Results for 'sociobiology'

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  1.  64
    Sociobiology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Sociobiology developed in the 1960s as a field within evolutionary biology to explain human social traits and behaviours. Although sociobiology has few direct connections to eugenics, it shares eugenics’ optimistic enthusiasm for extending biological science into the human domain, often with reckless sensationalism. Sociobiology's critics have argued that sociobiology also propagates a kind of genetic determinism and represents the zealous misapplication of science beyond its proper reach that characterized the eugenics movement. More recently, evolutionary psychology represents (...)
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  2.  26
    Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science.Alexander Rosenberg - 1980 - Johns Hopkins University Press, C1980.
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  3.  28
    Sociobiology: The New Synthesis.Edward O. Wilson - 1975 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):577-584.
  4.  47
    Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense?J. L. Mackie - 1979 - Erkenntnis 15 (2):189-194.
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  5. The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Integrated Evolutionary Model.Linda Mealey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:523-541.
    Sociopaths are members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most ofus cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to (...)
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  6.  42
    The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism: Evolutionary Dimensions of Xenophobia, Discrimination, Racism and Nationalism.Fred Gifford - 1988 - Ethics 99 (1):183-184.
  7.  14
    Review: The Sociobiology Muddle. [REVIEW]Robert L. Simon - 1982 - Ethics 92 (2):327-340.
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  8.  80
    Précis of Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature.Philip Kitcher - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):61-71.
    The debate about the credentials of sociobiology has persisted because scholars have failed to distinguish the varieties of sociobiology and because too little attention has been paid to the details of the arguments that are supposed to support the provocative claims about human social behavior. I seek to remedy both deficiencies. After analysis of the relationships among different kinds of sociobiology and contemporary evolutionary theory, I attempt to show how some of the studies of the behavior of (...)
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  9. Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2011 - In Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. West Sussex, UK: Wiley/Blackwell. pp. 393-414.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears (...)
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  10.  8
    The Sociobiology of Everyday Life.Del Thiessen & Yoko Umezawa - 1998 - Human Nature 9 (3):293-320.
    The 1000-year-old novel The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu around 1002 CE, shows the operation of general principles of sociobiology. Isolated from western influences and cloaked in Japanese traditions, the common traits associated with reproductive processes are clearly evident. The novel depicts the differential investment of males and females in offspring, male competitive behaviors, and concerns for paternity, kin selection, reciprocal social exchange, species-typical emotional expression, female mate choice, positive assortative mating, and acknowledgment of hereditary transmission of (...)
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  11. Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature.Richard M. Burian - 1989 - Journal of Philosophy 86 (7):385-391.
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  12.  12
    The Sociobiology of Human Mate Preference: On Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses.Nadav Nur - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (1):28-29.
  13.  46
    The sociobiology of genes: the gene’s eye view as a unifying behavioural-ecological framework for biological evolution.Alexis De Tiège, Yves Van de Peer, Johan Braeckman & Koen B. Tanghe - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):6.
    Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly ‘gene-centred’, the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene’s eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes (...)
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  14.  48
    Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. Stabler Jr - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):648-651.
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  15.  14
    Sociobiology and Darwinism.Donald Symons - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):208-209.
  16.  28
    Utilitarianism, Sociobiology, and the Limits of Benevolence.Danny Scoccia - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (7):329.
  17.  28
    Social Versus Reproductive Success: The Central Theoretical Problem of Human Sociobiology.Daniel R. Vining - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):167-187.
    The fundamental postulate of sociobiology is that individuals exploit favorable environments to increase their genetic representation in the next generation. The data on fertility differentials among contemporary humans are not cotvietent with this postulate. Given the importance ofHomo sapiensas an animal species in the natural world today, these data constitute particularly challenging and interesting problem for both human sociobiology and sociobiology as a whole.The first part of this paper reviews the evidence showing an inverse relationship between reproductive (...)
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  18.  14
    Sociobiology and Psychometrics: Do They Really Need Each Other?John Rust - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):117 – 129.
    Sociobiology has always had a strong relationship with classical psychometrics, and with intelligence testing in particular. The major ideological impact of Eugenics prior to 1940 led many psychometricians to adopt a sociobiological perspective, but when this turned out, in the 1960's, to be controversial many of the procedures of classical psychometrics were abandoned. Their place was taken by functional psychometrics, based on criterion reference testing, where the content of test items was related directly to very specific skills which may (...)
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  19.  9
    Selfishness, Sociobiology, and Self-Identities: Dilemmas and Confusions.Ian Vine - 1989 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):725-726.
  20.  45
    Sociobiology and Original Sin.Patricia A. Williams - 2000 - Zygon 35 (4):783-812.
  21.  35
    A Multiple-Level Model of Evolution and its Implications for Sociobiology.H. C. Plotkin & F. J. Odling-Smee - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):225-235.
    The fundamental tenet of contemporary sociobiology, namely the assumption of a single process of evolution involving the selection of genes, is critically examined. An alternative multiple-level, multiple-process model of evolution is presented which posits that the primary process that operates via selection upon the genes cannot account for certain kinds of biological phenomena, especially complex, learned, social behaviours. The primary process has evolved subsidiary evolutionary levels and processes that act to bridge the gap between genes and these complex behaviours. (...)
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  22.  55
    Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW]Ullica Segerstrale - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
    Edward O. Wilson's forays into human sociobiology have been the target of persistent, vehement attack by his Harvard colleague in evolutionary biology, Richard C. Lewontin. Through examination of existing documents in the case, together with in-depth personal interviews of Wilson, Lewontin, and other biologists, the reasons for Wilson's stance and Lewontin's criticisms are uncovered. It is argued that the dispute is not primarily personally or politically motivated, but involves a conflict between long-term scientific-cum-moral agendas, with the reductionist program as (...)
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  23.  19
    Functional Explanations in Sociobiology.Barbara L. Horan - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (2):131.
    In this essay I defend functional explanations in sociobiology against the charge that they are exercises in speculative story-telling. I distinguish proximate and ultimate biological functions, and discuss their role in functional explanations. I characterize functional explanations as a kind of "consequence explanation", and argue that sociobiologists need to justify a "functional fact" in addition to a "consequence law". Two methods used to supply evidence for functional hypotheses, the technique of optimality analyses and the comparative method, are discussed and (...)
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  24.  76
    Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold’s Land Ethic?J. Baird Callicott - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is (...)
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  25.  25
    Sociobiology - A Caricature of Darwinism.R. C. Lewontin - 1976 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1976:22 - 31.
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  26.  51
    Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Comparative Study From the Perspective of Modern Socialist Economic Reforms. [REVIEW]Zhang Boshu - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):463-474.
    Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place (...)
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  27.  36
    Sociobiology, God, and Understanding.Charles J. Lumsden - 1989 - Zygon 24 (1):83-108.
  28.  32
    Human Sociobiology.Michael J. Reiss - 1984 - Zygon 19 (2):117-140.
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  29.  13
    Sociobiology Flops Again.Douglas Wahlsten - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):310-311.
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  30.  8
    Sociobiology and Sociopolitics.Irwin Silverman - 1995 - Social Science Information 34 (1):79-86.
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  31.  15
    The Development of Sociobiology in Relation to Animal Behavior Studies, 1946–1975.Clement Levallois - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):419-444.
    This paper aims at bridging a gap between the history of American animal behavior studies and the history of sociobiology. In the post-war period, ecology, comparative psychology and ethology were all investigating animal societies, using different approaches ranging from fieldwork to laboratory studies. We argue that this disunity in “practices of place” explains the attempts of dialogue between those three fields and early calls for unity through “sociobiology” by J. Paul Scott. In turn, tensions between the naturalist tradition (...)
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  32.  6
    Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold’s Land Ethic?J. Baird Callicott - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology and the advent of sociobiology may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments indicates that the land ethic is still a viable environmental ethic, if judiciously updated and revised.
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  33.  28
    Inclusive Fitness and the Sociobiology of the Genome.Herbert Gintis - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):477-515.
    Inclusive fitness theory provides conditions for the evolutionary success of a gene. These conditions ensure that the gene is selfish in the sense of Dawkins (The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976): genes do not and cannot sacrifice their own fitness on behalf of the reproductive population. Therefore, while natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world (Dawkins in The blind watchmaker: why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design, W. W. Norton, New York, (...)
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  34.  7
    Sociobiology and the Crisis of Public Authority.Robert R. Sullivan - 1982 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 12 (3):271-284.
  35.  8
    Sociobiology and IQ Trends Over Time.James R. Flynn - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):192-192.
  36.  7
    Sociobiology.M. Midgley - 1984 - Journal of Medical Ethics 10 (3):158-160.
  37.  70
    Evolution, Sociobiology, and the Atonement.Patricia A. Williams - 1998 - Zygon 33 (4):557-570.
    This essay views Christian doctrines of the atonement in the light of evolution and sociobiology. It argues that most of the doctrines are false because they use a false premise, the historicity of Adam and the Fall. However, two doctrines are not false on those grounds: Abelard’s idea that Jesus’ life is an example and Athanasius’s concept that the atonement changes human nature. Employing evolution’s and sociobiology’s concepts of the egocentric and ethnocentric nature of humanity and the synergy (...)
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  38.  31
    Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW]Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  39.  39
    Sociobiology and the Redemption of Normative Ethics.Carla E. Kary - 1984 - The Monist 67 (2):161-166.
    Moral philosophers aside, people sustain a vital interest in the results of ethical theorizing only on the hope that these results will eventually provide satisfying, clear, and univocal answers to essential moral questions like: What is Right Action? What is Good? But whatever else might be said of this century’s labors in moral philosophy, they have failed utterly to nurture this hope. Instead, the overwhelming perception has been that this sort of answer to these questions is beyond our ken, or (...)
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  40.  30
    Sociobiology, Ethics, and Theology.Philip Hefner - 1984 - Zygon 19 (2):185-207.
  41.  10
    The Sociobiology of Humanism.John D. Lantos - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (6):20-22.
  42.  34
    Sociobiology and its Theological Implications.Arthur Peacocke - 1984 - Zygon 19 (2):171-184.
  43.  51
    Is Sociobiology a New Paradigm?Michael Ruse - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (1):98-104.
    Is sociobiology a new paradigm? A number of people have claimed that it is. I argue that, sociologically speaking, it may well be. But epistemologically, it is not. The case rests on one's interpretation of the major Darwinian evolutionary mechanism, natural selection. In this note, it is shown that sociobiology relies on an orthodox understanding of selection. Thus, in crucial epistemological respects, sociobiology is continuous with the rest of Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  44.  38
    Ethics and Sociobiology.Peter Singer - 1982 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 11 (1):40-64.
  45.  16
    What is Sociobiology's Central Dogma?James Silverberg & J. Patrick Gray - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):206-207.
  46. Population Genetics and Sociobiology: Conflicting Views of Evolution.James Schwartz - 2002 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):224-240.
  47.  12
    Sociobiology - Standing on One Leg.H. J. Eysenck - 1980 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):186-186.
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  48. Sociobiology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archive.
  49.  47
    Sociobiology and Moral Discourse.Loyal Rue - 1998 - Zygon 33 (4):525-533.
  50.  47
    Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading and the Idea of 'Dangerous Knowledge'.Petteri Pietikäinen - 2004 - Social Epistemology 18 (2-3):165-179.
    This article examines the belief among the cultural elites that ?people? should be protected from dangerous knowledge, ?dangerous? in the sense that there are factual statements which may have negative moral and political consequences to society. Such a belief in the negative consequences of dangerous ? that is, politically suspicious ? knowledge represents an intellectual tradition that goes back to Plato and his famous state?utopian work Republic. This article analyses moral interpretations of statements regarding matters of fact (so?called moral reading), (...)
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