Results for 'social criticism'

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  1.  51
    The Situated Critic or the Loyal Critic? Rorty and Walzer on Social Criticism.Jonathan Allen - 1998 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 24 (6):25-46.
    This article addresses the question whether the model of social criticism as 'connected' or 'loyal' which is advanced by Richard Rorty and Michael Walzer offers an adequate picture of social criticism. Two claims are made. First, it is suggested that loyalty is an internally conflicted concept, with three components: a recognition of situatedness in a particular relationship; an affirmation of that relationship by the loyal agent; a set of values or local principles. Where the third component (...)
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  2.  69
    Just Above the Fray - Interpretive Social Criticism and the Ends of Social Justice.Andrew Gibson - 2008 - Studies in Social Justice 2 (1):102-118.
    The article lays down the broad strokes of an interpretive approach to social criticism. In developing this approach, the author stresses the importance of both a pluralistic notion of social justice and a rich ideal of personal growth. While objecting to one-dimensional conceptions of social justice centering on legal equality, the author develops the idea of there being multiple "spheres of justice", including the spheres of "care" and "merit". Each of these spheres, he argues, is subject (...)
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  3.  23
    Rorty and Pragmatic Social Criticism.M. Bacon - 2006 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 32 (7):863-880.
    For pragmatists, the inability to stand outside of the contingencies of human practice does not impede social criticism. However, several pragmatists have argued that Richard Rorty’s position unnecessarily and undesirably circumscribes the scope of social criticism, allowing for nothing more than an appeal to current practices, with no way to challenge or revise them. This article argues against this understanding, showing that on Rorty’s account, social criticism is an interpretive activity in which critics draw (...)
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  4.  53
    Reassessing Walzer’s Social Criticism.M. Agnafors - 2012 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 38 (9):917-937.
    It is often argued that Michael Walzer’s theory of social criticism, which underpins his theory of justice, is not much of a theory at all, but rather an impressionistic collection of historical anecdotes. Contrary to this perception, I argue that Walzer’s method can be accurately described as a version of John Rawls’ well-known method of wide reflective equilibrium. Through a systematic comparison it can be shown that the two methods are strikingly similar. This implies that, far from the (...)
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  5.  18
    Hegel’s Political Theology ‘True Infinity’, Dialectical Panentheism and Social Criticism.Jolyon Agar - 2015 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 41 (10):1093-1111.
    This article proposes that the foundations of Hegel’s contribution to social criticism are compatible with, and enriched by, his meta-theology. His social critique is grounded in his belief that normative ideas – and especially the idea of freedom – are necessarily experiential and historical. Often regarded as a recipe for an authoritarian reconciliation with the status quo, Hegel’s philosophy has been dismissed by some unsympathetic commentators from the left as inimical to the task of social (...). Much of the reason for this has been the opinion that his systematic approach to philosophy is one underpinned by either a highly unorthodox theism or, more commonly, pantheism. Even scholars who wish to defend Hegel as a social critic have tended to abandon or at least massively downplay his meta-theology. In this article, I argue that it is precisely the emphasis on his original theo-metaphysics that offers a powerful and relevant contribution to social criticism. Hegel then becomes an important contributor, from the tradition of social criticism, to the growing trend in academia and wider society of rethinking the relationship between the religious and the secular, known as post-secularism. The proposition at the centre of his system – that human history and society are necessary moments in the process of divine self-understanding – is not new. But the specifics of Hegel’s concept of God that I am proposing – and, moreover, their implications for his political thought – are new. I propose that Hegel was neither a theist nor a pantheist but, rather, a dialectical panentheist. According to panentheism, God is neither straightforwardly transcendent to nature and history nor immanently identifiable with nature and history, but rather is dynamically and dialectically immanent in the ongoing processes of self-transcendence that are nature and history. If such an interpretation of Hegel’s system is valid then the proposition that his political thought is an exercise in dialectical panentheistic theology is one that is worth making and defending because it has important things to say about his social critique. (shrink)
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  6.  35
    The Political Philosophy of Walzer's Social Criticism.J. Gregory - 2010 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (9):1093-1111.
    This article calls for a critical re-evaluation of Walzer’s theory of justice. It argues that there is a deep tension between Walzer’s social criticism and his complex equality. Social criticism is based on the normative value of a connected and ‘whole’ self, and complex equality is based upon a value pluralism that threatens to fragment this sense of wholeness. Walzer therefore commissions a tacit premise, borrowing from the same ‘political philosophy’ that he explicitly repudiates, and which (...)
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  7.  5
    Resurrecting Language Through Social Criticism.Sally J. Scholz - 2001 - Social Philosophy Today 17:203-216.
    Social criticism can take on many forms ranging from theoretical exposition to non-violent protests. This paper considers literary art as a form of social criticism and uses Morrison's novel Paradise as the exemplary case to show that the confrontation of unjust ideas through social criticism is essential in building non-oppressive relations open to diversity. In this sense, social criticism is a paradigm of communication that, although often entailing conflict, ultimately aims at reconciliation. (...)
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  8.  22
    Business Ethics and Internal Social Criticism.Scott Sonenshein - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (3):475-498.
    The purpose of this paper is to present an understanding of business ethics based on a theory of internal social criticism. Internal social criticism focuses on how members of a business organization debate the meanings of their shared traditions for the purpose of locating and correcting hypocrisy. Organizations have thick moral cultures that allow them to be self-governing moral communities. By considering organizations as interpretive moral communities, I challenge the conventional notion that moral criticism is (...)
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  9.  17
    Bearing the Lightning of Possible Storms: Foucault's Experimental Social Criticism[REVIEW]Zach VanderVeen - 2010 - Continental Philosophy Review 43 (4):467-484.
    This paper argues that Michel Foucault explicitly rejected the model of critique by which he is often understood—by both his defenders and detractors. Rather than justifying norms that could be said to represent “the people;” judging institutions, norms, and practices accordingly; and creating programs for others to enact, he theorized and practiced an experimental social criticism in which specific intellectuals help people work through “intolerable” situations by multiplying the ways they can think about and act upon them. As (...)
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  10.  3
    The Social Power of Environmental Ethics: How Environmental Ethics Can Help Save the World Through Social Criticism and Social Change.Joel Jay Kassiola - 2010 - Dialogue and Universalism 20 (11-12):51.
    Environmental ethics has an identity and public image problem. Unlike the other applied ethics subfields like biomedical or business ethics, environmental ethics is surprisingly devalued and even rejected as a possible contributor to confronting effectively the global environmental crisis by anti-environmental philosophers and public policy analysts. Thus, environmental ethics has many critics, both within and outside of philosophy, who strongly challenge the contemporary, practical social relevance of this academic field.In contrast to this critical viewpoint, this essay argues for the (...)
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  11.  1
    On the Modern and Postmodern Paradigms of Ideology and Social Criticism.Andrzej Karalus - 2016 - Dialogue and Universalism 26 (2):81-98.
    The article takes on the problem of ideology, critical consciousness and social criticism and distinguishes two distinct ways of thematizing it. The first approach is developed within the post-Hegelian framework. According to this paradigm, critique of ideology is a means of transgressing the antagonistic forms of socialization and emancipating humanity from the false forms of consciousness and corresponding irrational and oppressive social institutions. The postmodern paradigm questions two basic assumptions of the modern approach: firstly, it denies that (...)
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  12.  2
    Resurrecting Language Through Social Criticism: Toni Morrison's Paradise as Insurgent Political Discourse.Sally J. Scholz - 2001 - Social Philosophy Today 17:203-216.
    Social criticism can take on many forms ranging from theoretical exposition to non-violent protests. This paper considers literary art as a form of social criticism and uses Morrison's novel Paradise as the exemplary case to show that the confrontation of unjust ideas through social criticism is essential in building non-oppressive relations open to diversity. In this sense, social criticism is a paradigm of communication that, although often entailing conflict, ultimately aims at reconciliation. (...)
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  13. The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, and Habermas.Kenneth Baynes - 1991 - State University of New York Press.
    This book is a comparative study of Kant, Rawls, and Habermas and a critical survey of recent theories of justice. It defends the thesis that the normative ground or basis of social criticism is found in a concept of the person as a free and equal moral being.
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  14.  47
    Political Theory and Feminist Social Criticism.Brooke A. Ackerly - 2000 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Political Theory and Feminist Social Criticism, Brooke Ackerly demonstrates the shortcomings of contemporary deliberative democratic theory, relativism and essentialism for guiding the practice of social criticism in the real, imperfect world. Drawing theoretical implications from the activism of Third World feminists who help bring to public audiences the voices of women silenced by coercion, Brooke Ackerly provides a practicable model of social criticism. She argues that feminist critics have managed to achieve in practice (...)
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  15. Rethinking Social Criticism: Rules, Logic and Internal Critique.Stephen Kemp - 2003 - History of the Human Sciences 16 (4):61-84.
    The ‘cultural turn’ in social thought, and the rise of interpretive modes of social analysis, have raised the issue of how social criticism can legitimately be undertaken given the central role of actors’ understandings in constituting social reality. In this article I examine this issue by exploring debates around Winch’s interpretive approach. I suggest that Winch’s arguments usefully identify problems with external criticism, that is, criticism that attempts to contrast actors’ beliefs with the (...)
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  16. The Politics of Survival: Peirce, Affectivity, and Social Criticism.Kenneth W. Stikkers - 2011 - The Pluralist 6 (2):74-80.
    Although Charles Peirce is generally not interpreted primarily as a social-political philosopher, several commentators on Peirce have contended, along with Lara Trout, that his philosophy “provides significant resources to add to contemporary discussions of social criticism” (11). Trout’s bold, creative, and lively volume, however, is perhaps the first to develop that point systematically and in depth. By reading Peirce as a social critic, Trout argues, we allow the various strands of his thought to come together more (...)
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  17. Reviews : Kenneth Baynes, The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls and Habermas (State University of New York Press, 1992); Janna Thompson, Justice and World Order: A Philosophical Inquiry (Routledge, 1992); Seyla Benhabib, Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics (Polity, 1992). [REVIEW]Gillian Robinson - 1994 - Thesis Eleven 37 (1):165-170.
    Reviews : Kenneth Baynes, The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls and Habermas ; Janna Thompson, Justice and World Order: A Philosophical Inquiry ; Seyla Benhabib, Situating the Self: Gender, Community and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics.
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  18.  16
    Social Criticism and the Exclusion of Ethics.Russell Keat - 2008 - Analyse & Kritik 30 (2):291-315.
    As Axel Honneth has recently noted, the critical concerns of social philosophers during the past three decades have been focused primarily on questions of justice, with ethical issues about the human good being largely excluded. In the first section I briefly explore this exclusion in both ‘Anglo-American’ political philosophy and ‘German’ critical theory. I then argue, in the main sections, that despite this commitment to their exclusion, distinctively ethical concepts and ideals can be identified both in Rawls’s Theory of (...)
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  19. Formal Pragmatics and Social Criticism: The Philosophy of Language and the Critique of Ideology in Habermas's Theory of Communicative Action.James F. Bohman - 1986 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 11 (4):331-353.
  20.  79
    Hegel on Comedy: Theodicy, Social Criticism, and the 'Supreme Task' of Art.Andrew Huddleston - 2014 - British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (2):227-240.
    According to Hegel, art in its ‘supreme task’ is engaged in ‘bringing to our minds and expressing the Divine, the deepest interests of mankind, and the most comprehensive truths of the spirit’. Raymond Geuss, in a highly illuminating paper, has connected Hegel’s conception of art’s supreme task with the project of theodicy. In this paper I explore Hegel’s aesthetics of comedy through this theodicy-based framework Geuss has proposed, and I consider what light this framework can shed on comedy and, reciprocally, (...)
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  21.  28
    Burden of Proof Rules in Social Criticism.Juha Räikkä - 1997 - Argumentation 11 (4):463-477.
    The article discusses burden of proof rules in social criticism. By social criticism I mean an argumentative situation in which an opponent publicly argues against certain social practices; the examples I consider are discrimination on the basis of species and discrimination on the basis of one's nationality. I argue that burden of proof rules assumed by those who defend discrimination are somewhat dubious. In social criticism, there are no shared values which would uncontroversially (...)
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  22.  60
    The Modern Concept of Aesthetic Experience: From Ascetic Pleasure to Social Criticism.Alison Ross - 2010 - Critical Horizons 11 (3):333-339.
    This paper examines the use of “pleasure” as the distinguishing mark of aesthetic experience in post-Kantian philosophy. It shows how the distinctive features of aesthetic experience, such as pleasure, qualify this experience as a platform for social criticism. The key argument is that the autonomy of the aesthetic experience is not “false”, rather it is paradoxical in the strong sense that the fact of its communicative efficacy, which follows from distinctive, “autonomous” aesthetic features, necessarily loads it with functions (...)
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  23.  73
    Review Essay: Heidegger, Literary Theory and Social Criticism.Joseph D. Lewandowski - 1994 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 20 (3):109-122.
  24.  46
    Power and Social Criticism: Reflections on Power, Domination and Legitimacy.Mark Haugaard - 2010 - Critical Horizons 11 (1):51-74.
    Both modernist and post-modern social criticism of power presuppose that agents frequently consent to power relations, which a political theorist may wish to critique. This raises the question: from what normative position can one critique power which is, as a sociological fact, legitimate in the eyes of those who reproduce it? This paper argues that "symbolic violence" is a useful metaphor for providing such a normative grounding. In order to provide an epistemological basis of critique, it is further (...)
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  25.  16
    Social Criticism After Rawls.Tony Couture - 1992 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 18 (1):61-80.
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  26.  23
    Reification and Social Criticism.George Hull - 2013 - Philosophical Papers 42 (1):49 - 77.
    Feminist philosophers and philosophers drawing on the German tradition of social philosophy have recently converged in stressing the importance of the concept of reification?first explicitly discussed by György Lukács?for the diagnosis of contemporary social and ethical problems. However, importing a theoretical framework alien to Lukács? original discussion has often led to the conflation of reification with other social and ethical problems. Here it is argued that a coherent conception of reification, free of implausible Marxist and idealist trappings, (...)
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  27.  7
    Gallagher, Shaun, Ed. Hegel, History, and Interpretation. State University of New York Press, 1997. Pp. 275. $19.95 Paper. Gauthier, Jeffrey A. Hegel and Feminist Social Criticism: Justice, Recognition, and the Feminine. State University of New York Press, 1997. Pp. 250. $18.95 Paper. [REVIEW]Neocolonial Age - 1999 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 25 (1):119-122.
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  28.  1
    John Dewey and Social Criticism: An Introduction.Arvi Särkelä & Justo Serrano Zamora - 2017 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 31 (2):213-217.
    Critical social theories are generally understood to be distinct from other normative theories by their explicit orientation toward emancipation: they not only present normative criteria for assessing the legitimacy or justification of social institutions or merely inquire into the actualized freedom of a given form of social life but claim to point toward a “freedom in view”—an end that might aid those participating in social struggles to overcome the pathological, alienated, or ideological social order of (...)
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  29. Listening to the Silent Voices: A Feminist Political Philosophy of Social Criticism.Brooke A. Ackerly - 1997 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    In the real world, many people suffer as a function of their subordinate position in social hierarchy. Deliberative, relativist, and essentialist political theorists have sketched philosophies of social criticism that alone are inadequate for criticizing some harmful social values, practices, and norms. Certainly, theirs are critical theories in the sense that they are actionable, coherent, and self-reflective. But they are not adequate theories of social criticism. They do not specify satisfactorily the roles, qualifications, and (...)
     
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  30. Morality and Social Criticism : The Force of Reasons in Discursive Practice.Richard Amesbury - 2005 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book brings recent developments in Anglo-American philosophy into engagement with dominant currents in contemporary European social theory in order to articulate a pragmatic account of moral criticism. Presented in a lively and accessible style that avoids technical jargon, Morality and Social Criticism argues that the objectivity of moral discourse can be preserved without recourse to the overweening philosophical ambitions of the Enlightenment.
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  31. Review of Kenneth Baynes, The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, and Habermas. [REVIEW]Harry van der Linden - unknown
    Baynes's two main objectives are to show that Kant, Rawls, and Habermas share the view that "the idea of an agreement among free and equal persons [i. e., autonomous persons]... constitutes the normative ground of social criticism", and that this "constructivist" view is more adequately developed and defended with each successive theorist. The study, however, goes beyond these aims and can often fruitfully be read as a comparative study of Rawls and Habermas.
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  32.  38
    Morality and Critical Theory: On the Normative Problem of Frankfurt School Social Criticism.James Gordon Finlayson - 2009 - Télos 2009 (146):7-41.
    I. The Problem of Normative Foundations: Habermas's Original Criticism of Adorno and Horkheimer In The Theory of Communicative Action, Jürgen Habermas writes:From the beginning, critical theory labored over the difficulty of giving an account of its own normative foundations …1Call this Habermas's original objection to the problem of normative foundations. It has been hugely influential both in the interpretation and assessment of Frankfurt School critical theory and in the development of later variants of it. Nowadays it is a truth (...)
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  33.  28
    Feminist Social Criticism and Marx's Theory of Religion.Amy Newman - 1994 - Hypatia 9 (4):15 - 37.
    Feminist philosophers and social theorists have engaged in an extensive critique of the project of modernity during the past three decades. However, many feminists seem to assume that the critique of religion essential to this project remains valid. Radical criticism of religion in the European tradition presupposes a theory of religion that is highly ethnocentric, and Marx's theory of religion serves as a case in point.
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  34.  19
    Four Levels of Self-Interpretation: A Paradigm for Interpretive Social Philosophy and Political Criticism.H. Rosa - 2004 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 30 (5-6):691-720.
    If we are to find the criteria for critical analyses of social arrangements and processes not in some abstract, universalist framework, but from the guiding ‘self-interpretations’ of the societies in question, as contemporary contextualist and ‘communitarian’ approaches to social philosophy suggest, the vexing question arises as to where these self-interpretations can be found and how they are identified. The paper presents a model according to which there are four interdependent as well as partially autonomous spheres or ‘levels’ of (...)
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  35.  40
    Interpretation and Social Criticism.Michael Walzer - 1987 - Harvard University Press.
    Philosophers, political theorists, and all readers seriously interested in the possibility of a moral life will find sustenance and inspiration in this book.
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  36.  46
    Dewey, Second Nature, Social Criticism, and the Hegelian Heritage.Italo Testa - 2017 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 9 (1):1-23.
    Dewey’s notion of second nature is strictly connected with that of habit. I reconstruct the Hegelian heritage of this model and argue that habit qua second nature is understood by Dewey as a something which encompasses both the subjective and the objective dimension – individual dispositions and features of the objective natural and social environment.. Secondly, the notion of habit qua second nature is used by Dewey both in a descriptive and in a critical sense and is as such (...)
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  37. From Affluence to Praxis; Philosophy and Social Criticism.Mihailo Marković - 1974 - Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  38.  7
    Hegel and Feminist Social Criticism: Justice, Recognition, and the Feminine.Jeffrey A. Gauthier - 1997 - State University of New York Press.
    Bringing Hegelian texts into a critical dialogue with the work of a number of important feminists, h.
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  39.  5
    The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism.Bill Pamerleau - 1994 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 9 (9):22-24.
  40.  6
    Degeneration of Associated Life: Dewey's Naturalism About Social Criticism.Arvi Särkelä - 2017 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 53 (1):107.
    A striking feature of John Dewey’s philosophical attitude in his later period is that for self-description, he did not prefer the term “pragmatism.” Instead, he employed such isms as “experimentalism” and “naturalism.” In the period in which he moved towards developing his own original philosophy, he even stated that “I reject root and branch to the term ‘pragmatism.’”1 As he was at the time drawn to naturalism, it might be revealing indeed that he rejects “root and branch” to “pragmatism.” Also (...)
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  41. Unlikely Couples: Movie Romance as Social Criticism.Thomas E. Wartenberg - 2001 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (1):110-111.
     
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  42.  87
    Philosophy & Social Criticism.Cristina Lafont - unknown
    This book offers an excellent analysis of Habermas’s theory of communicative action. It has two distinct but complementary focuses. In the first part, the conception of communicative rationality at the basis of Habermas’s theory of action is confronted with the conception of instrumental rationality that is predominant in the social sciences: rational choice theory. The main focus of this analysis is to evaluate the plausibility of one central claim of Habermas’s theory, namely, that communicative rationality is irreducible to instrumental (...)
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  43.  8
    [Book Review] Unlikely Couples, Movie Romance as Social Criticism[REVIEW]Thomas E. Wartenberg - 2001 - Social Theory and Practice 27 (1):174-180.
  44.  21
    The Politics of Survival: Peirce, Affectivity, and Social Criticism by Lara Trout (Review).John Kaag - 2013 - The Pluralist 8 (1):119-123.
    Pragmatism, with its insistence that philosophy attend to practical affairs of what Charles Sanders Peirce called "vital importance," has always faced a unique double bind. If it spent too much time on philosophical speculation, it made no difference to practical affairs. But if it fixated on the practical affairs of the social and political realm, it was no longer engaged in philosophy. This double bind is not unique to pragmatism and has shown itself repeatedly in the last two hundred (...)
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  45.  8
    Hermeneutical Generosity and Social Criticism.Ronald Beiner - 1995 - Critical Review 9 (4):447-464.
    According to one model of social theory, the social theorist seeks to give as rich an account as possible of a society's own self?understanding or self?interpretation. The second model, by contrast, involves challenging the society's self?understanding on the basis of a radical vision of ultimate standards of. judgment. Charles Taylor claims that neither of these models should be privileged over the other, that both are equiprimordial ways of theorizing social life. However, Taylor does privilege the first model (...)
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  46.  27
    Hegel on “Ethical Life” and Social Criticism.Robert M. Wallace - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Research 26:571-591.
    Many readers have suspected that Hegel---in arguing against Kant’s individualistic and critical way of approaching ethics and favoring instead an “ethical life” he associates with custom and habit---is in effect eliminating both individual judgment and any basis for criticism of corrupt or unjust communities. Most specialists reject this view of Hegel’s ethical theory, but they haven’t explained precisely how, on the contrary, ethical life preserves individual judgment and criticism within a new way of thinking about ethics. The goal (...)
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  47.  33
    Thorstein Veblen and American Social Criticism.Joseph Heath - 2008 - In C. J. Misak (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of American Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Thorstein Veblen is perhaps best thought of as America’s answer to Karl Marx. This is sometimes obscured by the rather unfortunate title of his most important work, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), which misleading, insofar as it suggests that the book is just a theory of the “leisure class.” What the book provides is in fact a perfectly general theory of class, not to mention property, economic development, and social evolution. It is, in other words, a system (...)
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  48.  23
    The Politics of Survival: Peirce, Affectivity, and Social Criticism.David A. Dilworth - 2011 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 47 (4):524-528.
    In this book Lara Trout provides provocative but problematic food for thought. She crafts an exegesis of Peirce's concepts of evolutionary agapism and critical commonsensism as resources for a theory of social justice aligned with contemporary race and gender theories. Conforming Peirce's tenets to her own agenda, she develops a radical politics of societal inclusiveness by way of analyzing and critiquing putative "nonconscious biases" in the "background" beliefs of broad segments of the contemporary populace. Unfortunately, this steers Peirce's ship (...)
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  49.  25
    The Rawlsian Legacy and the Problem of Social Criticism.Christian Arnsperger - unknown
    The aim of this paper is to explore and question the potential of John Rawls’s theory of social justice as a tool for building a critical theory of society. My claim will be that Rawls’s approach to social theory cannot provide such a tool; as it will turn out, it faces very deep problems when faced with the task becoming a critical theory of society. Such problems originate mainly in the cognitive and epistemic structure of the “original position”. (...)
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  50.  14
    Symposium on Technology and Social Criticism—Introduction Technology and Culture in Evolution.J. Bronowski - 1971 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 1 (2):195-206.
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