Results for 'sociobiology'

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  1.  22
    Sociobiology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archives.
    Sociobiology developed in the 1960s as a field within evolutionary biology to explain human social traits and behaviours. Although sociobiology has few direct connections to eugenics, it shares eugenics’ optimistic enthusiasm for extending biological science into the human domain, often with reckless sensationalism. Sociobiology's critics have argued that sociobiology also propagates a kind of genetic determinism and represents the zealous misapplication of science beyond its proper reach that characterized the eugenics movement. More recently, evolutionary psychology represents (...)
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  2.  52
    Colleagues in Conflict: An 'in Vivo' Analysis of the Sociobiology Controversy. [REVIEW]Ullica Segerstrale - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):53-87.
    Edward O. Wilson's forays into human sociobiology have been the target of persistent, vehement attack by his Harvard colleague in evolutionary biology, Richard C. Lewontin. Through examination of existing documents in the case, together with in-depth personal interviews of Wilson, Lewontin, and other biologists, the reasons for Wilson's stance and Lewontin's criticisms are uncovered. It is argued that the dispute is not primarily personally or politically motivated, but involves a conflict between long-term scientific-cum-moral agendas, with the reductionist program as (...)
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  3.  85
    The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate.Neil Jumonville - 2002 - Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):569 - 593.
    The sociobiology debate, in the final quarter of the twentieth century, featured many of the same issues disputed in the culture war in the humanities during this same time period. This is evident from a study of the writings of Edward O. Wilson, the best known of the sociobiologists, and from an examination of both the minutes of the meetings of the Sociobiology Study Group (SSG) and the writings of Stephen Jay Gould, the SSG's most prominent member. Many (...)
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  4.  27
    Inclusive Fitness and the Sociobiology of the Genome.Herbert Gintis - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):477-515.
    Inclusive fitness theory provides conditions for the evolutionary success of a gene. These conditions ensure that the gene is selfish in the sense of Dawkins (The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1976): genes do not and cannot sacrifice their own fitness on behalf of the reproductive population. Therefore, while natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world (Dawkins in The blind watchmaker: why the evidence of evolution reveals a universe without design, W. W. Norton, New York, (...)
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  5.  44
    Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Comparative Study From the Perspective of Modern Socialist Economic Reforms. [REVIEW]Zhang Boshu - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):463-474.
    Modern socialist economic reforms which center on the establishment of a commodity based economic system, demand a reconsideration of human nature. Marxism and human sociobiology give different answers to questions about human nature, but neither is complete in itself. It seems timely, therefore, to suggest that a combination of biological understanding with a Marxist-based social understanding would produce a more adequate notion of human nature, thereby helping us to resolve a number of problems posed by reforms currently taking place (...)
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  6. The Engagement of Religion and Biology: A Case Study in the Mediating Role of Metaphor in the Sociobiology of Lumsden & Wilson. [REVIEW]Jitse M. van der Meer - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):669-698.
    I claim that explanations of human behaviour by Edward O. Wilsonand Charles Lumsden are constituted by a religiously functioningmetaphysics: emergent materialism. The constitutive effects areidentified using six criteria, beginning with a metaphorical re-description of dissimilarities between levels of organization interms of the lower level, and consist of conceptual andexplanatory reductions (CER). Wilson and Lumsden practice CER,even though CER is not required by emergent materialism. Theypreconceive this practice by a re-description which conflates thelevels of organization and explain failure of CER in (...)
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  7.  4
    The Sociobiology of Everyday Life.Del Thiessen & Yoko Umezawa - 1998 - Human Nature 9 (3):293-320.
    The 1000-year-old novel The Tale of Genji, written by Murasaki Shikibu around 1002 CE, shows the operation of general principles of sociobiology. Isolated from western influences and cloaked in Japanese traditions, the common traits associated with reproductive processes are clearly evident. The novel depicts the differential investment of males and females in offspring, male competitive behaviors, and concerns for paternity, kin selection, reciprocal social exchange, species-typical emotional expression, female mate choice, positive assortative mating, and acknowledgment of hereditary transmission of (...)
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  8.  38
    An Intellectual Legacy of the Past: The Reception of Sociobiology in the East-European Countries. [REVIEW]Tamas Bereczkei - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (4):399-407.
    Sociobiology has not been well received in Eastern Europe. Reasons for this are listed and discussed. It is suggested that times are changing and that sociobiology will have more success in the future.
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  9.  34
    Jumping Together: A Way From Sociobiology to Bio‐Socio‐Humanities.Kang Shin Ik - 2016 - Zygon 51 (1):176-190.
    Sociobiology is a grand narrative of evolutionary biology on which to build unified knowledge. Consilience is a metaphorical representation of that narrative. I take up the same metaphor but apply it differently. I evoke the image of jumping together, not on solid ground but on the strong, flexible canvas sheet of a trampoline, on which natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities jump together. This image overlaps with the traditional East Asian way of understanding—that is, the “Heaven-Earth-Person Triad.” Using (...)
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  10.  32
    Similarities and Varieties: A Brief Sketch on the Reception of Darwinism and Sociobiology in Japan. [REVIEW]Osamu Sakura - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (3):341-357.
    This paper discusses the reception of Darwinian evolutionary theory and sociobiology in Japan. Darwinism was introduced into Japan in the late 19th century and Japanese people readily accepted the concept of evolution because, lacking Christianity, there was no religious opposition. However, the theory of evolution was treated as a kind of social scientific tool, i.e., social Spencerism and eugenics. Although evolutionary biology was developed during the late 19th and the early 20th century, orthodox Darwinian theory was neglected for a (...)
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  11.  65
    Evolution, Sociobiology, and the Atonement.Patricia A. Williams - 1998 - Zygon 33 (4):557-570.
    This essay views Christian doctrines of the atonement in the light of evolution and sociobiology. It argues that most of the doctrines are false because they use a false premise, the historicity of Adam and the Fall. However, two doctrines are not false on those grounds: Abelard’s idea that Jesus’ life is an example and Athanasius’s concept that the atonement changes human nature. Employing evolution’s and sociobiology’s concepts of the egocentric and ethnocentric nature of humanity and the synergy (...)
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  12.  10
    A Multiple-Level Model of Evolution and its Implications for Sociobiology.H. C. Plotkin & F. J. Odling-Smee - 1981 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2):225-235.
  13. The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology.Peter Singer - 1981 - Oxford University Press.
  14.  19
    Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science.Alexander Rosenberg - 1980 - Johns Hopkins University Press, C1980.
  15. Sociobiology Sense or Nonsense?Michael Ruse - 1979 - Dordrecht: Reidel.
  16.  56
    Précis of Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature.Philip Kitcher - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):61-71.
  17. The Sociobiology of Sociopathy: An Integrated Evolutionary Model.Linda Mealey - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18:523-541.
    Sociopaths are members of society in two senses: politically, they draw our attention because of the inordinate amount of crime they commit, and psychologically, they hold our fascination because most ofus cannot fathom the cold, detached way they repeatedly harm and manipulate others. Proximate explanations from behavior genetics, child development, personality theory, learning theory, and social psychology describe a complex interaction of genetic and physiological risk factors with demographic and micro environmental variables that predispose a portion of the population to (...)
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  18.  25
    Social Versus Reproductive Success: The Central Theoretical Problem of Human Sociobiology.Daniel R. Vining - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):167-187.
  19. The Shaping of Man; Philosophical Aspects of Sociobiology.Roger Trigg - 1983 - Religious Studies 19 (4):523-524.
     
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  20.  45
    Sociobiology and Moral Discourse.Loyal Rue - 1998 - Zygon 33 (4):525-533.
  21.  42
    Sociobiology and Original Sin.Patricia A. Williams - 2000 - Zygon 35 (4):783-812.
  22.  29
    Holism and Reduction in Sociobiology: Lessons From the Ants and Human Culture. [REVIEW]Edward O. Wilson & Charles J. Lumsden - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):401-412.
    Most research in the natural sciences passes through repeated cycles of a analytic reduction to the next lower level of organization, then resynthesis to the original level, then new analyticareduction, and so on. A residue of unexplained phenomena at the original level appears at first to require a holistic description independent of the lower level, but the residue shrinks as knowledge increases.This principle is well illustrated by recent studies from the social organization of insects, several examples of which are cited (...)
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  23.  25
    Marxism and Human Sociobiology: A Reply to Zhang Boshu. [REVIEW]Lansana Keita - 1990 - Biology and Philosophy 5 (1):79-83.
  24.  42
    A Retrospective on Sociobiology.Michael Cavanaugh - 2000 - Zygon 35 (4):813-826.
  25. Sociobiology and Epistemology.James H. Fetzer - 1985
     
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  26. The Sociobiology Debate Readings on Ethical and Scientific Issues.Arthur L. Caplan - 1978
     
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  27.  35
    Human Pugnacity and War: Some Anticipations of Sociobiology, 1880–1919. [REVIEW]Paul Crook - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):263-288.
    Almost all of the themes contained in E.O.Wilson's sociobiological writing on war and human aggression were prefigured in Anglo-American bio-social discourse, c. 1880–1919. Instinct theory – stemming from animal psychology and the genetics revolution – encouraged the belief that pugnacity had been programmed into the ancient part of the human brain as a result of evolutionary pressures dating from prehistory. War was seen to be instinct-driven, and genocidal fighting postulated as a eugenic force in early human evolution. War was explained (...)
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  28.  23
    Sociobiology: The New Synthesis.Edward O. Wilson - 1975 - Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):577-584.
  29.  13
    Task Allocation and the Logic of Research Questions: How Ants Challenge Human Sociobiology.Ryan Ketcham - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):52-68.
    After biologist Deborah Gordon made a series of experimental discoveries in the 1980s, she argued that a change in terminology regarding the division of labor among castes of specialists was needed. Gordon’s investigations of the interactive effects of ants in colonies led her to believe that the established approach Edward O. Wilson had pioneered was biased in a way that made some alternative candidate adaptive explanations invisible. Gordon argued that this was because the term “division of labor” implied a division (...)
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  30.  16
    Functional Explanations in Sociobiology.Barbara L. Horan - 1989 - Biology and Philosophy 4 (2):131.
    In this essay I defend functional explanations in sociobiology against the charge that they are exercises in speculative story-telling. I distinguish proximate and ultimate biological functions, and discuss their role in functional explanations. I characterize functional explanations as a kind of "consequence explanation", and argue that sociobiologists need to justify a "functional fact" in addition to a "consequence law". Two methods used to supply evidence for functional hypotheses, the technique of optimality analyses and the comparative method, are discussed and (...)
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  31.  71
    Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold’s Land Ethic?J. Baird Callicott - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology (doubts about the existence of unified communities and ecosystems, the diversity-stability hypothesis, and a natural homeostasis or “balance of nature”; and an emphasis on “chaos,” “perturbation,” and directionless change in living nature) and the advent of sociobiology (selfish genes) may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments (and vice versa) indicates that the land ethic is (...)
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  32.  5
    Do Deconstructive Ecology and Sociobiology Undermine Leopold’s Land Ethic?J. Baird Callicott - 1996 - Environmental Ethics 18 (4):353-372.
    Recent deconstructive developments in ecology and the advent of sociobiology may seem to undermine the scientific foundations of environmental ethics, especially the Leopold land ethic. A reassessment of the Leopold land ethic in light of these developments indicates that the land ethic is still a viable environmental ethic, if judiciously updated and revised.
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  33. Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2011 - In Sahotra Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. West Sussex, UK: Wiley/Blackwell. pp. 393-414.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears (...)
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  34.  41
    Truth Hurts: The Sociobiology Debate, Moral Reading and the Idea of 'Dangerous Knowledge'.Petteri Pietikäinen - 2004 - Social Epistemology 18 (2-3):165-179.
    This article examines the belief among the cultural elites that ?people? should be protected from dangerous knowledge, ?dangerous? in the sense that there are factual statements which may have negative moral and political consequences to society. Such a belief in the negative consequences of dangerous ? that is, politically suspicious ? knowledge represents an intellectual tradition that goes back to Plato and his famous state?utopian work Republic. This article analyses moral interpretations of statements regarding matters of fact (so?called moral reading), (...)
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  35.  40
    E. O. Wilson After Twenty Years: Is Human Sociobiology Possible?Antony Flew - 1994 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (3):320-335.
    The second word in the subtitle of this article is crucial. For there can be no doubt but that the possibility of sociobiology below the human level has already been abundantly realized in, for instance, the main body of E. O. Wilson's enormous and encyclopedic treatise Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. What may more reasonably be doubted, and what is in fact questioned here, is whether, as Wilson and others hope and believe, there is much room, or indeed any, (...)
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  36.  12
    The Development of Sociobiology in Relation to Animal Behavior Studies, 1946–1975.Clement Levallois - 2018 - Journal of the History of Biology 51 (3):419-444.
    This paper aims at bridging a gap between the history of American animal behavior studies and the history of sociobiology. In the post-war period, ecology, comparative psychology and ethology were all investigating animal societies, using different approaches ranging from fieldwork to laboratory studies. We argue that this disunity in “practices of place” explains the attempts of dialogue between those three fields and early calls for unity through “sociobiology” by J. Paul Scott. In turn, tensions between the naturalist tradition (...)
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  37.  43
    Sociobiology as a Strategy in Science.Arthur L. Caplan - 1984 - The Monist 67 (2):143-160.
    A great deal has been written during the past decade about the subject of sociobiology. The appearance of E. O. Wilson’s massive text, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, set off interdisciplinary tremors whose vibrations are still being felt in such exotic parts of the academic world as philosophy. Yet despite all the attention directed toward sociobiology within and beyond the university by both its admirers and detractors, some very basic issues pertaining to the subject remain notably obscure.
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  38.  29
    Criticism, Commitment, and the Growth of Human Sociobiology.Harmon R. Holcomb - 1987 - Biology and Philosophy 2 (1):43-63.
    The fundamental unit of assessment in the sociobiology debate is neither a field nor a theory, but a framework of group commitments. Recourse to the framework concept is motivated, in general, by post-Kuhnian philosophy of scientific change and, in particular, by the dispute between E. O. Wilson and R. C. Lewontin. The framework concept is explicated in terms of commitments about problems, domain, disciplinary relations, exemplars, and performance evaluations. One upshot is that debate over such charges as genetic determinism, (...)
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  39. Sociobiology.Harmon Holcomb & Jason M. Byron - 2005 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term 'sociobiology' was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies. This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology. Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing. It (...)
     
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  40.  14
    Sociobiology and Psychometrics: Do They Really Need Each Other?John Rust - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):117 – 129.
    Sociobiology has always had a strong relationship with classical psychometrics, and with intelligence testing in particular. The major ideological impact of Eugenics prior to 1940 led many psychometricians to adopt a sociobiological perspective, but when this turned out, in the 1960's, to be controversial many of the procedures of classical psychometrics were abandoned. Their place was taken by functional psychometrics, based on criterion reference testing, where the content of test items was related directly to very specific skills which may (...)
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  41.  15
    The Transformation of Human Sociobiology.Philip Kitcher - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:63-74.
    I offer some proposals for how human sociobiology might be transformed from a collection of unsupported claims into a rigorous successor discipline. The achievement of behavioral ecology in providing functional descriptions of animal behavior suggest that the goal of human sociobiology ought to be to give functional characterizations of human behavior. Much traditional human sociobiology tries to be more ambitious, attempting to build grand theories of human nature. I argue that these ventures fail, and that pursuit of (...)
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  42.  10
    Gene Talk in Sociobiology.Henry Howe & John Lyne - 1992 - Social Epistemology 6 (2):109 – 163.
    Abstract Terminology within the biological sciences gets its import not just from semantic meaning, but also from the way it functions within the rhetorics of the various disciplinary practices. The ?sociobiology? of human behavior inherits three distinct rhetorics from the genetic disciplines. Sociobiologists use population genetic, biometrical genetic, and molecular genetic rhetorics, without acknowledging the conceptual and experimental constraints that are assumed by geneticists. The eclectic blending of these three rhetorics obscures important differences of context and meaning. Sociobiologists use (...)
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  43.  43
    Is Sociobiology a New Paradigm?Michael Ruse - 1987 - Philosophy of Science 54 (1):98-104.
    Is sociobiology a new paradigm? A number of people have claimed that it is. I argue that, sociologically speaking, it may well be. But epistemologically, it is not. The case rests on one's interpretation of the major Darwinian evolutionary mechanism, natural selection. In this note, it is shown that sociobiology relies on an orthodox understanding of selection. Thus, in crucial epistemological respects, sociobiology is continuous with the rest of Darwinian evolutionary theory.
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  44.  28
    The Sociology of Sociobiology.Ronald de Sousa - 1990 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 4 (3):271 – 283.
    Abstract This paper turns the tables on the criticisms of sociobiology that stem from a sociological perspective; many of those criticisms lack cogency and coherence in such measure as to demand, in their turn, a psycho?sociological explanation rather than a rational justification. This thesis, after a brief exposition of the main ideas of sociobiology, is argued in terms of four of the most prominent complaints made against it. Far from embodying tired prejudices about the psychological and sociological implications (...)
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  45.  22
    Sociobiology and the Semantic View of Theories.Barbara L. Horan - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:322 - 330.
    The semantic view of scientific theories has been defended as more adequate than the "received" view, especially with respect to biological theories. However, the semantic view has not been evaluated on its own terms. In this paper it is first shown how the theory of sociobiology propounded by E.O. Wilson can be understood on the semantic approach. The criticism that Wilson's theory is beset by the problem of unreliable generalizations is discussed. It is suggested that this problem results from (...)
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  46.  24
    Some Misunderstandings and Misinterpretations About Sociobiology and Behavior Genetics in Lifelines by Steven Rose.Stephen C. Maxson - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):898-899.
    Lifelines by Steven Rose is supposed to present a new perspective on biology replacing an emphasis on genes with one on organisms. However, much of the book is a highly biased critique of sociobiology and behavior genetics. Some of the flaws in Rose's description and depiction of these fields are presented and refuted. Also, it would appear that these aspects of the book and many others are, in fact, related more to Rose's perennial concern for the ideology, social origins (...)
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  47.  14
    Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Sciences.Gary R. Weaver - 1986 - Review of Metaphysics 40 (1):138-140.
    In Microeconomic Laws, Rosenberg defended neoclassical economic theory against the charge that it at best provides ad hoc truisms concerning economic action. This defense was carried out within realist and empiricist confines; Rosenberg rejected attempts to defend microeconomics by either instrumentalist or rationalist analyses. While Microeconomic Laws was optimistic regarding the legitimacy and success of empiricist microeconomics, Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science is the opposite, and is directed at all social science. Empiricist social science, Rosenberg claims, is (...)
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  48.  19
    Is Sociobiology a Pseudoscience?R. Paul Thompson - 1980 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:363 - 370.
    Among the numerous criticisms of sociobiology is the criticism that it is not genuine science. This paper defends sociobiology against this criticism. There are three aspects to the defense. First, it is argued that the testability criterion of pseudoscience is generally problematic as a criterion and that even if accepted it fails to mark sociobiology as a pseudoscience. Second, it is argued that Thagard's more comprehensive and sophisticated criterion of pseudoscience fails to mark sociobiology as a (...)
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  49.  13
    Sociobiology and Concern for the Future.Andrew Johnson - 1989 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):141-148.
    ABSTRACT Despite its excesses, sociobiology can make a useful contribution to ethics, if it is recognised that it need not impinge on free‐will, and if the ‘naturalistic fallacy’ can be avoided. This contribution is the central concept of evolutionary stability, and the implication which can be drawn from it, that concern for the future is a basic part of human nature. In stable societies, such concern is manifested as fear of change, or strict adherence to tradition, but modern ideas (...)
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  50.  15
    Sociobiology.Paul Gross & Harmon Holcomb - unknown
    The term ‘sociobiology’ was introduced in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies.
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