Peirce considers self-correctiveness a crucial aspect of scientific methodology in general, and recognizes that the inductive methodology of science includes not only quantitative (...)
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  50. Science and Skepticism in the Seventeenth Century: The Atomism and Scientific Method of Pierre Gassendi.Saul Fisher - 1997 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    In this account of the philosophical and scientific pursuits of Pierre Gassendi , I challenge a traditional view which says that the inspiration, motivation, and demonstrative grounds for his physical atomism consist not in his empiricism but in his historicist commitments. Indeed, Gassendi suggests that it's a consequence of our best theory of knowledge and sound scientific method that we get evidence which warrants his microphysical theory. ;The primary novelty of his theory of empirical knowledge is his (...)
     
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