ABSTRACT : On many accounts, Rule IV appears to be composed of two distinct texts, and this should be justified by the difference between the mathesis universalis and the Cartesian method. This article runs counter to the usual interpretation by showing that the discussion on mathematics in Rule IV has enabled the introduction of method constraining scientific research to operate on grounds of order and measurement. The mathesis universalis is not so much a science of higher mathematics as a universal (...) method by the means of which one can find truth. (shrink)
O objetivo do meu artigo consiste em apresentar o conceito de generosidade como principal vetor para compreensão da moral cartesiana. Meu ponto éque esse conceito consegue, por um lado, articular diferentes paixões como humildade, amizade e amor numa mesma rede conceitual com o foco num projeto moral comum e, por outro, ele permite mostrar como Descartes articula num mesmo patamar razão e paixão para determinar a melhor forma de conduta humana. Com essa caracterização da generosidade acredito que é possível associar (...) a ética cartesiana às preocupações da ética do cuidado, pelo menos, no sentido que a generosidade pode ser compreendida como uma disposição afetiva para a solicitude, para o cuidado. (shrink)
O objetivo do meu artigo consiste na defesa de três princípios morais que caracterizam o que chamo de moral mínima. Esses três princípios não se referem ao conteúdo veiculado em cada jogo de linguagem moral, ou seja, eles não legitimam diretamente o uso de determinados predicados morais no interior de um jogo de linguagem moral, mas dizem respeito às condições que regulam e caracterizam o jogo de linguagem moral. Esses três princípios cumprem a função de determinar se um jogo de (...) linguagem é ou não um jogo moral. Se esses três princípios compuserem a rede de princípios que caracterizam o jogo moral, será possível sustentar uma moral mínima, conforme a qual é possível identificar e, posteriormente, condenar as atitudes ou ações que não podem se configurar como um jogo de linguagem moral. (shrink)
What is the task – rather than the contribution – of philosophy with regards to language? In this article, we revisit Paul Ricœur’s answer to this question in his text “Philosophie et langage.” Ricœur sets forth as the task of philosophy the recovery of a triple linguistic mediation: from language to the world, from language to the subject, and from language to the human community. Starting from the concrete experience of speaking subjects, Ricœur opposes the systemic closure presupposed by the (...) structuralistic view on language, which suspends the function of reference in the relation of meaning between two ideas. Provided with an enlarged conception of reference, one that includes the poetic function of language, the philosopher extricates from the notion of “the world of the text” the constitutive ontological dimension of language, since in its poetic function the latter reveals the multiple possibilities of our mode of existence. We point towards the connection between the reopening of that triple linguistic mediation and the call to an elaboration of a new ontology, one that Ricœur accomplishes through the notion of attestation. (shrink)
Thomas Kuhn's philosophy of science, which he developed by focusing on physics, was later applied by other authors to virtually all areas or disciplines of culture. What interests me here, however, is the movement in the opposite direction: the role that one of these disciplines, history of art, played in the conception of Kuhn'stheoryof science.In a 1969 article, his only published text concerning science and art, Kuhn makes a brief and intriguing observation about The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He says (...) the book was a belated product of his discovery of the parallels between science and art. This is a retrospective assertion about Structure, as well as that of the... (shrink)
Despite the importance of the “historiographical revolution” in Kuhn’s work, he did not carry out a specific study about it. Without a systematic investigation into it, he even affirms that the “old” historiography of science is unhistorical, suggesting its summary disqualification in the face of his “new historiography” of science. My wider project, of which this paper is a part, is to better discuss the issue of the justification of the NHS. In this paper, I discuss the justification of the (...) OHS, focusing on Condorcet and Comte and resorting especially to Koyré. This will allow us to understand that the relation between the OHS and the NHS is a new instance of inter-theoretical incommensurability. And, indeed, that the NHS is not stricto senso a new historiography. It is the same historiography used for other disciplines, which in the twentieth century begins to be applied to science as well. (shrink)
In this paper I identify a tension between the two sets of works by Kuhn regarding the genesis of the “new historiography” of science. In the first, it could be said that the change from the traditional to the new historiography is strictly endogenous. In the second, the change is predominantly exogenous. To address this question, I draw on a text that is considered to be less important among Kuhn’s works, but which, as shall be argued, allows some contact between (...) Kuhn’s two approaches via Koyré. I seek to point out and differentiate the roles of Koyré and Kuhn – from Kuhn’s point of view – in the development of the historiography of science and, as a complement, present some reflections regarding the justification of the new historiography. (shrink)
Debate about cognitive science explanations has been formulated in terms of identifying the proper level(s) of explanation. Views range from reductionist, favoring only neuroscience explanations, to mechanist, favoring the integration of multiple levels, to pluralist, favoring the preservation of even the most general, high-level explanations, such as those provided by embodied or dynamical approaches. In this paper, we challenge this framing. We suggest that these are not different levels of explanation at all but, rather, different styles of explanation that capture (...) different, cross-cutting patterns in cognitive phenomena. Which pattern is explanatory depends on both the cognitive phenomenon under investigation and the research interests occasioning the explanation. This reframing changes how we should answer the basic questions of which cognitive science approaches explain and how these explanations relate to one another. On this view, we should expect different approaches to offer independent explanations in terms of their different focal patterns and the value of those explanations to partly derive from the broad patterns they feature. (shrink)
Cumulative technological culture can be defined as the progressive diversification, complexification, and enhancement of technological traits through generations. An outstanding issue is to specify the cognitive bases of this phenomenon. Based on the literature, we identified four potential cognitive factors: namely, theory-of-mind, technical-reasoning, creativity, and fluid-cognitive skills. The goal of the present study was to test which of these factors—or a combination thereof—best predicted the cumulative performance in two experimental, micro-society conditions differing in the nature of the interaction allowed between (...) participants. The task was to build the highest possible tower. Participants were also assessed on the four aforementioned cognitive factors in order to predict cumulative performance and attractiveness. Our findings indicate that technical-reasoning skills are the best predictor of cumulative performance, even if their role may be restricted to the specific technological domain. Theory-of-mind skills may have a facilitator role, particularly in the Communication condition. Creativity can also help in the generation of novel ideas, but it is not sufficient to support innovation. Finally, fluid cognition is not involved in cumulative technological culture. Taken together, these findings suggest that domain-specific knowledge remains critical for explaining cumulative technological culture. (shrink)
Representationalism—the view that scientific modeling is best understood in representational terms—is the received view in contemporary philosophy of science. Contributions to this literature have focused on a number of puzzles concerning the nature of representation and the epistemic role of misrepresentation, without considering whether these puzzles are the product of an inadequate analytical framework. The goal of this paper is to suggest that this possibility should be taken seriously. The argument has two parts, employing the “can’t have” and “don’t need” (...) tactics drawn from philosophy of mind. On the one hand, I propose that representationalism doesn’t work: different ways to flesh out representationalism create a tension between its ontological and epistemological components and thereby undermine the view. On the other hand, I propose that representationalism is not needed in the first place—a position I articulate based on a pragmatic stance on the success of scientific research and on the feasibility of alternative philosophical frameworks. I conclude that representationalism is untenable and unnecessary, a philosophical dead end. A new way of thinking is called for if we are to make progress in our understanding of scientific modeling. (shrink)
Resumo Neste artigo, será discutida a noção de “infinitude cardinal” – a qual seria predicada de um “conjunto” – e a noção de “infinitude ordinal” – a qual seria predicada de um “processo”. A partir dessa distinção conceitual, será abordado o principal problema desse artigo, i.e., o problema da possibilidade teórica de uma infinitude de estrelas tratado por Dummett em sua obra Elements of Intuitionism. O filósofo inglês sugere que, mesmo diante dessa possibilidade teórica, deveria ser possível predicar apenas infinitude (...) ordinal. A questão principal surge do fato de que parece ser problemático predicar ordinalmente infinitude de “estrelas”. Mesmo diante dessa possibilidade, Dummett sugere que o intuicionista poderia apenas reinterpretar infinitude cardinal como sendo infinitude ordinal. Ora, iremos mostrar que, se Dummett não fornece razões extras que sustentem essa posição, então será difícil interpretar um caso empírico infinitário como sendo também um caso ordinal ou potencial de infinitude. Para resolver esse problema de Dummett, em Brouwer se encontram alguns pressupostos idealistas necessários para argumentar em favor da ideia de que, mesmo em um contexto empírico, como o de uma infinitude de estrelas, poderíamos predicar infinitude ordinal. Então, depois de discutir as duas noções de “infinitude” e apresentar o problema de Dummett, será apresentada a abordagem idealista de Brouwer – a qual pelo menos explicaria de modo mais plausível as razões que poderiam motivar um intuicionista a predicar infinitude ordinal até mesmo de um caso empírico e espacial. (shrink)
Voltaire teve um importante papel na disseminação do newtonianismo no continente europeu. Mas também ele foi responsável pela tentativa mais direta de estender a autoridade de Newton a outros temas filosóficos, além daqueles relativos à matemática e à física. O livro La Métahysique de Newton , publicado em 1740, é uma prova disso. Neste artigo, o livro de Voltaire é analisado a partir do contexto das polêmicas entre partidários de Newton e de Leibniz. Procura-se identificar nexos entre o projeto esboçado (...) no La Métaphysique e as especulações de Hume e de Kant sobre os problemas metafísicos da teoria newtoniana da gravitação universal. (shrink)
The second edition of the work of the Brazilian physicist Paulo C. Abrantes (2016), entitled Images of nature, images of science, is a good alternative for students of history and philosophy of science. The reason is Abrantes' thesis in this work: to defend that the development of scientific knowledge is dependent on the influence of different images of "nature" and "science" existing during the history of Western scientific-philosophical thought; and an advocate for the historian of science Studying as reasons that (...) allow the adoption of such images at a given time. Through the analysis of historical cases of scientific thought, Abrantes argues that the consolidation of research programs in different subareas of natural science - such as biology, physics and chemistry - was only possible due to the influence, in particular time, of images of nature and science. (shrink)
CAMILO, Bruno. Aspectos metafísicos na física de Newton: Deus. In: DUTRA, Luiz Henrique de Araújo; LUZ, Alexandre Meyer (org.). Temas de filosofia do conhecimento. Florianópolis: NEL/UFSC, 2011. p. 186-201. (Coleção rumos da epistemologia; 11). -/- Através da análise do pensamento de Isaac Newton (1642-1727) encontramos os postulados metafísicos que fundamentam a sua mecânica natural. Ao deduzir causa de efeito, ele acreditava chegar a uma causa primeira de todas as coisas. A essa primeira causa de tudo, onde toda a ordem e (...) leis tiveram início, a qual para ele assume um caráter divino, Newton aponta para um Deus sábio e poderoso e responsável pela ordem inteligente e pela a harmonia das leis físicas e universais de tudo o que existe – Deus como criador e preservador da ordem do universo. Há ainda a analogia do conceito de Deus com o espaço e o tempo, na medida em que ambos comunicam infinitude e onipresença. Por fim, nas considerações finais apontarei a importância de Newton para a metafísica moderna e como os seus estudos contribuíram para uma visão posterior do universo e suas leis e do homem enquanto ser pensante. (shrink)
O artigo investiga a relação Husserl-Heidegger, para além de suas contribuições à fenomenologia e hermenêutica como novos métodos em filosofia, articulando ontologia e subjetividade, através de um paradigma semânticolingüístico, de forma a delinear qual seria a tarefa hodierna de uma fenomenologia da justiça. The article investigates the Husserl-Heidegger relationship, beyond their historical contributions to both phenomenology and hermeneutics as new methods in philosophy, by articulating ontology and subjectivity through asemantic, linguistic paradigm, so as to delineate the task of a phenomenology (...) of justice. (shrink)
The geometric system of deduction called N-Graphs was introduced by de Oliveira in 2001. The proofs in this system are represented by means of digraphs and, while its derivations are mostly based on Gentzen's sequent calculus, the system gets its inspiration from geometrically based systems, such as the Kneales' tables of development, Statman's proofs-as-graphs, Buss' logical flow graphs, and Girard's proof-nets. Given that all these geometric systems appeal to the classical symmetry between premises and conclusions, providing an intuitionistic version (...) of any of these is an interesting exercise in extending the range of applicability of the geometric system in question. In this article we produce an intuitionistic version of N-Graphs, based on Maehara's LJ' system, as described by Takeuti. Recall that LJ' has multiple conclusions in all but the essential intuitionistic rules, e.g., implication right and negation right. We show soundness and completeness of our intuitionistic N-Graphs with respect to LJ'. We also discuss how we expect to extend this work to a version of N-Graphs corresponding to the intuitionistic logic system FIL (Full Intuitionistic Logic) of de Paiva and Pereira and sketch future developments. (shrink)
In recent years, a revisionist process focused on logical positivism can be observed, particularly regarding Carnap’s work. In this paper, I argue against the interpretation that Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions having been published in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, co-edited by Carnap, is evidence of the revisionist idea that Carnap “would have found Structure philosophically congenial”. I claim that Kuhn’s book, from Carnap’s point of view, is not in philosophy of science but rather in history of science (...) (in the context of a sharp discovery–justification distinction). It could also explain the fact that, despite his sympathetic letters to Kuhn as editor, Carnap never refers to Kuhn’s book in his work in philosophy of science. (shrink)
A persistent criticism of radical embodied cognitive science is that it will be impossible to explain “real cognition” without invoking mental representations. This paper provides an account of explicit, real-time thinking of the kind we engage in when we imagine counter-factual situations, remember the past, and plan for the future. We first present a very general non-representational account of explicit thinking, based on pragmatist philosophy of science. We then present a more detailed instantiation of this general account drawing on nonlinear (...) dynamics and ecological psychology. (shrink)
Two paradigms have guided emotion research over the past decades. The dual-system view embraces the long-held Western belief, espoused most prominently by decision-making and social cognition researchers, that emotion and reason are often at odds. The integrative view, which asserts that emotion and cognition work synergistically, has been less explored experimentally. However, the integrative view (a) may help explain several findings that are not easily accounted for by the dual-system approach, and (b) is better supported by a growing body of (...) evidence from human neuroanatomy that has often been overlooked by experimental neuroscience. (shrink)
The purpose of this article is to respond to Thomas Uebel’s criticisms of my comments regarding the current revisionism of Carnap’s work and its relations to Kuhn. I begin by pointing out some misunderstandings in the interpretation of my article. I then discuss some aspects related to Carnap’s view of the history of science. First, I emphasize that it was not due to a supposed affinity between Kuhn’s conceptions and those of logical positivists that Kuhn was invited to write the (...) monograph on the history of science for the Encyclopedia. Three other authors had been invited first, including George Sarton whose conception was entirely different from Kuhn’s. In addition, I try to show that Carnap attributes little importance to the history of science. He seldom refers to it and, when he does, he clearly defends a Whig or an ‘old’ historiography of science, to which Kuhn opposes his “new historiography of science”. It is argued that this raises serious difficulties for those, like Uebel, who hold the view that Carnap includes the historical or the social within the rational. (shrink)
Eduardo Davi Oliveira, autor de livros como “Cosmovisão Africana no Brasil” e “Filosofia da Ancestralidade, é professor do Doutorado Multi-Institucional e Multidisciplinar em Difusão do Conhecimento. Ele nos concedeu a presente entrevista durante evento da Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia – UFSB, intitulado “Corpo, Poética e Ancestralidade”, o qual ocorreu de 11 a 17 de Março de 2019, na cidade de Porto Seguro, Bahia. Nossa conversa foi atravessada por temas como epistemologia negra, saberes milenares do povo Bakongo, mitologia (...) dos orixás, a relação do autor com a Universidade e seu processo de escrita poética no livro “Xirê”. Torcendo para que a simpatia, o conhecimento e o gingado com os quais o professor de Filosofia nos atendeu, possam se apresentar aqui, desejamos a todes, boa leitura! À Eduardo, Adupé! (shrink)
Medical students will face ethical issues throughout their lives as doctors. The present study aims to investigate medical students’ opinions on controversial ethical issues and factors associated with these opinions.
Parmi les nombreuses publications qui ont accompagné l’exposition Mélancolie, génie et folie, soulignons la parution d’un large choix de textes extraits de l’Anatomie de la mélancolie de Robert Burton (1577-1640), sous la direction de Gisèle Venet. L’œuvre de ce « théologien de profession et médecin par inclination » n’a pas d’emblée trouvé son chemin dans la « langue de Molière » (Préface, p. 7-8). Cette méconnaissance a partiellement pris fin en l’an 2000 grâce au gigantesque travail de tra..
resumo : Redescoberta a partir da década de 1990, a obra de Gilbert Simondon coloca a técnica em uma posição central na reflexão filosófica. Mais do que uma faculdade do humano, a técnica aparece em Simondon como uma afecção determinante para todo regime do coletivo e do psíquico, fundadora de configuração do modo de estar no mundo. Este artigo visa retraçar o caminho pelo qual Simondon encontra a técnica como um problema filosófico antigo e escamoteado, cuja recuperação se torna urgente (...) com a contemporânea imbricação entre a tecnologia e o devir do fenômeno humano. abstract : The work of Gilbert Simondon, recovered in the 1990s, places technicity in a central position for philosophical thought. More than a human faculty, technicity appears in Simondon as a determinant affection for the entire regime of collective and psychic existence. It finds thus a plethora of configurations of the modalities of being in the world. This essay seeks to retrace the ways in which Simondon discovers technicity as an ancient philosophical problem that has been veiled, the recovery of which becomes ever more urgent given the contemporary interpenetration between technology and the becoming of the human phenomenon. (shrink)
L’examen du corpus constitué par les régimes de santé en Europe, entre la fin du xvie siècle et le xviiie siècle, permet d’apporter des réponses intéressantes à la question de savoir si l’on peut vieillir sans médecins. Depuis le Trattato de vita sobria de l’Italien Luigi Cornaro (1558) jusqu’à The History of Health and the Art of Preserving it (1758) rédigée par l’Écossais James MacKenzie, on assiste à un effort pour distinguer le processus naturel du vieillissement de la vieillesse comme (...) maladie. L’approche médicale préventive et diététique du vieillissement se trouve ainsi intégrée au sein d’une réflexion anthropologique et le projet de prolongation de la vie justifiée d’un point de vue théologique. L’enjeu est bien de s’efforcer de penser le sens moral, politique et plus généralement existentiel d’une vie humaine prolongée. (shrink)
Trata-se de revisitar a formulação habermasiana do universalismo moral de forma a evitar as aporias do naturalismo e do relativismo cultural, segundo uma perspectiva pragmáticoformal capaz de fazer jus ao complexo fenômenoda religião em um mundo pós-secular pluralista, onde crentes, ateus e agnósticos podem coexistir e participar ativamente da construção de umasociedade mais justa e tolerante.The article revisits Habermas’s recasting of moral universalism, so as to avoidthe aporias of naturalism and cultural relativism, according to a pragmatic-formal perspective that does justice (...) to the complex phenomenon of religion in a postsecular, pluralist world, where believers, atheists, and agnostics can coexist together and actively participate in the construction of a more tolerant, just society. (shrink)
La question des conditions éthiques et juridiques de la pratique de l’expérimentation sur des êtres humains constitue un débat récurrent dans le champ de la bioéthique. Depuis la fin des années 1980 en France (loi Huriet-Sérusclat de décembre 1988), l’idée qu’il faut protéger les personnes qui sont les sujets de recherches biomédicales par le recueil d’un consentement « libre et éclairé », qu’il faut aussi procéder à une évaluation des risques et des avantages de ce type de recherche pour les..
Pour accompagner l’exposition Mélancolie, génie et folie en Occident, la Réunion des musées nationaux fait paraître une histoire de la mélancolie rédigée par l’historienne de l’art Hélène Prigent, sorte de catalogue condensé des œuvres présentées au public entre la fin de l’année 2005 et le début de 2006, qui reprend d’ailleurs le découpage thématique et chronologique retenu par Jean Clair. Le projet est ambitieux puisqu’il s’agit de rendre compte de la persistance de ce thème depuis l’Antiqu..