Results for 'social dilemma'

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  1.  5
    Equilibria Analysis in Social Dilemma Games with Skinnerian Agents.Ugo Merlone, Daren R. Sandbank & Ferenc Szidarovszky - 2013 - Mind and Society 12 (2):219-233.
    Different disciplines have analyzed binary choices to model collective behavior in human systems. Several situations in which social dilemma arise can be modeled as N-person prisoner’s dilemma games including homeland security, public goods, international political economy among others. The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical solution to the N-person prisoner’s dilemma game when boundedly rational agents interact in a population. Previous studies in the literature consider the case in which cooperators and defectors have (...)
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  2.  40
    Words Versus Actions as a Means to Influence Cooperation in Social Dilemma Situations.Ganna Pogrebna, David H. Krantz, Christian Schade & Claudia Keser - 2011 - Theory and Decision 71 (4):473-502.
    We use a sequential voluntary contribution game to compare the relative impact of a first-mover’s non-binding announcement versus binding commitment on cooperation. We find that a non-binding announcement and a binding commitment increase individual contributions to a similar extent. Since announced contributions systematically exceed commitments, in sessions with a non-binding announcement, second-movers tend to contribute more to the group activity than in sessions with a binding commitment. Yet, second-movers appear to be more motivated towards achieving a social optimum when (...)
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  3.  6
    Does Mentalising Ability Influence Cooperative Decision-Making in a Social Dilemma? Introspective Evidence From a Study of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.Elisabeth Hill, David Sally & Uta Frith - 2004 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (7-8):7-8.
    The choice to cooperate or compete with others confronts us on a daily basis, and it is plausible that we use our mentalising skills to aid decision-making in such situations. We investigated the relationship between mentalising and decision-making in the prisoner's dilemma in adults with autism spectrum disorders , who show impaired mentalising, and normal adults. After completion of three versions of the prisoner's dilemma, we conducted a semi-structured interview. This interview attempted to elicit a participant's spontaneous strategy (...)
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  4.  6
    A Tragedy of the Commons: Interpreting the Replication Crisis in Psychology as a Social Dilemma for Early-Career Researchers.Jim A. C. Everett & Brian D. Earp - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  5.  10
    Enhanced Old–New Recognition and Source Memory for Faces of Cooperators and Defectors in a Social-Dilemma Game.Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner & Jochen Musch - 2010 - Cognition 117 (3):261-275.
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  6.  31
    Asymmetric Enforcement of Cooperation in a Social Dilemma.Brian Wallace - unknown
    We use a public-good experiment to analyze behavior in a decentralized asymmetric punishment institution. The institution is asymmetric in the sense that players differ in the effectiveness of their punishment. At the aggregate level, we observe remarkable similarities between outcomes in asymmetric and symmetric punishment institutions. Controlling for the average punishment effectiveness of the institutions, we find that asymmetric punishment institutions are as effective in fostering cooperation and as efficient as symmetric institutions. At the individual level, we find that players (...)
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  7.  4
    Police: The Good, the Bad, and the Social Dilemma.William H. Bruening - unknown
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  8.  8
    Education and the Birth Rate: A Social Dilemma.Richard M. Titmuss - 1940 - The Eugenics Review 32 (2):61.
  9.  13
    Social Dilemma Games and Puzzles.Leon Felkins - unknown
    "This talk of holding back in the face of strong temptation brings me to the climax of this column: the announcement of a Luring Lottery open to all readers and nonreaders of Scientific American. The prize of this lottery is $ 1,000,000/N, where N is the number of entries submitted. Just think: if you are the only entrant (and if you submit only one entry), a cool million is yours! Perhaps, though, you doubt this will come about. It does seem (...)
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  10.  64
    Two Aggregation Paradoxes in Social Decision Making: The Ostrogorski Paradox and the Discursive Dilemma.Gabriella Pigozzi - 2005 - Episteme 2 (2):119-128.
    The Ostrogorski paradox and the discursive dilemma are seemingly unrelated paradoxes of aggregation. The former is discussed in traditional social choice theory, while the latter is at the core of the new literature on judgment aggregation. Both paradoxes arise when, in a group, each individual consistently makes a judgment, or expresses a preference, (in the form of yes or no) over specific propositions, and the collective outcome is in some respect inconsistent. While the result is logically inconsistent in (...)
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  11.  64
    Beyond the Sociobiological Dilemma: Social Emotions and the Evolution of Morality.Alejandro Rosas - 2007 - Zygon 42 (3):685-700.
    Is morality biologically altruistic? Does it imply a disadvantage in the struggle for existence? A positive answer puts morality at odds with natural selection, unless natural selection operates at the level of groups. In this case, a trait that is good for groups though bad for individuals can evolve. Sociobiologists reject group selection and have adopted one of two horns of a dilemma. Either morality is based on an egoistic calculus, compatible with natural selection; or morality continues tied to (...)
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  12.  4
    The Social Mediation of a Moral Dilemma: Appropriating the Moral Tools of Others.Val D. Turner & Elisha A. Chambers - 2006 - Journal of Moral Education 35 (3):353-368.
    Much effort, on a philosophical and a research basis, has been applied to the subject of moral development framed within a constructivist, Piagetian stage?type format. These efforts have focused on the process of the individual's construction of a moral base and the individual's corresponding level of moral development. At this point in time, little research has been directed at analysing the sociocultural influences on morality construction, moral decision?making and moral development within the framework of a specific developmental theory. This research (...)
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  13.  5
    Effacing the Dilemma of the Rumouring Subject: A Value-Oriented Approach Towards Studying Misinformation on Social Media.Rajiv Aricat - 2018 - Journal of Human Values 24 (1):56-65.
    Rumour has been part of collective human life for centuries. Communities deal with anxiety and make sense of the unknowable by mixing apprehensions with what is already known to them. With modernity, and in line with studies on a range of social phenomena, there have been efforts to develop a science on rumour. Most of these studies deal with rumour at the propositional level, such that the rumouring or rumour-rebutting subject invariably belongs to one of the two sides of (...)
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  14.  2
    Social Choice and the Indexing Dilemma.Marc Fleurbaey - unknown
    This paper distinguishes an index ordering and a social ordering function as a simple way to formalize the indexing problem in the social choice framework. Two main conclusions are derived. First, the alleged dilemma between welfarism and perfectionism is shown to involve a third possibility, exemplified by the fairness approach to social choice. Second, the idea that an individual is better off than another whenever he has more (goods, functionings, etc.) in all dimensions, which is known (...)
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  15.  27
    A Marxist Dilemma for Social Contract Theory.James P. Sterba - 1982 - American Philosophical Quarterly 19 (1):51 - 59.
    Marxist social contract theory gives rise to an unwelcome dilemma for would-Be contractarians. For either the state of nature choice situation confronting the parties to the social contract will be defined to include or to exclude the knowledge of the general facts of class conflict. But if, On the one hand, The state of nature choice situation is defined to include such knowledge (particularly the knowledge of the fundamental conflict between the proletariat and capitalist classes), Then it (...)
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  16.  6
    The 'Republican Dilemma' and the Changing Social Context of Republicanism in the Early Modern Period.Geoff Kennedy - 2009 - European Journal of Political Theory 8 (3):313-338.
    This article relates the evolving relationship between republicanism and the problem of ‘empire’ to the changing social contexts within which republican political theory emerges in the early modern period. It is argued that the initial antagonism between republicanism and empire was a politically constituted dilemma that related to the specific configuration of economic and political power characteristic of pre-capitalist societies. With the development of capitalism in England in the early modern period, the problem of empire becomes partially resolved (...)
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  17.  6
    The Dilemma of Regress Social Justice and Democracy in Recent Critical Theory.Katrin Toens - 2007 - European Journal of Political Theory 6 (2):160-179.
    Workfare reforms under conditions of fiscal and democratic constraints are the starting point for a reflection on the relationship between social justice and democracy. The focus is on a dilemma of regress or circularity, defined as a situation in which these principles mutually presuppose each other. The main section picks up on the theoretical challenge to escape this dilemma. By examining the critical theory of Nancy Fraser, Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth, it argues that the concepts of (...)
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  18.  2
    Playing with Fire, or the Stuffing of Dead Animals: Freire, Dewey, and the Dilemma of Social Studies Reform.Stephen Fleury - 2011 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 47 (1):71-91.
    (2011). Playing with Fire, or the Stuffing of Dead Animals: Freire, Dewey, and the Dilemma of Social Studies Reform. Educational Studies: Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 71-91.
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  19.  6
    A Natural Scientist and a Social Scientist Explore the Dilemma of Science.Arnoldo K. Ventura - 2003 - Ian Randle Publishers.
    SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND THE REDUCTION OF POVERTY If you treat an individual as he is, he will stay that way, but if you treat him as if he were what he ...
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  20.  17
    The Dilemma of Revealing Sensitive Information on Paternity Status in Arabian Social and Cultural Contexts.Abdallah A. Adlan & Henk Amj ten Have - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (4):403-409.
    Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between “right and right” or “right and wrong,” it is between “wrong and wrong.” In the case presented and discussed in this (...)
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  21.  3
    Addressing the Social Foundations "Accountability" Dilemma.Eric Bredo - 2005 - Educational Studies 38 (3):230-241.
    The attempt to reform education using performance-based accountability may eventually be applied to teacher education. If so, it poses a potential challenge to those in social foundations as well as to other teacher-educators. Among other things, it requires that we think clearly about our mission and the kinds of effects we would like to have. Some difficulties involved in responding to this challenge are outlined in the following. A conception of the mission of social foundations that makes it (...)
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  22.  7
    Food Habits, Social Change and the Nature/Culture Dilemma.C. Fischler - 1980 - Social Science Information 19 (6):937-953.
  23.  4
    A General Theory of Sympathy, Mind-Reading, and Social Interaction, with an Application to the Prisoners' Dilemma.D. Sally - 2000 - Social Science Information 39 (4):567-634.
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  24.  15
    Potential for Personhood: A Measure of Life the Severely Defective Newborn, Legal Implications of a Social-Medical Dilemma[REVIEW]Claire Thomas - 1980 - Bioethics Quarterly 2 (3):164-193.
    This paper asks for legislation that will remove criminal sanctions from good faith decisions by parents and physicians to allow severely defective newborns to die. In so doing it attempts to bring to satisfactory resolution conflicting points of view in the disciplines of moral philosophy, medicine, and law. This paper argues that euthanasia of severely defective newborns is morally justifiable and legally permissible within reasonable extensions of current interpretations of the Federal Constitution by the Supreme Court. It describes the medical (...)
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  25.  59
    Cooperation, Psychological Game Theory, and Limitations of Rationality in Social Interaction.Andrew M. Colman - 2003 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):139-153.
    Rational choice theory enjoys unprecedented popularity and influence in the behavioral and social sciences, but it generates intractable problems when applied to socially interactive decisions. In individual decisions, instrumental rationality is defined in terms of expected utility maximization. This becomes problematic in interactive decisions, when individuals have only partial control over the outcomes, because expected utility maximization is undefined in the absence of assumptions about how the other participants will behave. Game theory therefore incorporates not only rationality but also (...)
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  26.  34
    The International Infant Formula Controversy: A Dilemma in Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW]James C. Baker - 1985 - Journal of Business Ethics 4 (3):181 - 190.
    One of the most controversial issues to face any industry has been the infant formula problem, especially in the less-developed countries (LDCs). Producers of infant formula were confronted with a boycott which evolved from a grass-roots level to one which involved many nations, international and national public agencies, non-profit organizations, scientific research institutions, large church denominations, and every company in the industry. An international boycott was aimed at Nestlé, one of the largest producers of infant formula.The aim of this paper (...)
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  27.  65
    Prisoner's Dilemma and Social Justice: A Reply.W. G. Runciman & Amartya Sen - 1974 - Mind 83 (332):582.
  28.  4
    Expectations and Decisions in the Volunteer’s Dilemma: Effects of Social Distance and Social Projection.Joachim I. Krueger, Johannes Ullrich & Leonard J. Chen - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  29.  34
    Democracy's Dilemma: Environment, Social Equity, and the Global Economy.Robert Kirkman - 2004 - Environmental Ethics 26 (3):331-332.
  30.  10
    Social Interactions and The Prisoner's Dilemma.Cédric Paternotte - forthcoming - Metascience:1-4.
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  31.  6
    Social Networking Sites: A Clinical Dilemma?D. L. Maughan & A. Economou - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (2):203-205.
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  32.  4
    Social Accounting and the Pursuit of Happiness: A Moral Dilemma.Roland Garrett - 1980 - Business and Society 19 (2):23-29.
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  33. Social Cognition and Cortical Function : An Evolutionary Perspective / Susanne Shultz & Robin I. M. Dunbar / Homo Heuristicus and the Bias-Variance Dilemma.Henry Brighton & Gerd Gigerenzer - 2012 - In Jay Schulkin (ed.), New Directions in Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Adaptation and Cephalic Expression. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  34. John M. Meyer, Engaging the Everyday: Environmental Social Criticism and the Resonance Dilemma.Marius De Geus - 2016 - Environmental Values 25 (6):757-758.
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  35. Objectivity and Social Reality: Peter Berger's Dilemma.Jerry H. Gill - 1988 - Philosophy Today 32 (3):256-269.
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  36. Ethical Dilemma and Research Methodology of Social Sciences.Ahmad A. N. Neaz - 2012 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 1 (1).
  37.  26
    Dissolving the Epistemic/Ethical Dilemma Over Implicit Bias.Katherine Puddifoot - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (sup1):73-93.
    It has been argued that humans can face an ethical/epistemic dilemma over the automatic stereotyping involved in implicit bias: ethical demands require that we consistently treat people equally, as equally likely to possess certain traits, but if our aim is knowledge or understanding our responses should reflect social inequalities meaning that members of certain social groups are statistically more likely than others to possess particular features. I use psychological research to argue that often the best choice from (...)
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  38. The Doctrinal Paradox, the Discursive Dilemma, and Logical Aggregation Theory.Philippe Mongin - 2012 - Theory and Decision 73 (3):315-355.
    Judgment aggregation theory, or rather, as we conceive of it here, logical aggregation theory generalizes social choice theory by having the aggregation rule bear on judgments of all kinds instead of merely preference judgments. It derives from Kornhauser and Sager’s doctrinal paradox and List and Pettit’s discursive dilemma, two problems that we distinguish emphatically here. The current theory has developed from the discursive dilemma, rather than the doctrinal paradox, and the final objective of the paper is to (...)
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  39.  34
    The Ethics of Opinion in Academe: Questions for an Ethical and Administrative Dilemma[REVIEW]Marc D. Hiller & Theodore D. Peters - 2005 - Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4):183-203.
    If we accept that all plagiarism is wrong, the issue is black and white. But are there more challenging questions that color the issue with shades of gray that may influence or help clarify the ethical underpinnings of the act? Does intent matter? Does the venue matter? Does the form of writing matter? What about a professor when working as a private citizen, rather than in his/her academic role? Might plagiarism be mitigated when there is no associated financial gain? Is (...)
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  40.  23
    Explaining Universal Social Institutions: A Game-Theoretic Approach.Michael Vlerick - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):291-300.
    Universal social institutions, such as marriage, commons management and property, have emerged independently in radically different cultures. This requires explanation. As Boyer and Petersen point out ‘in a purely localist framework would have to constitute massively improbable coincidences’ . According to Boyer and Petersen, those institutions emerged naturally out of genetically wired behavioural dispositions, such as marriage out of mating strategies and borders out of territorial behaviour. While I agree with Boyer and Petersen that ‘unnatural’ institutions cannot thrive, this (...)
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  41. The Discursive Dilemma and Public Reason.Christian List - 2006 - Ethics 116 (2):362-402.
    Political theorists have offered many accounts of collective decision-making under pluralism. I discuss a key dimension on which such accounts differ: the importance assigned not only to the choices made but also to the reasons underlying those choices. On that dimension, different accounts lie in between two extremes. The ‘minimal liberal account’ holds that collective decisions should be made only on practical actions or policies and that underlying reasons should be kept private. The ‘comprehensive deliberative account’ stresses the importance of (...)
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  42.  66
    Three Aspects of Interpersonal Trust.Bernd Lahno - 2004 - Analyse & Kritik 26 (1):30-47.
    Trust is generally held to have three different dimensions or aspects: a behavioral aspect, a cognitive aspect, and an affective aspect. While there is hardly any disagreement about trusting behavior, there is some disagreement as to which of the two other aspects is more fundamental. After presenting some of the main ideas concerning the concept of trust as used in the analysis of social cooperation. I will argue that affective aspects of trust must be included in any adequate account (...)
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  43.  7
    When Rules Really Make a Difference: The Effect of Cooperation Rules and Self-Sacrificing Leadership on Moral Norms in Social Dilemmas. [REVIEW]Laetitia B. Mulder & Rob M. A. Nelissen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):57 - 72.
    If self-interested behavior conflicts with the collective welfare, rules of cooperation are often installed to prevent egoistic behavior. We hypothesized that installing such rules may instigate personal moral norms of cooperation, but that they fail in doing so when installed by a leader who is self-interested rather than self-sacrificing. Three studies confirmed this and also showed that, consequently, only self-sacrificing leaders were able to install rules that increase cooperation without the need for a perfectly operating monitoring system.
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  44.  14
    The Social Dilemmas.Leon Felkins - manuscript
    "For that which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it. Every one thinks chiefly of his own, hardly at all of the common interest; and only when he is himself concerned as an individual. For besides other considerations, everybody is more inclined to neglect the duty which he expects another to fulfill; as in families many attendants are often less useful than a few. Each citizen will have a thousand sons who will not be (...)
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  45. Marxism, Business Ethics, and Corporate Social Responsibility.William H. Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4):565-576.
    Originally delivered at a conference of Marxist philosophers in China, this article examines some links, and some tensions, between business ethics and the traditional concerns of Marxism. After discussing the emergence of business ethics as an academic discipline, it explores and attempts to answer two Marxist objections that might be brought against the enterprise of business ethics. The first is that business ethics is impossible because capitalism itself tends to produce greedy, overreaching, and unethical business behavior. The second is that (...)
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  46.  24
    Considering the Ethical Implications of Social Media in Social Work Education.Rana Duncan-Daston, Maude Hunter-Sloan & Elise Fullmer - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):35-43.
    The ethical implications of the explosion of social media outlets for social work education are explored in this paper. Given that social work education has a dual focus, both of educating students and of socializing practitioners into the profession, the issue of the blurring between what is social and what is professional gains particular salience for both educators and students. Recommendations for educators to ethically address the need to maintain a consistent professional presence online and to (...)
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  47.  25
    Cooperation and Signaling with Uncertain Social Preferences.John Duffy & Félix Muñoz-García - 2015 - Theory and Decision 78 (1):45-75.
    This paper investigates behavior in finitely repeated simultaneous and sequential-move prisoner’s dilemma games when there is one-sided incomplete information and signaling about players’ concerns for fairness, specifically, their preferences regarding “inequity aversion.” In this environment, we show that only a pooling equilibrium can be sustained, in which a player type who is unconcerned about fairness initially cooperates in order to disguise himself as a player type who is concerned about fairness. This disguising strategy induces the uninformed player to cooperate (...)
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  48.  36
    Teaching Social Responsibility: The Manhattan Project.Penny J. Gilmer & Michael DuBois - 2002 - Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (2):206-210.
    This paper discusses the critical necessity of teaching students about the social and ethical responsibilities of scientists. Both a university scientist and a middle school science teacher reflect on the value of teaching the ethical issues that confront scientists. In the development of the atomic bomb in the US-led Manhattan Project, scientists faced the growing threat of atomic bombs by the Germans and Japanese and the ethical issues involved in successfully completing such a destructive weapon. The Manhattan Project is (...)
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  49. An Introduction to the Theory of Social Dilemmas.Leon Felkins - 1994 - The Ethical Spectacle.
    It is said that society is in a moral crisis. And, what is worse, it seems to be deteriorating at an ever increasing rate. We all agree that something needs to be done. Our politicians and preachers say we need to help each other more, we need to have "family values", we need to contribute to society and we need to have high moral standards. But there is a fundamental logical reason why none of this is going to happen. This (...)
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  50.  34
    A Note on the Prisoner's Dilemma.C. L. Sheng - 1994 - Theory and Decision 36 (3):233-246.
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